Earthquake And Continent Convergent – Geology
This chapter covers Earthquake And Continent Convergent – Geology.
Earthquakes tend to occur more frequently at or near plate tectonic boundaries.
Western side of South America
Aleutian Islands of Alaska
present-day Red Sea
San Andreas Fault Zone
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The youngest era of geologic time and the one in which we currently live is called?
The elastic rebound theory states that:
Movements along a fault is due to the sudden release of progressively stored strain in rock
The idea of continental drift was initially rejected because:
The centrifugal forces of Earth’s rotation and gravitational forces hypothesized to move continents were not actually strong enough
Folds are caused by _______ stress which results in a(n) _______strain response.
Which statement about plate tectonics is correct?
Rigid lithosphere plates overlay the hotter weaker athenosphere
Which type of scale would be used to measure the effect of an earthquake on people and buildings?
modified mercalli scale
What is the source of heat for Earth’s internal heat engine?
-radioactive decay of isotopes
-thermal energy from the planets formation
In an anticline, the limbs dip ______ the center axis of the fold (or hinge line) and the ________ rocks are located at the center of the fold.
away from, oldest
In the whole mantle convection model, what feature balances the deeply descending lithosphere by transporting hot materials to the surface?
Cretaceous limestone overlying Cambrian granite is an example of a(n) _________.
Which statement about the asthenosphere is true?
the asthenosphere is able to flow
Which are the last seismic waves to arrive at a station?
The Vine-Matthews hypothesis made all of the following important observations EXCEPT:
magnetic anomalies closest to the center of the ridge crest are older than magnetic anomalies that are farther from the ridge crest
All of the following are characteristics of P-waves, EXCEPT:
can only travel through solids (not liquids)
What type of fault would be found at a convergent boundary?
Which of the following statements is TRUE about continent-continent convergent boundaries?
folding or rocks
If an 40/19 K isotope (potassium) undergoes electron capture (proton captures an electron and becomes a neutron) what will the resulting daughter isotope be?
You are analyzing a rock using K-Ar isotopes and know that the half-life K-Ar is 1.3 Ga. If the rock is 2.6 Ga years old, what is the predicted percentage of potassium that you would find in that rock?
Geologists understand that the Earth’s outer core is liquid because of:
S-wave shadow zones
What is the correct order -from slowest to fastest- for the velocity of seismic waves traveling through rocks that make up the different types of the crust and the upper mantle?
felsic, mafic, ultramafic
The ________ represents the largest portion of Earth’s history and lasted until _______years ago?
Precambrian, 542 million
The Moho boundary is deeper below the continents compared to oceanic crust.
Earthquakes only occur along per-existing faults.
Radiometric dating is an example of a relative age dating technique.
Surface waves travel away from the epicenter of an earthquake.
The direction of earths magnetic field has switched (or reversed) over geologic time
Strike and dip are always parallel.
Plate tectonics is a hypothesis explaining that the earths crust is broken into large plates which move relative to one another.
Isotopes of the same element have the same number of neutrons.
When a beta particle is emitted during radioactive decay, the atomic number of the isotope ______.
increases by 1
Which rock is best suited for radiometric dating?
Which of the following were used by Wegener to support the continental drift hypothesis?
-the jigsaw fit of the continents
-major coal fields found in the eastern United States
-Mesosaurus fossils found on South America and Africa
-Matching geologic units in the Appalachian and Caledonian Mountains
Which statement about the theory of plate tectonics is correct?
The rigid lithosphere plates overlay the hotter and weaker asthenosphere.
_______ is a feature of a divergent plate boundary.
_______is an example of a feature associated with an oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary?
The Cascade Mountain Range
_______ is an example of a transform plate boundary.
The San Andreas Fault
Where are tectonic plates located?
at earth’s surface
What are the three types of plate boundaries?
divergent, convergent, and transform
Which of the following statements about earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 is most accurate?
Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 occur in a pattern that correlates closely with plate boundaries
Which plate boundary is NOT associated with volcanic eruptions?
Which phenomenon can explain the presence of volcanoes in the middle of the Pacific Ocean?
Which type of plate boundary is most closely associated with uplifting continental regions and mountain building?
Large rifts or valleys, which can often have very large ________ faults, are created by tensional forces.
If a rock undergoes folding, and is compressed to form and upward arch, this is a(n) _________ type fold.
A trough, or downward fold, called a(n) _________ is formed when a rock is deformed in through folding.
When a rock is subjected under undue stress, and fractures, but there is no movement to either side of the fracture, the feature is called a _______. If, however there is movement, it is called a ________.
Which of the following scenarios best describes the deformation that will occur in different parts of the crust?
Brittle deformation is dominant in the shallow crust; ductile deformation is dominant in the deep crust.
Which of the following is an example of how rocks will respond to compressional stress?
Which tectonic stress will result in a lengthening of the crust?
Which type of seismic wave can pass through the liquid outer core?
Which are the last seismic waves to arrive at a seismic station?
What two types of faults are common at divergent plate boundaries?
normal and transform faults
The modified mercalli intensity scale rates earthquakes intensity by determining _______.
the amount of damage to structures caused by an earthquake
the core is ______.
