Qualitative & Quantitative Research Method – Marketing PR

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Qualitative & Quantitative Research Method - Marketing PR
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Qualitative & Quantitative Research Method – Marketing PR

This chapter covers qualitative and quantitative research method of marketing PR.


Compared to traditional in-person qualitative research, online qualitative research has higher costs and slower results.

False


Projective techniques are indirect methods of quantitative research.

False


The __________ is particularly helpful in better understanding the central tendency of a variable when extreme observations, called outliers, are present.

d. median


The most important characteristic of a good moderator is that he or she:

c. is completely open to participant feedback, be it positive or negative


Currently, about 85 % of household in the U.S. have a cell phone compared to about 75 % in Europe.

false


Research errors can be divided into two broad groups

d. Random error and Systematic error


______________________ error occurs when an incorrect or incomplete sample frame is used to choose study participants.

d. Frame


_________________________ studies are conducted at a single point in time and thus provide a snapshot of the subject or topic being studied at that time.

b. Cross section


Respondent error occurs when the sampling procedures are not followed or are not clearly defined.

False


________ is the difference between the responses that are obtained and the true responses that were sought

Measurement error


Because of culture and language differences, ________ error is a greater concern with international marketing research

systematic


Population frame error occurs when the population is incorrectly identified.

false


The __________ determines how close the results obtained from your sample are compared to what you might find if you surveyed the entire population when evaluating means.

margin of error


In Middle Eastern countries, before interviewing a female the interviewer must ask permission from the husband.

true


_________ in a focus group respond to participant comments by asking “why, what, how, please explain,” or “tell me more.”

probing questions


The trend in online focus groups is

to run over a few days to as long as two weeks.


In relation to various cultures throughout the world, which of the following is true:

participants in collectivist cultures not to express opinions that will differ from others or what they believe the moderator is seeking


Qualitative research can be used for all of the following except:

verify the results of casual research studies


The most important characteristic of a good moderator is that he or she:

is completely open to participant feedback, be it positive or negative


The __________ is the only measure of central tendency which can be used with classification data

mode


_______________are indirect methods of qualitative research using ambiguous stimuli that allow respondents to project their emotions, feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs onto third-parties or inanimate objects.

Projective techniques


To get gather accurate information from respondents, especially about sensitive subjects that in some way may negatively impact a person’s image or which may be seen as socially unacceptable, researchers can use a

third-person technique


The __________ is particularly helpful in better understanding the central tendency of a variable when extreme observations, called outliers, are present.

median


______ is a qualitative projective research technique where respondents are read a series of words and asked to respond with the first word that comes to mind

word association


The first step in conducting focus group is to:

develop study parameters


Tactics for minimizing professional respondents include

using old-school respondent sources, such as telephone books, directories, and lists provided by clients or other sources & verifying identities with background checks or Internet searches


A quantitative study can

provide data on how an ad is doing in the marketplace


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society

collectivism


The number of focus group interviews is determined by:

if the results will be used for management decisions


_________ is the term used to describe individuals who belong to multiple research panels for the purpose of participating in multiple research studies, sometimes deceitfully, in order to obtain financial rewards or gifts.

professional respondents


_______ are frequently calculated in marketing research when numerical data representing actual quantities are collected.

means


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide:

interview questions should be composed in advance


Qualitative research methods include all of the following EXCEPT:

experiments


The person who leads the discussion in a focus group is called the:

moderator


Compared to traditional in-person qualitative research, online qualitative research has _____ and _______

lower costs, quicker results


Qualitative research involves

unstructured data collection methods


As to qualitative data, it

a sizeable portion of qualitative research studies are shifting to online methodologies


According to the text, researchers should use in-depth interviews for all of the following EXCEPT when:

questions seek to explore disparate views via consensus or debate.


The validity of focus group results is highly dependent upon the selection of the

participants and moderator


Tactics for minimizing professional respondents include

remove online registration, craigslist and use phone calls


___________ qualitative projective technique that uses an in-depth interview of collected pictures to uncover emotions and subconscious beliefs and attitudes.

ZMET


________ approach involves showing respondents a picture or series of pictures and asking them to tell a story about what they see

story telling


In the PAST, qualitative research was perceived as

inferior to quantitative studies and was used only prior to quantitative research


________ occurs when individuals within the group come to a consensus on a thought or idea through the informal leadership of one or two individuals

group think


For instance, in western cultures _________ tends to be dominant. But, in eastern cultures _________ tends to be dominant.

individualism; collectivism


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society.

collectivism


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide, which of the following is NOT true:

multiple choice questions permit probing into the thoughts and even subconscious of participants


As the focus group moves to the _______ stage, the moderator asks general questions to encourage participants to talk. The questions should be easy to answer and ones that everyone can answer.

rapport building


_________ is the term used to describe individuals who belong to multiple research panels for the purpose of participating in multiple research studies, sometimes deceitfully, in order to obtain financial rewards or gifts.

professional respondents


Qualitative research can be used for all of the following except:

verify the results of casual research studies


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide –

interview questions should be composed in advance


The trend in online focus groups is

to run over a few days to as long as two weeks


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society

collectivism


The person who leads the discussion in a focus group is called the:

moderator


_________ in a focus group respond to participant comments by asking “why, what, how, please explain,” or “tell me more.”

probing questions


The trend in online focus groups is

to run over a few days to as long as two weeks.


