Organ System & Law Of Motion – Biology

This chapter covers organ system and law of motion of biology.


later turns into muscles and organs of the skeletal system etc.

germ layers

when this develops the embryo is visible

extraembryonic membranes

membranes not part of the emryos themselves

umbilical cord

contains blood vessels which exchanges gases from its mother

chorioallantoic membrane

regulates gas exchange through the shell which forms witht the chorion


the connection between the mother and embryo


process by which characteristics pass form one generation to another

gregor mendel

man who studied the principles of heredity/genetics

p1 generation

first generation of true breeding

f1 generation

first generation of offspring


heredity factors


carry all the genetic information in most organisms

homologous chromosomes

corresponding pairs of chromosomes


genes that produce a given trait exist at the same position


individual chromosomes


combination of alleles


the expressed type of a genotype


if it masks the effect of its partner allele


the allele that does not produce its trait when present with a dominant allele

punnett square

a chart that allows us to easily predict the results of genetic cross.


when both alleles for a given gene are the same


when they are different


a cross between two individuals where only one trait is considered

dihybrid cross

crossing two parents while considering two separate traits

law of segregation

states that traits are expressed from a pair of genes in the individual.

law of dominance

when one gene was usually dominant over the other

law of independent assortment

the separation of alleles and making the independently sorted

imcomplete dominance

example of a white flower and a red flower making it pink. neither was dominant


traits that are linked together

crossing over

random breaking and reforming of homologous chromosomes allow genes to change the chromosome they are linked to. adds more possibility of variation of traits among species

polygenic traits

traits produced from interaction of multiple sets of genes

chapter 5

ecology and population biology


the study of how organisms interact with other organisms


are where organisms are influenced. their physical environment


a group of populations found within a given locality


the total number of a single species or organism found in a given ecosystem


and individual of a particular species


populations that interact with each other in a particular ecosystem


the part of the earth that includes all living things


area that includes air ground and water


the ground




the physical place where a species lives


factors that support life such as living things food source, and predators


nonliving things in the habitat-weather temperature, soil


the role a species plays within the ecosystem

energy cycle

life supported throughout the environment

biogeochemical cycles

the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, the phosphorous cycle

energy cycles

cycles within the ecosystem

food chain

the cycle where energy flows to producers, consumer, to decomposer


animals that feed on other animals


animals that consume photosyntheic organisms and other animals

trophic levels

steps in the food chain

fossil fuels

organic matter that is left to decay under conditions of heat


overall growth rate or birth rate


death rate

abiotic factors

factors that affect the environment with an ecosystem-physical and non living factors such as fires pollution and sunlight

biotic factors

biological factors including availability of food, competition, predator-prey relationships, symbiosis, and overpopulation

limiting factors

this is what determines how much a particular poplation within a community will be able to grow


the dynamic balance achieved within an ecosystem functioning at its optimum level


number of organism per area

density independent factors

abiotic limiting factors-that is, they are independent of population density

density-dependent factors

population growth issues and interactions between species within a community

carrying capacity

maximum level the population may reach


area occupied by a species of a particular geographic area


over time, species may move in or out of a particular area


permanent one way movement out of the original range


permanent one way movement into a new range


temporary movement out of one range into another and back


when two or more species live within the same area and that overlap niches

competitive exclusion

when a species is wiped out in an area due to competition


an organism that eats another


the organism that is eaten


when two species interact with each other within the same range


type of symbiosis where one species is neither helped nor harmed while it inhibits the growth of another species


form of symbiosis where both species benefit


symbiosis in which one species benefits but the other is harmed


when the entire population of a particular species is eliminated

minimal viable population

when a population becomes susceptible to breeding problems that may result to extinction

community structure

characteristics of a specified community including the types of species that are dominant

closed communit

one whose populations occupy essentiall the same range with very similar distributions of density


boundaries such as a pond

open community

indefinite boundaries


when one community completely replaces another over time in a given area

pioneer communities

first population that moves back into a disturbed ecosystem

climax community

when succession ends in a stable community


an ecosystem that is generally defined by its climate characteristics

terrestrial biomes

biome that exists on land

aquatic biomes

large bodies of water


the study of how photosynthetic organisms and animals are distributed in a particular location


