Civil Rights Act – War and Reconstruction-History.

In this chapter we discuss Civil Rights Act, War and Reconstruction as part of US history.

Booker T. Washington

This was a U.S. educator and reformer. He became perhaps the most prominent African American leader of his time.

Civil Rights Act

Signed into law by President Johnson, this bill protected African Americans and women from job discrimination and any discrimination in public places.

Crazy Horse

This Lakota Sioux chief led a group of approximately 1,500 warriors to victory against George Armstrong Custer’s 7th Cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876.

George Custer

U.S. Cavalry General whose unwise and reckless conduct got him and over 200 soldier of the Seventh Cavalry killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn

Ida Tarbell

She was a leading muckracker who wrote the 1904 book The History of the Standard Oil Company.

Jane Addams

She was a founder of Hull House, a settlement house that helped immigrants of the late 19th century become acclimated to life in the United States, and was a pioneer in the field of social work.


This was the first phase of returning the Southern states to the Union(1863-1866) and was led by Lincoln and Johnson. Its goal was to reunite quickly and moderately.

Samuel Gompers

He was the founder and leader of the American Federation of Labor for 38 years and worked for higher wages for laborers and against socialist and communist presence within the movement.


This was a white southerner who supported northern Reconstruction policies after the Civil War.


A person (usually former slave) who farmed a leased portion of land during the Reconstruction era. The planter shared a portion of the crop grown as payment for land, rent, and supplies. Often the farmer under agreement was taken advantage of by the land owner.

Sitting Bull

He was the Lakota Indian Chief who helped defeat General Custer in the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876, and whose arrest help to set off the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee.


He was a “muckraker” during the Progressive Era, best known for his “The Shame of the Cities” which exposed the political corruption found in major U.S. cities.

Susan B. Anthony

This was a Women’s suffrage pioneer who also urged for emancipation.

Theodore Roosevelt

This was a 26th President of the United States; hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama canal was built during his administration; said `Speak softly but carry a big stick` (1858-1919). He was considered by many to be the nation’s first conservation President.

Upton Sinclair

He was a prolific US author who promoted socialist views and anarchist causes. He is most popular for writing “The Jungle,” dealing with the meat packing industry.

andrew johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

15th amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

14th amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

charles sumner

He was an unpopular senator from Mass., and a leading abolitionist. In 1856, he made an assault in the pro-slavery of South Carolina and the South in his coarse speech, “The Crime Against Kansas.” The insult angered Congressmen Brooks of South Carolina. .

black codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

grandfather clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867

andrew carnegie

United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)

civil rights act of 1866

Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.

radical republicans

These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.

13th amendment

abolished slavery

thaddeus stevens

A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.

compromise of 1877

This settled the election of 1876, troops were removed from Louisiana and South Carolina and concessions for building a southern transcontinental railroad made