Roman Empire & The Greek World – History

Roman Empire, World, Greek Civilization, Greek, Civilization, Trade, Society

The key terms in these History chapters include Roman Empire, World, Greek Civilization, Greek, Civilization, Political, Rome, Culture, Trade, Society, Eastern, Athens, Sparta – History.


The Roman Republic

509-27 B.C., started after Etruscan control was overthrown
Society was divided into the patricians (propertied class), plebians (main body of Roman citizens), and slaves
Government was based on consuls, the Senate, and the Centurial Assembly
Roman army became the most powerful military organization in the world


The Punic Wars with Carthage

146 B.C.
After which Rome emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean
Rome incorporated Greek culture into its empire
Roman expansion resulted in a world republic


The Roman Republic: decline

Ravaged by economic and political decline and repeated civil wars
Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C.
Augustus became the first emperor of the Roman Empire (27 B.C.)


The Roman Empire

Lasted five centuries
The Pax Romana (Roman peace) was two centuries without a major war (27 B.C.-A.D. 180)
By the end of the second century A.D., Rome was in economic and political decline, which weakened the empire


Constantine

Attempted to stem the tide
The empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empires
Barbarian invasions by Germanic and Asiatic tribes (the Goths, Vandals, and Huns) devastated Rome, and it fell in A.D. 476
The Eastern Roman Empire at Constantinople (formerly Byzantium) remained intact; survived until 1453 (foundation of the Byzantine Empire)


The Fall of Rome

Immediate cause: continuous barbaric invasion
Internal factors included political instability, decreasing farm production, inflation, excessive taxation, and the decline of the military, including the use of mercenaries
The rise of Christianity divided the empire


The Israelites

Established the first lasting monotheism
Saul established the first kingdom in Palestine (c. 1030-1010 B.C.)
After the death of Solomon (922 B.C.), the Hebrews were divided into two kingdoms (Israel and Judah)
Disunity and conquest resulted in the destruction of Israel (722 B.C.) and Judah (586 B.C.)
The revolt of the Israelites against Rome resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) and the forced dispersal of the Jews from Palestine (Jewish Diaspora, c. A.D. 132-135)


Egypt

Established a civilization in the Nile Valley (3000 B.C.)
Natural barriers (desert and sea), as well as its isolation from other civilizations, greatly hindered foreign invaders; spared them from the repeated political disruptions characteristic of Mesopotamia
Its history can be broadly outlined in specific time periods that reflect the changes taking place in over a 3,000-year period


Egyptian civilization: significant aspects

Life was dominated by concerns for the afterlife, religion, and the pharaoh
Medical advances and specialized surgery were major contributions
The Egyptians invented a hieroglyphic writing system
Commerce flourished throughout Arabia, India, and part of Africa
Agriculture was the basis of the economy
Monumental architecture reflected remarkable building and engineering feats, as well as mathematical precision
Annual flooding in the Nile was the basis for the sustained economy; the Nile had an impact on all of Egyptian society


Greece: geography

Rugged landscape of mountains and valleys, scattered islands led to the development of independent city-states (polis) rather than one unified empire
Scarcity of good agricultural land encouraged seafaring in eastern Greece
The southern mainland, with adequate agricultural resources, relied on farming


Minoan civilization

An Aegean civilization
Civilization of Crete (c. 4000-1400 B.C.) based its prosperity on extensive commerce


Mycenaean civilization

Centers of Aegean civilization; depended on the Aegean Sea to develop and extend their culture
(c. 2000-1150 B.C.) developed heavily fortified cities and based prosperity on trade and warfare
The Dorians conquered the Peloponnesus (peninsula of southern Greece) and ushered in a “dark age” characterized by violence and instability
Iona became the birthplace for the Hellenic civilization


Athens

Athens and Sparta were the most important city-states in ancient Greece; both developed a unique culture and distinct political structure

