Chapter 3 – 6 Society And Social Development – Sociology

This chapter covers society and social development – sociology.


The process by which a society transmits its cultural values to its members.

Social Scientists

Think that most intelligence is learned from the social environment.

Nature Limits

Sets limits on what we can achieve.

Socialization Limits

Plays a role on what we do achieve.

Unsocialized Children

Children that retained nonhuman responses, non-lasting viciousness, minimal human capabilities.

Examples of Unsocialized Children

Wild boy of Aveyron, Anna and Genie

Process of Socialization

How to think, feel, be normal, moral and be a man or a woman. Requires normal interaction with adults.


Children go through 4 stages of cognitive development.


Using senses and bodily movements to interact with the environment. (0-2)


Still able to understand cause and effect, animistic, egocentric. (2-7)

Concrete Operational

Able to perform simple intellectual tasks involving only visible, concrete objects. (7-12)

Formal Operational

Able to think and reason with abstract concepts. (12-15)

Learning How to Feel

1. Identify feelings. 2. Display and Conceal emotions. 3. Control their emotions.

Sigmund Freud

Proposed that normal personality develops through a series of stages in childhood.
Personality consists of three elements: Id, Ego and Superego.


Inborn drives, pleasure seeking.


Balance the id, rational, advices the ID to listen to the Superego.


The conscience, moral.

Lawrence Kohlberg

Three levels of moral development.

Preconventional Morality

Defining right and wrong based on the consequence to follow.

Conventional Morality

Judging right and wrong based on the motive of the action at hand.

Postconventional Morality

Judging actions by taking account of conflicting norms.

George H. Mead

Levels of Development of Self. When children learn to internalize the values of society.

First Level of Self Development

Imitation of others without a clear understanding of the action. Young infant.

Second Level of Self Development

Children behave like significant others according to the actions they perceive they want or like from them. Children ages 3 to 5.

Third Level of Self Development

Children are able to generalize the significant roles there are in society. Children age 5 to 7.

Fourth Level of Self Development

The ME. Internalized social values becoming only one part of our personality. Children according to their maturity.

Fifth Level of Self Development

The WE. Children began understanding collaborative behavior among their peers.

Sixth Level of Self Development

The I. The other part of our personality which can not be invade by society. The I is always spontaneous, impulsive, creative, unlike the me.

Meredith F. Small

States that boys and girls learn to be masculine and feminine by developing gender identities.

Gender Identities

Images of whom they are expected to be on the basis of their sex.

Three Sources of Gender Development

1. Family. 2. School and Peers. 3. Media.

Hannah Brückner

States that students who took a virginity pledge are just as likely to get an STD as those who did not take the pledge and are having sex.

Charles H. Cooley

Developed the theory of Looking-Glass self. Self-image can affect personality and behaior.

Looking-Glass Self

We develop a self-image from the way others treat us.

Lev Grossman

Idea of Twixters. Young people in their twenties living with their parents who are in transition from adolescence to adulthood.

Reasons for Twixters

High cost of living, high rate of divorce, postponement of marriage, increased difficulty in finding jobs to make self financially independent.

Agents of socialization

Family, School, Peer group, Mass media, Work place.

Anticipatory socialization

The process by which people learn to assume a role in the future (e.g. going to college).

Developmental socialization

The process by which people learn to be more competent in a role (e.g. learning how to be a better dad, a better son, a better professor).


The process by which people are forced to develop a new self (e.g. going to prison, the army, or a mental institution).

Social Interaction

The process by which individuals act towards and react to others.

Oppositional Interactions

Treating others as competitors.

Supportive Interactions

Treating others as friends.

Symbolic Interactions

People interpret others’ actions and behave according to that interpretation.


An interaction in which two individuals offer each other something in order to obtain a reward in return. Material reward or non-material.


People help those who have helped them.


An interaction in which two or more individuals work together to achieve a common goal.

Traditional cooperation

Occurs frequently to become customary in society.

Spontaneous cooperation

When neighbors come together to help friends after a tragedy.

Directed cooperation

Based on the direction of authority.

Contractual Cooperation

Based on some sort of planning.


The study of symbolic communication.


There is no actual connection between the object and a thing itself. A symbol is always.


Body Language


The use of space for communication.

Supportive Interactions

Referred to as “supportive interchanges”, or “mutual dealings”. All these words or actions should not be taken at face value because they are not what they appear to be. People pay more attention to the hidden meanings behind the expressed words or actions.