In relation to various cultures throughout the world, which of the following is true:

participants in collectivist cultures not to express opinions that will differ from others or what they believe the moderator is seeking


Qualitative research can be used for all of the following except:

verify the results of casual research studies


The most important characteristic of a good moderator is that he or she:

is completely open to participant feedback, be it positive or negative


The __________ is the only measure of central tendency which can be used with classification data

mode


_______________are indirect methods of qualitative research using ambiguous stimuli that allow respondents to project their emotions, feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and beliefs onto third-parties or inanimate objects.

Projective techniques


To get gather accurate information from respondents, especially about sensitive subjects that in some way may negatively impact a person’s image or which may be seen as socially unacceptable, researchers can use a

third-person technique


The __________ is particularly helpful in better understanding the central tendency of a variable when extreme observations, called outliers, are present.

median


______ is a qualitative projective research technique where respondents are read a series of words and asked to respond with the first word that comes to mind

word association


The first step in conducting focus group is to:

develop study parameters


Tactics for minimizing professional respondents include

using old-school respondent sources, such as telephone books, directories, and lists provided by clients or other sources & verifying identities with background checks or Internet searches


A quantitative study can

provide data on how an ad is doing in the marketplace


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society

collectivism


The number of focus group interviews is determined by:

if the results will be used for management decisions


_________ is the term used to describe individuals who belong to multiple research panels for the purpose of participating in multiple research studies, sometimes deceitfully, in order to obtain financial rewards or gifts.

professional respondents


_______ are frequently calculated in marketing research when numerical data representing actual quantities are collected.

means


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide:

interview questions should be composed in advance


Qualitative research methods include all of the following EXCEPT:

experiments


The person who leads the discussion in a focus group is called the:

moderator


Compared to traditional in-person qualitative research, online qualitative research has _____ and _______

lower costs, quicker results


Qualitative research involves

unstructured data collection methods


As to qualitative data, it

a sizeable portion of qualitative research studies are shifting to online methodologies


According to the text, researchers should use in-depth interviews for all of the following EXCEPT when:

questions seek to explore disparate views via consensus or debate.


The validity of focus group results is highly dependent upon the selection of the

participants and moderator


Tactics for minimizing professional respondents include

remove online registration, craigslist and use phone calls


___________ qualitative projective technique that uses an in-depth interview of collected pictures to uncover emotions and subconscious beliefs and attitudes.

ZMET


________ approach involves showing respondents a picture or series of pictures and asking them to tell a story about what they see

story telling


In the PAST, qualitative research was perceived as

inferior to quantitative studies and was used only prior to quantitative research


________ occurs when individuals within the group come to a consensus on a thought or idea through the informal leadership of one or two individuals

group think


For instance, in western cultures _________ tends to be dominant. But, in eastern cultures _________ tends to be dominant.

individualism; collectivism


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society.

collectivism


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide, which of the following is NOT true:

multiple choice questions permit probing into the thoughts and even subconscious of participants


As the focus group moves to the _______ stage, the moderator asks general questions to encourage participants to talk. The questions should be easy to answer and ones that everyone can answer.

rapport building


_________ is the term used to describe individuals who belong to multiple research panels for the purpose of participating in multiple research studies, sometimes deceitfully, in order to obtain financial rewards or gifts.

professional respondents


Qualitative research can be used for all of the following except:

verify the results of casual research studies


When it comes to the focus group discussion guide –

interview questions should be composed in advance


The trend in online focus groups is

to run over a few days to as long as two weeks


__________ refers to the extent an individual’s life is intertwined with the life of others and society

collectivism


The person who leads the discussion in a focus group is called the:

moderator


Secondary data is more current than primary data.

True


Which of the following is not an advantage of secondary data?

A. Secondary data can help clarify the research problem.
B. Secondary data may provide a solution to the problem.
C. Secondary data may provide the sample frame.
D. All of the above are advantages of secondary data. – correct

What type of company could most easily compile a large internal database?

Online, such as Yahoo


American Express regularly stuffs its monthly statements with combinations of products depending upon customer’s previous purchase characteristics. This data mining application is referred to as _______.

market basket analysis


Generally, the cost of collecting secondary data is about the same as the cost of collecting primary data.