-denser than the crust
Which of the following statements about reflection and refraction is most accurate?
reflection is the bouncing of waves, whereas refraction is the bending of waves
How will a wave change as it moves from a layer of lower velocity into a lower layer of higher velocity?
the wave will bend toward the right
When will reflection and refraction occur simultaneously?
a wave will reflect and refract when it encounters a boundary between two layers of different velocity
The Moho separates the ______.
crust and mantle
If you were to fill a bottle with clay, iron fillings, water, and air shake its contents, and then let it sit, what would you expect to see from bottom to top?
iron, clay, water, air
The positive gravity anomaly in the center of the United States is due to ______.
thick, dense crustal rocks
How do scientists know that the Earth’s outer core is liquid?
S waves do not pass through the outer core
A(n) ________ is a type of unconformity with parallel beds above and below the erosional surface.
________ refers to the changes in shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress.
The lithosphere is composed of material from the ________ and the rigid part of the ________.
crust, upper mantle
Which tectonic boundary is associated with mega thrust faults?
__________ is a term used to define 88% of Earth’s history prior to the start of the Paleozoic Era?
Which concept could be used to relatively age date a fault.
Which physical property is responsible for determining how Earth materials separate out into interior layers?
Match the convergent boundary with a real-world example. Continental-Continental
Indian and Eurasian plates
What will happen to a seismic wave when it is refracted?
the wave will be bent
Determine the type of stress necessary to produce each of the following geologic regions/features. Basin and Range Province
Earthquakes occur along pre-existing faults only.
How will the outcrop pattern of an anticline be oriented in the case of a plunging syncline?
the layers will open up in the direction of plunge
Reverse faults are ______ features that exhibit ______stress.
surface waves will move in all directions away from the focus.
If 235U has 92 protons, how many neutrons does it have?
what is oceanic crust?
basaltic material composing the outermost layer
_________ measures the total energy released during an earthquake by determining the average amount of slip on the fault, the area of the fault surface that slipped, and the strength of the faulted rock.
Moment magnitude scale
What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to record the epicenter of an earthquake?
You are analyizing a rock using potassium-argon isotopes. After 2.6 Ga, what percentage of potassium isotopes will be found in the rock? (hint the half-life of K-Ar is 1.3 Ga)
All of the following are characteristics of P-waves except?
can only travel through solids (not liquids)
Which type of scale could be used to measure the effect of an earthquake on people and buildings?
Modified Mercalli Scale
Folds are the result of a(n) _______ response in rocks to forces exerted on the rock.
The era of geologic time which represents the largest portion of Earth’s history and which we know the least about is called:
The _______ of an earthquake is the point where seismic waves first originate at depth, whereas the _______ of an earthquake is the equivalent point located at Earth’s surface.
Which layer of the Earth is broken into large tectonic plates which move relative to one another?
Seismic waves may bend (or refract) as they pass from one rock layer to another because of…….
-compositional differences between rock layers
-density differences between rock layers
-velocity changes in the seismic waves as they travel between the layers
What is the correct order – from fastest to slowest- for the velocity of seismic waves traveling through rocks that make up the different types of the crust and the upper mantle?
upper mantle, oceanic crust, continental crust
All of the following are true about the core- mantle boundary, EXCEPT:
The boundary is named the Mohorovicic Discontinuity
In an anticline, the limbs _______ the center axis of the fold (or hinge line) and the ________rocks are located at the center of the fold.
away from; oldest
Which type of unconformity is found between parallel sedimentary rock layers, and can usually only be identified using fossils?
Which of the following is true at ocean-ocean convergent boundaries?
subduction of the older oceanic plate
What rock type is formed at divergent plate boundaries and forms oceanic crust?
Continental drift was initially rejected as a hypothesis because:
the centrifugal forces of Earth’s rotation and gravitational forces hypothesized by Wegener to move continents were not actually strong enough
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Vine-Matthews hypothesis?
Provided evidence that the continents had not moved throughout geologic time
During isostatic adjustment, solid material flows laterally in the _______ to compensate for crustal uplift.
Once an igneous rock has cooled below the ________ point, the record of the Earth’s magnetic field is preserved in the metallic minerals in the rock.
An earthquake had just occurred in your hometown! As you walk the streets with your new geologic knowledge, you notice that some buildings have tilted or appear to have sunk into the ground, but have not completely collapsed. What process is the most likely cause for your observations?
In a ______ fault, the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall because of ______ forces.
_______ is a force applied to rocks, and ________is the resulting change in the shape or volume of the rock.
When a geologist collects samples from layers of undeformed ocean-floor sediment, she knows that the youngest layer is on top and the oldest is at the bottom because of the principle of ________.
The earth is _______ years old.
14C is a radioactive isotope of carbon with _______neutrons and 6 protons.
Plate tectonics is regarded as a tentative hypothesis in the field of geology.
The mantle can flow because it is liquid.
If the elastic limit of a rock is exceeded, the rock will always fracture (or break)
Most evidence for the size and composition of Earth’s interior is from indirect evidence, such as studying seismic waves from earthquakes.
Humans are not capable of causing earthquakes.
Rayleigh waves are generally the most destructive type of seismic waves to buildings.
The principle of uniformitarianism states that the current geologic processes operating today are the same as processes that operated in the past, or “the present is the key to the past”