Oppositional Interactions

Usually involve people of different statuses. Higher-status people tend to perceive lower-status people as less worthy of respect. So they can behave disrespectful toward lower-status people.


There is some degree of cooperation because competitors must cooperate with each other by playing the game according to the rules


Contestants try to achieve the same goal according with the accepted rules. The competing parties should concentrate on defeating the other.


The study of individual and group interaction. Face to face interaction.

Civil inattention

Casual encounters. Each individual indicates recognition of the other’s presence but avoids any gesture that might be taken as too intrusive (unfocussed interaction).

Erving Goffman

Studying the routine interactions of our social lives can tell us a lot about how our society is organized. People tend to break routines in creative ways; studying microsocial behavior can tell us about agency and the creative ability of people to shape reality. Micro-level interactions can tell us a lot about large social processes and institutions.

Non-verbal communication

The exchange of information & meaning through facial expressions, gestures, & movements of the body “body language”.

Paul Ekman

Developed the FACS because he understood how important facial expressions were in communications.

Facial Action Coding System (FACS)

Describing movements of the facial muscles giving rise to particular expressions. He claims that basic modes of emotional expression are the same in all human beings.

Genderlects: Men

Status and independence are primary goals
Avoid taking orders
Resist asking for help
Deal with own problems

Genderlects: Women

Connection and intimacy are primary goals
Cultivate friendships
Minimize differences and seek consensus
Talk to express feelings


Drama & plays are used to represent reality. They have been a common way to pass messages to children and young adults.

Ervin Goffman

Developed the idea of dramaturgy.

The Social Construction
 of Reality

The process by which people create through social interactions certain ideas, feelings, and beliefs about their environment.

Thomas theorem

If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. Often leads to self-fulfilling prophecy.


The analysis of how people define the world in which they live.


The study and practice of humor. Helps society by attacking our taken-for-granted beliefs.


The capacity for developing physical or social skills.

Generalized Others

Mead’s term for people who do not have close ties to a child but who do influence the child’s internalization of society’s values.


The capacity for mental or intellectual achievement.

Peer Group

A group whose members are about the same age and have similar interests.


A fairly stable configuration of feelings attitudes, ideas and behaviors that characterizes an individual.

Significant Other

Mead’s terms for people who have close ties to a child and exert a strong influence on the child.

Total Institutions

Places where people are not only cut off from the larger society, but also rigidly controlled by the administrators.


Linguistic styles that reflect the different worlds of men and women.

Interaction Ritual

A form of interaction in which the participants perform certain acts to show reverence to each other.

Role Distance

Separating role-playing as outward performance from the inner self.

Normal Human Development

Requires continuing human interaction, as proven with the children raised in extreme isolation.

Thio’s Beliefs

While nature sets limits, socialization plays a very large role in determining who we are.

Social Exchange

Normally governed by the idea of reciprocity.

Adults Personalities

Have been determined but can always be changed.

Competition and US

The global market competing has helped U.S. companies become more efficient and productive.

Hernstein and Murray

More than half our intelligence comes from our genes. Many arguments against this.

Rene Spitz

DId studies at orphanages.

John Locke

Mind of a child is a blank slate. Tabula Rasa.

Howard Gardner

Found that all geniuses were born into families that valued learning and achievement and had atleast one loving and supportive adult.

Carol Giligan

Moral development of women is different because they have a higher concern for other than their own survival. Called this Moral Maturity.

Preparatory Stage

IMitate other people in their immediate environment. Not role play.

PLay Stage

Taking the roles of significant others, internalize parents values and attitudes.

Game Stage

Playing the roles of generalized others, make believe jobs.

Native American Children

Network of relatives, Cultural values, cherish time spent, rarely praise.

African American Children

Strong Kinship bonds, informal adoption is common, permissive, strict, physical punishment.

Hispanic American Children

Always with parents, elder respect, strong familism, motherly love is greater than that of wife, sensitive to the feelings and nee

ds of others.

Asian American Children

Indulge the children, psychological punishment, an age of understanding, group over individual, intelligence and excellence.

Other Directed Behavior

Looking to others for approval and support as opposed to reliance on personal beliefs and traditional values.


A deep sense of hopelessness, pervasive, loss of initiative and deterioration of social skills. Loose the ability to function in a larger society.

Henslin and Biggs

Did pelvic exam studies, even without knowing exactly what to do, everyone still behaved in a specific way.


Tactful Blindness, act as though the embarrassing situation does not exist.