False


If you were interested in quickly finding out how many people buy low-fat dog food for their dogs, you would most likely seek out _______.

a marketing research aggregator


Database marketing has come under scrutiny based on the idea that it may infringe on consumers’ ___________.

Right to privacy


When you are not sure who gathered secondary data, its __________may be questionable.

Accuracy


All of the following show how data mining has uses in marketing except:

Customer Requirements


Data mining facilitates customer acquisition by discovering purchasing patterns such that customized offerings can be made to prospects.

True


Statistical skills are important for qualitative researchers.

False


Which of the following is not an advantage of qualitative research over quantitative research?greater ability to probe?

results are projectable to the population under study


Which of the following is not a characteristic of qualitative research?

required hardware consists of computers, questionnaires and printouts


Compared to quantitative research, qualitative studies tend to have ____ samples.

smaller


An important goal of focus groups is that they should lead to immediately actionable results.

False


Which of the following is not a limitation of qualitative research?

limited probing of respondents


The most common type of qualitative marketing research is _______.

Focus groups


If the goal of the research was to provide a demographic
and lifestyle profile of a heavy user of a product, then the preferred type of research would be _______.

quantitative research


Which of the following academic backgrounds would a qualitative researcher most likely have?

Psychology


Focus groups are often used in the process of defining and/or refining concepts.

True


Field experiments in marketing are conducted in the actual marketplace.

True

In an experiment, which of the following variables would probably not be the dependent variable?

Advertising


Which of the following types of research allows the researcher to show causation?

Experiment


Test markets are which of the following type of experiment?

Field experiment


A test market generally occurs after a national rollout of a new product.

False


When respondents drop out of an experiment before it is completed, this is referred to as ________________.

Mortality


Suppose during an experiment, a researcher used several observers to record the results. The results of the experiment were perplexing to the researcher. In such a case one might expect ___________ to have occurred, distorting the results of the experiment.

instrument variation


_____________ occur(s) when buyers from outside the test area come into the area to purchase the product being tested, thereby distorting the results of the experiment.

Contamination


This true experimental design involves random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups, but no premeasurement of the dependent variable.

after only with control group


Quasi-experiments are studies in which the researcher lacks complete control over the scheduling of treatments or must assign respondents to treatments in a nonrandom manner.

True


Cross tabulations look at differences in mean values.

False


The “csv” file type is a common way to send values of data from one program to another. “csv” stands for:

comma separated values


This analytical procedure shows the responses to one question relative to the responses of another question.

cross tabulation


Which of the following is the most flexible type of graph?

bar chart


One of the most complex tabulations is the one-way frequency table.

False


This measure of central tendency can be computed only from interval or ratio data.

Mean


The idea behind this type of statistical analysis is to look at the responses to one question in relation to the responses to one or more other questions.

cross tabulations


Skewness is a measure of:

curve asymmetry


Kurtosis is a measure of:

curve peakedness


Categorical data is typically analyzed with percentages rather than means.

True


Which of the following is true of focus group research?

A. results can be generalized
B. extensive use of statistics and numbers.
C. usually uses large and representative samples
D. Useful for gaining an in depth understanding of underlying motivations .


The outline prepared to guide the conversation during a focus group.

A. group matter
B. Group Synergy
C. Discussion Guide
D. survey
Interview Guide


Which of the following research techniques usually uses the smallest sample size?

A. Mail surveys
B. Internet surveys
C. Focus Groups
D. Phone surveys


What is the recommended number of people for a focus group?

A. 4-6
B. 6-12
C. 12-15
D. More than 15


____ occurs when a researcher plays the role of shopper to understand employee or sales associate interaction.

A. Shop along
B. Mystery shopping
C. personal in-depth interview
D. dyadic interview


___ occurs when a researcher goes on a shopping trip with a respondent and observes him or her.

A. Shop-along
B. Mystery shopping
c. Personal In Depth Interview
D. dyadic Interview


The outline prepared to guide the conversation during an in-depth interview.

A. Group Matter
B. Group Synergy
C. Interview guide
D. Survey


Which of the following is true of personal interviews?

A. results can be generalized
B. extensive use of statistics and numbers
C. Usually uses large and Representative samples.
D. Useful for gaining an in depth understanding of underlying motivations.


Which of the following is a limitation of focus groups?

A. Not useful for answering questions like how many and how much
B. people try and answer questions in a way that pleases the interviewer
C. are not ideal for sensitive topics
D. Results cannot be generalized as only 6-12 people are used in a focus group.
E. All of the above are limitations of a focus group.


One advantage of focus groups is that the results can always be generalized to the population.

False

Online Focus groups have no or limited geographic restrictions.