process how animals and organism arrive in a location


species that inhabit a given ecosystem because humans transported them there


new species that develop from parents that were dispersed there


study of how animals act and react within their environments

innate behaviors

actions in animals that are also called instincts

stereotyped behaviours

varieties of behaviors-taxes kineses, reflexes fixed action patterns


are directional responses either toward or away from a stimulus


changes in speed of movement in response to stimuli


automatic movement of a body part in response to a stimulus

fixed action patter FAP

complex but stereotyped behaviors in response to a stimulus

releaser/sign stimulus

pre-programmed response to a particular stimulus

learned behaviors

behaviors that are learned. 3 types; conditoning, habituation, imprinting


learning an old response to a new stimulus


behavior where the organism produces less and less response as a stimulus is repeated. without subsequent negative or positive reaction


behavior that develops in a critical or sensitive period of the animals life

social behavior

pattern that take into account other individuals

home range

an area where animals spend most of their time


area where an individual will defend

sexual and mating patterns

behavior that relies on complex interactions of the endocrine, nervous, and musculoskeletal systems


an organization of individuals in a population in which tasks are divide, in order for the group to work together.


older more established individuals that compete for status within the community


traits that tend to serve the needs of the society as a whole in addition to its own individual needs

demographic transition

a theory that proposes there are progressive demographic time perios of human population growth

biomedical progress

within urban societies that causes a lowering of the infant mortality rate

age composition

the relative numbers of individuals of specific ages within the population

genetic engineering

the intentional alteration of genetic material of a living organism

envrionmental pollution

the addition of contaminants to the air and water by human intervention

covalent bond

bond when atoms share electrons


two or more atoms held together by shared electrons (covalent bonds).


when two or more different atoms bond together chemically to fomr a unique substance.


charged atoms


when an atom loses one or more electrons becomes positively charged particle, or a positive ion.


an atom that gains one or more electrons becomes negatively charged

ionic bond

strongest bond of a positive and negative ions that are attracted

polar molecules

molecules that have regions of partial charge

hydrogen bond

the force of attraction between water molecules (weak chemical bond).

van der waals forces

momentary forces of attraction that exist between molecules and are much weaker than the forces of chemical bonding.

polar intermolecular attraction

exist between two polar molecules that has a slightly positive endo of one molecule forms that forms an electrostatic attraction to the slightly negative end of another molecule.

hydrogen bond

when a hydrogen atom is involved with a polar intermolecular attraction to a more electronegative atom.

physical properties

relate to the forces between atoms and molecules. Hardness, melting point, and boiling points.

network covalent crystals

the strongest attraction holding atoms together. high melting point and hardest of all crystals

ionic crystals

strong electrostatic forces holding atoms together

nonpolar molecules

soft crystals that are easily deformed that are predominantly held together with van der waals forces

polar molecules

intermolecular attractions that are weaker than ionic forces but are much stronger than nonpolar dispersion forces.


reacting molecules


newly formed molecules


the breakdown of a compound into its components


the revers of decomposition


when a compound breaks apart and forms a new compound with a free reactant

endothermic reactions

reactions that require energy


reactions that release energy

laws of thermodynamics

laws that chemical reactions are subject to


law of increasing disorder-asserts that all reactions spread energy, which tends to diminish its availability


a chemical that donates protons when dissolved in water-the measure of concentration of H+ ions in a solution


a chemical that accepts protons when dissolved in water

pH scale

potentional of hydrogen-measurement of H+ ions in solution

organic compounds

the building blocks of all living things. compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.


made up of varying combinations of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

sugars and starches

forms of carbohydrates


the basic sugar unit


two monosaccharide molecules that join together-table sugar


when three monosaccharides join together


when more than three monosaccharides merge


starches are a plants energy which are stored in the plants cells


a plant fiber that is a long chain of water insoluble polysaccharid


a polysaccharides compose of many joined glucose units


organic compounds comosed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. -waxes steroids phospholipids and fats


efficient lipid molecules used for long-term energy storage.


large un-branched chains of amino acids

amino acids

single links (monomers) that join together to form linear chains with many links.


many links of amino acids


another name for proteins


special proteins that act as catalysts for reactions


a substance that changes the speed of a reaction without it being affected itself.


a form of nucleic acid.


structure of DNA was discovered and modeled by two scientists

Watson Crick

the DNA and RNA structure is known as this


energy that flows from an object that is warm to an object that is cooler


the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance


the transfer of energy via waves


the movement of energy by the movement of matter, usually through currents.


movement of energy by transfer from particle to particle

specific heat

the measure of a substances’ ability to retain energy

law of conservation of matter and energy

first law says that matter and energy can neither be created nor destroyed

law of entropy

second law of thermodynamics states that whenever energy is exchanged, some energy becomes unavailable for use

law of absolute zero

third law of thermodynamics says that absolute zero cannot be attained in any system.

melting point

temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid form

heat of fusion

heat required to melt 1 kg of a solid at its melting point (also known as enthalpy of fusion).