Loss of Poise

Stumbling or spilling a drink.

Incorrect Identification

Getting someones name wrongs, or asking someone how their wife is after a divorce.

Situational Impropriety

Dressing wrong or showing up at bad timing.

Harold Garfinkel

Define the world in vague ways, people like to understand without details, Ex. How are you? Good not in what way.

Social Group

Consist of people who think of themselves as belonging together and interacting with one another. Members with a certain feeling of unity. Collections of people who share common identity and interact with each other based on shared expectations. These shape almost all our experiences.

Social Aggregate

A group that shares the same physical space but does not interact.

Social Category

Consists of people who have something in common but do not interact with one another, they are not close together


Groups toward which we are strongly tied.


Groups of which we are not a member. Often look different from other members, have negative stereotypes of other groups and compete with other groups.

Primary Groups

Provide face to face interaction. Are small intimate groups. e.g. families, friends. Their values and attitudes become fused into our identity.

Secondary Groups

Little face-to-face interaction. Impersonal groups that rarely involve emotional ties or enduring relationships. e.g: salesclerks and customers. Relate to each other in terms of a particular role.

Reference groups

The groups we use as standards to evaluate our behavior. Don’t have to be a member in order to use it. People imitate these groups.

Group Size

An important factor in group dynamics. Large diffuse responsibility, small is more informal.


One relationship.


Three Relationships.

Four Member Group

Six Relationships.

Five Member Group

Ten relationships.

Six Member Group

15 relationships.

Instrumental Leader

Person that keeps the group moving toward its goals.

Expressive Leader

Person that tries to gain consensus, makes sure everyone is happy

Laissez-Faire Leader

A highly permissive person.

Idiosyncrasy credit

Group leaders are allowed to deviate from their society’s norms.

Solomon Asch

Showed people will chose group consensus over their own perceptions.

Stanley Milgram

Showed people in groups do what they are told to-obedience, despite injury to others.


Members maintain a consensus to the extent of ignoring the truth.

Social Networks

Web of social relationships that link members or groups together. e.g. a friendship, a business transaction, expressions of feeling. Constitute broad sources of relationships, direct and indirect. Strength in weak ties.

Formal Organizations

Businesses, colleges, hospitals, schools. Setting and achieving goals are paramount. Tasks are assigned to workers with different skills. Power is exerted from higher to lower participants.


Rigidly committed to procedure or routine

All modern organizations are..


Amitai Etzioni

1) coercive; 2) ultilitarian; 3) normative. Are the three most common types of organizations.

Max Weber

Bureaucracy is a highly effective means of organizing large numbers of people (a necessary evil). A group that is rational in achieving its goal efficiently.

Japanese Model

Large organizations have started to become less bureaucratic and more flexible. Characteristics include, Bottom-up decision making, Less specialization, Job security, Group orientation and merging of work and private lives.


Where power and responsibility are devolved downward throughout the organization.


The process of becoming less bureaucratic.

McDonaldization of Society

Principles of fast-food restaurants are dominating other sectors of society. Highly standardized and regulated. More automated systems are employed instead of human beings.

International Governmental Organizations

Organizations that are established by treaties among governments for conducting business among member nations.

International Nongovernmental

Organizations that are established by agreements among individuals or private organizations.


Any act that violates a norm, what is deviant to one person is not necessarily deviant to another. Time, place and public consensus affect.

Criminal Deviance

Involves violating a criminal law & away from social norms.

Noncriminal Deviance

Involves moving away from society’s norm

The Biological View of Deviance

Old theories that tried to link biological factors with deviant behavior.

Cesare Lombroso

Tried to link skull shape with deviance.

William Sheldon

Tried to link muscular activities with deviance.

The Psychological View of Deviance

Some crimes are associated with particular personality types.


Traits associated with these don’t have to be negative or lead to crime.

Emile Durkheim’s functionalist theory

Deviance benefits society by enhancing conformity, strengthening social solidarity, safely releasing discontent, and inducing social change.

Robert Merton’s strain theory

Deviance is caused by society’s stressing the importance of success without offering equal opportunities for achieving it. Five types of individuals who react to tensions between social values & the limited means to achieving them: conformist, innovators, ritualists, retreatists, & rebels

Travis Hirschi’s control theory

Deviance results from society’s failure to develop strong social bonds among its members.

John Braithwaite’s shaming theory

Deviance stems from society’s frequent use of disintegrative shaming to punish wrongdoers.