True


Online focus groups have the advantage of anonymity so they can be good for sensitive topics.

True


One good interviewing technique is to start with general (easy) and then move on to specific (sensitive/personal) questions.

True


Interviews are not suited for sensitive topics.

False


Ethnographic interviews involve extensive fieldwork and observations along with interviews

True


One advantage of personal interviews is that the results can always be generalized to the population

False


It is harder to recruit participants for an online focus group than an offline one.

False


In ______, researchers watch participants and record behaviors they feel are relevant to the study being conducted.

unstructured observation research


___________develops a user profile based on the documents a user views then attempts to predict other documents that would be of interest. It is the same technology that is used by companies such as Amazon.com to recommend additional books based on the book searches a customer does or the books that are purchased.

topic tracking


In ______, individuals are observed in their natural environment where they may or may not know they are being observed

natural setting observation


According to the text, which of the following are viable methods of research throughout the world:

human, observational, and mechanical


____________ is used by search engines as part of their algorithms to determine the organic listing of websites for searches.

link analysis


In traditional ethnographic research:

expense and time are both limitation


The primary advantage of ________ observation lies in the freedom to observe and record whatever data the researcher believes to be important.

unstructured


Common forms of mechanical observation include:

radio, television, and eye tracking


Cross-tabulations are used to describe the relationship between ___ variables when one or more of these variables is a _______ variable.

two, interval


__________ focuses on subtle, involuntary physiological changes and anomalies in respondents’ voice as these changes are believed to reflect various emotions, stress, truth or deception.

voice pitch analysis


______________is defined as the systematic process of recording the behaviors or the results of behaviors of people, objects, and occurrences.

observation research


Usually, marketers find it more beneficial to display data as ______, rather than ______ in the cross-tabulation

percentages, counts


Some major findings of eye tracking research include that:

ads at the bottom are seldom noticed


In ______, individuals are studied in a controlled or laboratory setting where they know they are being observed

contrived setting observation


In _________ data collection usually involves the use of a checklist form, which tells the researcher exactly which actions should be recorded.

structured observation research


A disadvantage of ________ is that not all relevant behaviors may be recorded, or adequately categorized because the observer is watching too much to be able to notice fine details.

unstructured


Cross tabulations can be used that contain _________.

frequency counts and percentages


___________involves grouping similar documents together. The software looks for phrases or words or groups of words that are similar and puts them into groups or categories.

clustering


An extremely important research agenda for ________ is to detect “leaky” or “drop-off” points.

web tracking


_________measure changes in the electrical resistance in the skin in response to a subject’s exposure to stimuli, such as a television commercial.

galvanometers


________ are used to describe the relationship between two variables when one or more of these variables is a classification variable.

Cross-tabulations


Traditional ethnographic research is:

quite time consuming and very expensive


Pupilometers can

note the changes in the size of the pupil


A primary advantage of observation research is that:

observed behaviors or observed characteristics can be reported


______________ involves observing individuals in their natural settings using a combination of direct observation and video and/or audio recordings.

ethnographic research


Some major findings of eye tracking research include that:

text-based ads are seen longer than visual or display ads AND larger ads and images hold eye attention longer than smaller ads or images.


In ______, individuals do not know they are being observed

contrived setting observation


The Hallmark kiosk example of researchers asking the customer for permission to observe and then encourage the individual to interact with the kiosk as he or she normally would is an example of:

Open observation


Arbitron’s Portable People Meter (PPMTM):

is about the size of a cell phone and is worn by consumers throughout the day and it recognizes unique identification codes that are embedded in broadcast transmissions that are “heard” by the consumer in the home, car, work place, or other locations and transmits them at the end of the day back to Arbitron.


Observation research can be divided into three main categories. Which of the following is NOT one of those three main categories?

human, online, mechanical


__________________looks for predefined sequences in text through analyzing unstructured text and identifying key phrases and relationships.

information extraction


A major disadvantage of the disguised observation approach is that:

neither options are correct – yu cannot collect demographic data you can see the gender of the person.


The primary disadvantage of a contrived environment is

artificial


In _________ data collection usually involves the use of a checklist form, which tells the researcher exactly which actions should be recorded.

structured observation research


The primary advantage of ________ observation lies in the freedom to observe and record whatever data the researcher believes to be important.

unstructured


Usually, marketers find it more beneficial to display data as ______, rather than ______ in the cross-tabulation

percentages, counts


Some major findings of eye tracking research include that:

ads at the bottom are seldom noticed


In ______, individuals are observed in their natural environment where they may or may not know they are being observed

natural setting observation


In traditional ethnographic research:

expense and time are both limitation


A disadvantage of ________ is that not all relevant behaviors may be recorded, or adequately categorized because the observer is watching too much to be able to notice fine details.

unstructured


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