freezing point

temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to solid

boiling point

temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas

heat of vaporization

amount of energy required to change 1kg of liquid of a substance to a gas (also known as enthalpy of vaporization)


escape of individual particles of a substance into gaseous form


change of a gaseous substance to liquid form


mixing of particles in a gas or liquid


the measure of how much matter exists in a given volume. D=m/v


electrical charges consist of theses gathered on the surface of an object


substances where electrical charges can move through

electrical current

a flow of electrons through a conductor


the opposite of conductor-poor conductors


the path that an electic current follows. has 4 parts; a source of voltage, set of conductors, a load, a switch

closed circuit

a circuit that has a continuous path for electron flow

open circuit

circuit that has no flow of electrons because the pathway is interrupted


the electromative force that pushes electrons through the circuit


the measure of the amount of electron flow or current


a hindrance to current due to objects that deter the current by their size, shape or type of conductor


the ability of a substance to produce a magnetic field

transverse wave

a wave that causes particles to move up and down while the wave moves forward

longitudinal wave

wave where particles move back and forth but in the same direction as the wave motion


the distance from one crest of a wave to the next crest on the same side


the number of wavelengths that pass a point in a second


when two crests collide and cancel each other out


when wave collide and go the other way


the bending of a light wave around an obstacle


the bouncing of a wave of light off an object


the change of direction of a wave as it passes from one medium to another.

light spectrum

the arrangement of components of a light wave according to wavelength

celestial mechanics

sophisticated mathematical relationship to clarify the movement of objects in the Milky Way


light spectrum of velocities of galaxies that indicated that galaxies are moving away from one another


the atomospheric layer found at approximately 50-80km altitude


separates the stratosphere from the next layer the thermosphere


found at altitudes of approximately 80 to 480 kilometers


960 to 1000 km


portions of the mesosphere and thermosphere


lights that come from electrons rejoin the atoms.

atomospheric pressure

the total weight of the atmosphere that is exerted on the earth


measurement of the atmospheric pressur


the solid or mineral part of the earth


the outermost layer of the geosphere


the complex middle layer of the geosphere.


the innermost layer of the geoshpere composed of mostly iron and nickel


the rigid outermost layer of the geosphere


is the molten plastic outer mantl of hot silicate rock beneath the lithosphere

mohorovicic discontinuity/moho

the sharp boundary between the crust and mantle

gutenberg discontinuity

separates the mantl from the core

Physical Quantity

A quantity that can be measured and consists of a numerical magnitude and unit

Scalar quantity

Quantities that have magnitude only

Vector quantity

Quantities that have both magnitude and direction


Total length of travel disregarding the direction of motion


Total length moved in a specific direction


Rate of change of distance


Distance travelled per unit time in a specified direction OR Rate of change of displacement


Rate of change of velocity

Newton’s First Law of Motion

An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will continue in motion at constant speed in a straight line in the absence of a resultant force acting on it

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

The resultant force acting upon an object is equal to the product of the mass and the acceleration of the object; the direction of the force is the same as that of the object’s acceleration

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

If an object A exerts a force on object B, then B exerts an equal but opposite force on A


Friction is a force that resists the relative motion of objects that are in contact with each other


Measure of the amount of substance in that object


Force of gravity acting upon that object

Gravitational Field

Region in which a mass experiences a force due to gravitational attraction

Gravitational Field Strength

Gravitational force per unit mass

Moment of a force (torque)

The product of force and perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the pivot

Principle of moments

When an object is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moments about any point is equal to the sum of anticlockwise moments about the same point

Centre of gravity

The point through which the entire weight of the object appears to act


Capacity to do work

Kinetic energy

Energy a body possesses due to its motion

Thermal energy

Total kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the body

Potential Energy

Energy stored in an object due to its position, state, or shape

Gravitational potential energy

Energy which an object possesses because of its position relative to the ground

Principle of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only changes from one form to another. The total energy in an enclosed system remains constant


Rate of doing work


Ratio of the useful energy output to the total energy input

Brownian motion

Haphazard movement of microscopic particles suspended in a fluid due to the uneven bombardment of the suspended particles by the molecules of the fluid

Kinetic model of matter

All matter is made of a large number of tiny atoms or molecules which are in continuous motion

Internal Energy

Combination of the total kinetic energy and potential energy of the molecules in the body

Ice point

Temperature of pure melting ice at standard atmospheric pressure

Steam point

The temperature at which pure boiling water changes into steam at standard atmospheric pressure


Process by which thermal energy is transmitted through a medium from one particle to another