Edwin H. Sutherland’s differential association theory

Deviance arises from association with ‘other’ members of other groups that carries an excess of pro-deviant over anti-deviant definitions.

Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory

Being labeled deviant by society (i.e., negative societal reaction to certain behavior) leads people to see themselves as deviant and to live up to this self-image by committing more deviant acts.
Labeling theorists are interested in how behavior is defined as deviant and why certain groups, but not others, are labeled deviant.

Primary deviation

Initial act of transgression.

Secondary deviation

Individual accepts the label and sees oneself as deviant.

Harold Garfinkel and Jack Kats’s phenomenological theory

Looking into people’s subjective interpretations of their own experiences is key to understanding their deviant behaviors.

William Chambliss

Law enforcement favors the rich and powerful over the poor and weak, thus creating more deviants among the latter.

Richard Quinney

The dominant class produces deviance by making and enforcing laws, oppressing the subordinate class, and spreading crime ideology

Power theory

Because of their stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and weaker social control, the powerful are more likely to engage in profitable deviance than the powerless in unprofitable deviance.

Feminist theory

Conventional theories are largely inapplicable to women, while the status of women as certain victims and offenders reflects the continuing subordination of women in patriarchal society.


They are seen as deserving of crime.

Edwin Sutherland

White-collar crime as the crime committed by affluent people without the use of over force. E.g. tax fraud, illegal sales practices, antitrust violations, embezzlement, land fraud.

Corporate Crime

Offences committed by large corporations. Society is indifferent, environmental and financial are common.

Organized Crime

Crime has become international with across border institutionalized networks of criminal activities. E.g. money laundering, narcotics trade, smuggling immigrants, trading human organs.

Manuel Castells

Believes in organized crime, activities are illegal still.


Criminal activity carried out with help of information technology.

Controlling Deviance

Medicalization, informal control, formal control, death penalty, socialization.

Families, Friends and schoolmates are examples of social


John wants to be like his college professors, they are his

Reference Group

Ten people on campaign committee, didn’t know each other but now they are working together they are…

Secondary group

Which of the following is most likely to be a primary relationship?

Family enjoying a picnic at the beach.

Which is a social aggregate?

People waiting at Terminal C for flight 181.

Which is most likely to be an in-group?

Primary group.

What is the advantage of primary group

They help people meet their basic human needs for intimacy and security.

Tough leader and pushes people towards accomplishing project goals is an…

Instrumental Leader.

Supervisor provides support if needed but normally lets people do what they want he is an…

Laissez-Faire leader.

Group with diversity

Can devise more ways of solving problems.

Network focuses on


Asking friends and associates for a doctor reccomendation

Makes use of network.

Examples of Formal Organization

Hospital, phone company, prision.

Social Category

People that share a common characteristics, gender, occupation or ethnicity but don’t necessarily interact.


The most effective way to control dieviance.

Poverty breeds crime is incorrect because

Corporate crimes

Todays Terrorists

Young, male, single, middle class, educated, rational.

Capital Punishment

Is not an effective deterrent to murder.

Example of Organized Crime

Transporting human organs across borders.

What is the fastest growing crime during the 1990’s?


How are Japanease corporations different?

Use bottom up decision making, a collaborative model.

Scientific Managemnet Model of Industrial Organization

Company can achieve maximum productivity if its workers do a simple repetitive task under close supervision.


Max Weber’s term for replacing subjective, spontaneous, informal way of doing things with planned things.

Peter Principle

The observation that in every hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.


A modern Western organization defined by Max Weber as being rational in achieving its goal efficiency.

Informal Organization

A group formed by the informal relationships among members of an organization, based on personal interactions, not on any plan by the organization.

Laissez- Faire Leaders

Leaders who let others do their work more or less on their own.

Normative Leaders

Theories that suggest what we should do to achieve our goals.

Parkinson’s Law

The observation that, “Work expands to fill the time available for its completion”.


A social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict.

Differential Association

The process of acquiring through interaction with others, an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of law.

Disintegrative Shaming

The process by which the wrongdoer is punished in ways such as to be stigmatized, rejected or ostracized.

Marginal Surplus Population

Marxist term for unemployed workers who are useless to the economy.


The mental problem characterized by a persistent fear, anxiety, or worry about trivial matters.


The mental problem typified by loss of touch with reality.


Coercive sex that involves use of force to get a woman to do something sexual against her will.

Reintegrative Shaming

Making wrongdoers feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness, or respect.

Relative deprivation

Feeling unable to achieve relatively high aspirations.