U.S Government & Health Insurance – Political Science

U.S Government & Health Insurance – Political Science

This chapter is about U.S Government & Health Insurance – Political Science.


Courts are considered “political” institutions because they attempt to resolve conflicts in society.

True – correct

False


The plaintiff in criminal cases is the prosecutor when the state brings suit against a defendant.

True – correct

False


Disputes between individuals or organizations that do not involve law-breaking are

called Plea Bargaining cases.

criminal cases.

civil cases.- correct

a waste of time.


Reforming the nation’s liability laws includes capping the award for Pain & Suffering. This is called

Tort Reform – correct

Joint and Several Liability

Judicial Federalism

The Lawyering of America


Small Claims, Traffic, Family, and Juvenile Courts are considered

Major Trial Courts.

Appellate Courts.

Courts of Limited Jurisdiction. – correct

Courts of Last Resort.


The Supreme Court and Supreme Judicial Court are considered

None of the above

Appellate Courts.

Major Trial Courts.

Courts of Last Resort. – correct


felony is a crime that is punishable by a fine or less than one year in jail.

True

False – correct


Negotiated settlements between a prosecutor who reduces charges or reduces sentence in exchange for a criminal defendant pleading guilty and avoiding trial by jury is called?

Judicial Activism

Victimization Reform

Plea Bargaining – correct

None of the above


Juvenile Crime accounts for about ______ of the nation’s overall crime rate.

62%

32%

50%

16% – correct


Each of the following states appears in the Top Three states of Police Protection and Death Rates of Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers statistics, EXCEPT?

Florida

Vermont – correct

California

Texas


Broken Windows refers to

martial law being imposed in smaller communities to solve gang-related violence.

the theory that overall crime rates can be reduced by strict enforcement of laws against petty offenses. – correct

citizens-on-patrol initiatives that have dropped crime rates by more than 24%.

All of the above


According to the authors of your textbook, the national average prison time actually served by convicted murderers is eight years and eight months.

True – correct

False


General purpose governments include Towns, Townships, Counties, and Cities. Special purpose governments include School Districts and Special Taxing Districts. Together, they equal nearly

30,000 total local governments.

50,000 total local governments.

None of the above. There is no distinction between General Purpose and Special Purpose.

89,000 total local governments. – correct


Which of the following is a way to cope with dissatisfaction with community problems?

Resign yourself to the situation, do nothing, and just tolerate it.

Stay in the community and make an attempt to change things.

Move away and find a community that provides more satisfaction.

Each of the above is a way to cope with dissatisfaction with community problems. – correct


Match the following

Counties

              Rural-keeps records of deeds, births, etc. Urban-planning and control of subdivisions, hospitals, etc.

Cities

              Includes-mass transit, soil conservation, libraries, airports, mosquito control, Reedy Creek.

Towns/Townships

              Provides common functions of police, fire, streets, sewage, sanitation, and parks

School Districts

              Organized to specifically provide public elementary and secondary education.

Special Districts

              Midwestern-provides roads and bridges, fire  rescue New England-deliver more extensive services


Match the following

Sheriff

              The chief law enforcement officer in a county.

Coroner

              The county official responsible for determining causes of death occurring under violent or natural circumstances.

County Commissioner

              An elected member of the governing body of a county.

County Executive

              Found in some county government when a chief executive officer is elected separately from the county commission.

Town Meeting

              Form of local government when the entire citizenry meets periodically to govern the community.


Cities receive their charters from state governments setting forth their boundaries, governmental powers/functions, structure/organization, methods of finance, and powers to elect and appoint officers and employees. Cities cannot do anything that is not spelled out in their charter and state law (also known as Dillon’s Rule).

 
With that stated, state legislatures grant Home Rule charters that give more local control and greater policy making authority over state law. Each of the following is true about Home Rule charters, EXCEPT?

Los Angeles County became the first county in the U.S. with a home rule charter.

Today, 37 states permit some form of home rule for at least some of their counties.

When voters defeat proposals for a home rule charter, it is often because they fear higher taxes.

Over half of all counties in the United States are home rule charter counties.– correct


Orlando International Airport is an example of a special taxing district.