Process by which thermal energy is transmitted from one place to another by the movement of heated gas or liquid


Process by which thermal energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves

Heat capacity

Amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of the body by 1K or 1oC

Specific heat capacity

Amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of the substance by 1K or 1oC


Process whereby energy is supplied to change the state of a substance from solid to liquid, without a change in temperature


Process of changing state of a substance from a liquid to a solid without a change in temperature


Process whereby energy is supplied to change the state of a substance form liquid to gas, without a change in temperature


Process of changing the state of a substance from gas to liquid without a change in temperature

Latent heat of fusion

Energy needed to change the state of a substance from solid to liquid, without a change in temperature

Latent heat of vaporisation

Energy needed to change the state of a substance from liquid to gas, without a change in temperature

Specific latent heat of fusion

Amount of thermal energy needed to change a unit mass of the substance from solid to liquid, without a change in temperature

Specific latent heat of vaporisation

Amount of thermal energy needed to change a unit mass of the substance from liquid to gas, without a change in temperature


energy that flows from an object that is warm to an object that is cooler.


the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance

Average kinetic energy

The energy of the motion of the atoms and molecules in a substance. The lower temperature, the slower particle motion (less energy); The higher the temperature, the faster the motion (more energy)

Absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.


energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.


the movement of energy by the movement of matter, usually through currents. eg. convection moves warm air up, while cool air sinks. In a fluid, the heat will move with the fluid.


the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact

specific heat

The measure of a substance’s ability to retain energy. The heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade.

Law of thermodynamics

the interaction between heat and work (energy) in the universe

Law of conservation of matter and energy

First law: matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed

Law of entropy

Second law: whenever energy is exchanged, some energy becomes unavailable for use (entropy increases)

Law of absolute zero

Third law: absolute zero cannot be attained in any system (that is energy of motion of particles cannot be stopped)

States of matter

solid, liquid, gas, plasma


a state of matter that consists of free-moving ions and electrons; only exists in the case of extreme heat and ionization.


A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume; the molecules are packed and bonded together. the strength of the bonds determines the strength of the solid and its melting point


a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume


matter that does not have a definite shape or volume; has particles that move at high speeds in all directions; temperature and pressure can impact density.

melting point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid

heat of fusion

the amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase at its melting point

freezing point

The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid

boiling point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas

heat of vaporization

the amount of heat energy required to convert one kilogram of a substance from a liquid to a gas


the escape of particles of a substance into gaseous form


the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid.


mixing of particles in a gas or liquid


the amount of matter in a given space (volume)

formula of density

Density = Mass divided by volume


the amount of force exerted per unit of area

pascal’s principle

When force is applied to a confined fluid, the change in pressure, is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid

Archimedes principle

the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object


The ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object placed in it


the amount of matter in an object


the force of gravity on an object

force of gravity

F=mg; force of gravity on an object caused by the mass of the earth= the mass of the object (m) times the acceleration caused by gravity (g).

law of inertia

Newtons first law of motion: a body remains in the state which it is in, at rest or in motion, as long as no external force compels it to change its state

law of force versus mass

Newtons second law of motion: the rate of change of a particle is directly proportional to its mass and the force that is exerted on it. F=ma

law of action and reaction

Newtons third law of motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction


the movement of a mass over a distance; work=Force x Distance


the distance an object travels in one unit of time; s=d/t


the distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point


the speed of an object and the direction of its motion; v=d/t


the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface


a rate of change of velocity; in can act in the direction of motion, at an angle, or opposite to the direction of motion. a=v2-v1/t2-t1


the product of an object’s mass and velocity; p=mv where p= momentum


A push or pull on an object; F=ma F=W/d

theory of relativity

Einstein’s theory that the speed of light is constant and that other things that seem constant, such as space and time, are not.

natural resources

materials found in nature that are used by living things

renewable resource

any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time

nonrenewable resource

a resource that cannot be reused or replaced easily (ex. gems, iron, copper, fossil fuels)

cohesive behavior (surface tension), ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solvent (esp. salts)

special properties of water that contribute to Earth’s suitability as an environment for life

what characterizes science and its methods

empirical observations, testable questions, formation of hypothesis, and experimentation that results in stable and replicable results, logical reasoning, and coherent theoretical constructs

scientific argumentation

recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through ________ ________, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented

anomalous data

Data that do not fit with the rest of a data set


an important part of creating a scientific experiment is making sure the experiment has the ability to be _____________, or conducted elsewhere with the same outcome