Established the world’s first democracy (c. 507 B.C.), developed democratic institutions
The Age of Pericles (460-429 B.C.) represented the zenith of Athenian society and the height of its democracy
Developed philosophy as represented by Sophocles and Socrates; the Socratic method of teaching developed during this period)
Became a world commercial center and cosmopolitan city

After defeating the Persians, conflict between Athens and Sparta dominated Greek politics


Sparta

Athens and Sparta were the most important city-states in ancient Greece; both developed a unique culture and distinct political structure

Developed a totalitarian and militaristic state dependent on slave labor to sustain its agricultural system; state owned most of the land
Warrior state, dependent on a superior military (result of constant threat of rebellion)
Essential for Spartans to be subservient to the interests of the state in order to maintain power
The purpose of government was to keep up the military strength of the state
The rigid structure of Spartan society allowed the Spartans to rule even though Spartan citizens were outnumbered by noncitizens by about 10 to 1
Large families discouraged
At birth, all Spartan males belonged to the state; by age seven, boys enrolled in military-style camps
Spartan way of life extended to mothers examining newborn children to determine of they were healthy; those that were not were left to die

After defeating the Persians, conflict between Athens and Sparta dominated Greek politics


The Peloponnesian War

431-404 B.C.
Devastated Sparta, Athens, and their Greek city-state allies
Sparta was victorious but unable to unite the Greek city-states
Greek individualism was a catalyst in the collapse of the Greek city-state alliances


Alexander the Great

356-323 B.C.
Of Macedonia
Established the Hellenistic Age
Conquered Persia, Asia Minor, and Egypt; established a world empire
Bureaucracy replaced the city-state as the form of government
Following his death, dynasties were established in Macedonia, Egypt and Persia


The Hellenistic Age

Began with the death of Alexander the Great
323-30 B.C.
Fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures
A time of great economic growth and expansion; an increase in international trade and commerce
Rise of cities; Rhodes, Alexandria, and Antioch replaced Athens in commercial importance
An end to the Greek city-state system as a major political entity


Contributions of the Greek World

4000-323 B.C.
Organized warfare: Mycenae (military stronghold), Sparta, phalanx (military formation
Literature: epic poetry (Iliad, Odyssey), plays (drama, tragedy, comedy)
History: Herodotus (historian who reported the Persian Wars), Thucydides (historian who reported the Peloponnesian War)
Architecture: columns and colonnades (sequence of columns), Parthenon
Arts: theater, sculpture, decorative pottery
Government: democracy (Athens), oligarchy (small group of people in power—Sparta), bureaucracy (Alexander the Great), a system of law to improve society
Other: founded most of the major philosophical schools, established the systematic basis for the scientific method, and perfected advances in shipbuilding and commerce


The Roman Republic

509-27 B.C., started after Etruscan control was overthrown
Society was divided into the patricians (propertied class), plebians (main body of Roman citizens), and slaves
Government was based on consuls, the Senate, and the Centurial Assembly
Roman army became the most powerful military organization in the world


The Punic Wars with Carthage

146 B.C.
After which Rome emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean
Rome incorporated Greek culture into its empire
Roman expansion resulted in a world republic


The Roman Republic: decline

Ravaged by economic and political decline and repeated civil wars
Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C.
Augustus became the first emperor of the Roman Empire (27 B.C.)


The Roman Empire

Lasted five centuries
The Pax Romana (Roman peace) was two centuries without a major war (27 B.C.-A.D. 180)
By the end of the second century A.D., Rome was in economic and political decline, which weakened the empire


Constantine

Attempted to stem the tide
The empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empires
Barbarian invasions by Germanic and Asiatic tribes (the Goths, Vandals, and Huns) devastated Rome, and it fell in A.D. 476
The Eastern Roman Empire at Constantinople (formerly Byzantium) remained intact; survived until 1453 (foundation of the Byzantine Empire)


The Fall of Rome

Immediate cause: continuous barbaric invasion
Internal factors included political instability, decreasing farm production, inflation, excessive taxation, and the decline of the military, including the use of mercenaries
The rise of Christianity divided the empire


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