True – correct

False


Which level of government is considered the most favorable when it comes to providing services?

State

Federal

Local – correct

None of the above. Each ranked equally.


Which election has been more beneficial to minority groups than any other kind of election?

Single-Member district – correct

Mixed district

At-Large district

Gerrymandered district


According to the authors of your textbook, during a typical half-hour local television newscast ______ is devoted to local news coverage.

1 minute and 10 seconds

8 minutes and 17 seconds – correct

4 minutes and 27 seconds

3 minutes and 36 seconds


Each of the following is considered a trait of Old Style Machine politics, EXCEPT:

Personal Attention

Merit System – correct

Assimilation

“Getting Things Done”


Federal social welfare programs led to the decline in the Machine Politics’ role in welfare work.

True – correct

False


An increase in European immigration to the United States led to the decline of Machine Politics.

True

False – correct


New Personalized Machines are centered around the mayor’s office and are most effective when mayors increase their staffs, create public agencies, and create offices that report directly to the mayor regarding construction contracts and other government contracts.

True – correct

False


Which of the following is a way in which governments attempt to connect with citizens?

Geographic Information System (GIS).

City-wide wireless zones or Wi-Fi hot spots.

Crowdsourcing / Challenge.gov

All of the above – correct


Match the following

Politico

              People who run for office because they enjoy politics and hope to move on to another office.

Mayor

              Elected chief executive officer of city government.

Council Member

              An elected member of a local governing body.

Accountability

              The extent to which elected officials must answer to his/her constituents.

Interest Groups

              Civic organizations, taxpayer groups, growth management organizations, contractors, banks


Each of the following is the responsibility of city/town managers, EXCEPT:

Determining the agenda for city council meetings.

Make recommendations to the council for their consideration.

Taking public credit for being good policy makers. – correct

The city manager is the major source of information for most council members.


Match the following

Metropolitan Area

              A city of 50,000 or more people together with adjacent counties with urban populations.

Fragmented Government

              Multiple governmental jurisdictions (cities, towns, school-special districts) operating in a single metropolitan area.

Inner City

              Area of the central city where poverty, joblessness, crime,  social dependency is most prevalent.

Sprawl

              Negative reference to the outward extension of new low-density residential development from the central city.

Gentrification

              Movement of upper-class residents and trendy Government high-priced restaurants to downtown locations.


Which of the following supports the case for Fragmented Government?

Coordination

Public Service

Responsibility

Identity – correct


Which of the following supports the case for Metropolitan Consolidation?

Access

Effectiveness

Equality – correct

Influence


Land use rules and regulations affect

the types of business establishments in existence and conditions under which they operate.

By choosing this answer, you acknowledge that each of the above is an example of how land rules and regulations affect communities. – correct

the quantity and type of housing units.

the type of transportation systems that are used.


In community politics, the theory that power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively few people, usually top business and financial leaders is called

Centralist Model

The luck of the draw

Pluralist Model

Elite Model – correct


In community politics, the power to decide what issues or problems will be addressed by government is called

Non-decision Making

Systemic Power

Anticipated Reaction

Agenda Setting – correct


When public officials and administrators ask business and community leaders what they think “needs to be done” while ignoring input from the poor, the poor usually turn to protests, marches, or direct action to call attention to their concerns.

True – correct

False


How did local bankers, real estate developers, and builders gain “elite” status?

Seeking control of land use to expand growth

All of the above are ways these groups gained traditional elite status. – correct

Increasing revenues to commercial enterprises serving the community to expand growth

By maximizing land values to expand growth


According to our class discussion, each of the following groups oppose community growth, EXCEPT:

City newspaper reporters

Homeowner’s Associations

Environmentalists

Low income individuals


NIMBY stands for

National Institute for Barrier Yellers

Not In My Backyard – correct

National Institute for Biological Yearnings

None of the above.


In community politics, the term preferred by opponents of growth, suggesting that growth should be limited to that which does not change the appearance or lifestyle in the community is known as

Growth Management – correct

All of the above.

City Planning

Elitist Community Control


____________ is when local government ordinances divide communities into various residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial zones.