an explanation for an observation

qualitative observation

observations that describe what you observe

quantitative observation

observations that measure what you observe


the systematic and organized inquiry that is derived from observations and experimentation that can be verified or tested by further investigation to explain natural phenomena; is testable; seeks falsifications


fake science; not testable; seeks confirmations (astrology and phrenology)


scientists are _________ because it takes __________ity to construct scientific questions, methods, and explanations


boundaries of the supernatural


boundaries of personal interpretation and creative expression


boundaries of the natural world


applied science

scientific knowledge

___________ ___________ is both durable and robust and open to change; it can change because it is often examined and reexamined by new investigations and scientific argumentation; it becomes stronger because of these frequent examinations


ideas with the most durable explanatory power become established ________; culmination of many scientific investigations; well-tested hypothesis supported by empirical evidence; broad explanation of many observations; explain laws


descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships; describes how something behaves; not all _____ have accompanying explanatory theories


______ can be very useful tools of scientific thinking. they can take the form of a drawing, graph, three-dimensional object, computer program, or mathematical equation. Even a description in words of how a natural process works is a _____.

empirical evidence

source of knowledge acquired by means of observation or experimentation


norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior

kinetic energy

energy of motion dependent upon mass and speed; E(k) = 1/2mv^2

potential energy

stored energy dependent upon position and height; E(p) = mgh

Law of Conservation of Energy (LoCoE)

states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed

open system

can exchange both matter and energy with an outside system. They are portions of larger systems and in intimate contact with the larger system. Your body is an example.

closed system

exchange energy but not matter with an outside system. Though they are typically portions of larger systems, they are not in complete contact. The Earth is an example; it obtains lots of energy from the Sun but the exchange of matter with the outside is almost zero

isolated system

can exchange neither energy nor matter with an outside system. While they may be portions of larger systems, they do not communicate with the outside in any way. The physical universe is an example


transfer of energy received when force acts over a distance W=Fd


rate at which work is done P=W/t


transfer of internal energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid


transfer of heat between substances in direct contact


transfer of heat by means of electromagnetic waves


measure of the heat present in an object

thermal energy

total energy (kinetic + potential) in a substance

exothermic reaction

net release of energy; energy is product; feels warm; net energy negative; energy of reactants > energy of products; downhill potential energy graph

endothermic reaction

net absorption of energy; energy is reactant; feels cool; net energy positive, energy of products > energy of reactants; uphill potential energy graph

strong force, electromagnetic force, weak force, gravitational force

four fundamental forces, strongest to weakest

strong force

fundamental force that holds all nucleons together

electromagnetic force

force of electric and magnetic attraction and repulsion of charges

weak force

force of attraction between quarks, electrons, and neutrinos


mutual attraction between all objects

alpha particle

2 protons and 2 neutrons (helium nucleus); most massive; charge +2; low penetration

beta particle

1 electron; low mass; charge -1; higher penetration ability

gamma ray

high-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei; no mass; no charge; pure energy; highest penetration ability


time required for 1/2 the atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay; carbon-14 ~5000 years uranium-238 ~4 billion years


breaking apart of nuclei; think split; atomic bombs


combining of atoms; on the Sun


_________ reactions release much more energy than chemical reactions


in _________ reactions, matter is not created or destroyed, it simply changes form, unlike nuclear reactions


in __________ reactions, matter can be changed into energy using E=mc^2


object that allows heat or electricity to pass through it easily (copper wire); metallic bonds –> electrons move freely


electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and insulator (silicon)


object that does not conduct electric current (glass); electrons do not move freely


rate at which electric charge flows


electrical force that drives an electric current; potential energy difference between two points in a circuit


the measure of how easily charges flow through a circuit


_______ can exist without current, but current cannot exist without _______


increasing _____________ decreases current, but not voltage

Ohm’s law

V=IR or current is equal to voltage over resistance


_______ of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, etc) has low frequency; wavelength is long; low energy


______ of the electromagnetic spectrum (gamma rays) has high frequency; short wavelength; high energy

doppler effect

if the source of waves is moving toward the observer, each wave takes less time to reach the observer than the previous wave, and the frequency is increased; if the source of the waves is moving away from the observer, the frequency is reduced WHAT EFFECT IS THIS?

scalar quantities

quantities that are described by a magnitude alone (distance, speed, energy, mass, work)

vector quantities

quantities that are described by a magnitude + direction (displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, linear momentum)


distance over time d=rt


speed + direction


rate at which velocity changes change in velocity over change in time


vector difference between starting and ending position

Newton’s first law an object in motion stays in motion and an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by an outside force INERTIA