City Planning

Livable Community Planning

Zoning – correct

Master Planning


Capital Improvement programs include the planned schedule of public projects by a city, such as parks, streets, and new public buildings.

True – correct

False


Match the following

Eminent Domain

              The judicial process that government can take private property for public use by providing fair and just compensation.

Homeowner’s Association

              Private associations of neighborhood home owners who are required by property deeds to obey rules and pay dues.

Building Codes

              Local government regulations requiring building permits and inspections of new construction to ensure compliance with detailed specifications.

Impact Fees

              Fees required from developers by local government in exchange for approval of plans due to costs created by new developments.

Planned Urban Development

              Special ordinances negotiated with developers that approve mixed use development plans.


An abandoned, idle, or unused industrial or commercial property which may contain environmentally contaminated soil is called

None of the above

an Enterprise zone.

a Brownfield. – correct

urban sprawl.


Which of the following does state government control?

Helmet Laws

Drinking age

All of the above

Speed limits – correct


Each of the following states does not have a state income tax, EXCEPT:

Nevada

Virginia – correct

Texas

Florida


At one point in the history of the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court declared that segregation was legal as long as segregated facilities were “separate but equal”.

True – correct

False


What U.S. Supreme Court ruling declared that segregation was not legal in the United States regarding education?

Segregation has always been illegal as it relates to educational opportunities.

Plessy vs Ferguson Board of Education

Theodore vs Board of Education of Petersburg

Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka – correct


Hispanics are an ethnic group not race. For example, there are black Hispanics.

True – correct

False


Which of the following statements accurately reflects the Americans With Disabilities Act?

Colleges and universities are required to provide tutors, extra time on exams, and other accommodations for students who qualify under ADA. – correct

Due to changes to ADA in 2011 based on the Affordable Care Act, attorneys can no longer file lawsuits on behalf of individuals who have been discriminated against.

All of the above

Based on these tighter restrictions, fewer lawsuits have been filed against private businesses.


According to the authors of your textbook, much of the value of Head Start preparation disappears after a few years of schooling.

True – correct

False


The person responsible for the management of public schools, preparing budgets, and recommending policy to the board is the

Superintendent of Schools – correct

Chairman of the School Board

Finance Manager

Undersecretary of Scholastic Affairs


Which court case determined that prayer in public schools is unconstitutional, establishing the framework allowing the U.S. Supreme Court to rule that the delivery of an invocation at high school football games was unconstitutional.

Kneel vs Pew

Miranda vs Arizona

Gideon vs Wainwright

Engel vs Vitale – correct


The Earned Income Tax Credit not only refunds the payroll taxes of the working poor; it also provides larger refunds than they actually paid in taxes the previous year.

True – correct

False


Another feature of the Social Security Act was that it induced states to enact unemployment compensation programs through the imposition of a payroll tax on

local governments.

employers. – correct

employees.

state governments.


Federal health insurance for the elderly is called

Medicare – correct

ObamaCare

SCHIP

Medicaid


                                                                                                                                   Short Answer - Free Response Questions

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1)Briefly explain your fact-based conclusion on whether or not you support school vouchers.

Please be sure to demonstrate college-level research and college-level critical thinking skills when answering this question by using use specific examples.

Answer:

2)Chapter 17 discusses Health Insurance Coverage in the United States. Based on the information the authors of the book have shared, including your own research on the topic, briefly explain your support or opposition of the SCOTUS decisions on ObamaCare.

Please be sure to demonstrate college-level research and college-level critical thinking skills when answering this question by using use specific examples.

Answer:

3)Name one function of state government that you thought was correct prior to taking this course that you found was incorrect sometime during the semester.

Answer:

4)During the semester, you observed City government and County government, watching elected and appointed officials perform their duties. Of the two meetings that you observed, pick the one that you found least favorable. Describe how you would have changed the meeting or session had you been directly involved in the decision-making.

Answer:

5)We spent time discussing Our World topics throughout the semester.

Demonstrating college-level research and critical thinking skills, write down and briefly discuss the one topic that challenged you to do the most critical thinking, challenged you to analyze and accept opinions that differed from your own, and caused you to either change your position on the topic or solidify your opinion on the issue.

Our World Topic:

Analysis:

Answer:


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