Chapter 3 – 6 Society And Social Development – Sociology
This chapter covers society and social development – sociology.
The process by which a society transmits its cultural values to its members.
Think that most intelligence is learned from the social environment.
Sets limits on what we can achieve.
Plays a role on what we do achieve.
Children that retained nonhuman responses, non-lasting viciousness, minimal human capabilities.
Examples of Unsocialized Children
Wild boy of Aveyron, Anna and Genie
Process of Socialization
How to think, feel, be normal, moral and be a man or a woman. Requires normal interaction with adults.
Children go through 4 stages of cognitive development.
Using senses and bodily movements to interact with the environment. (0-2)
Still able to understand cause and effect, animistic, egocentric. (2-7)
Able to perform simple intellectual tasks involving only visible, concrete objects. (7-12)
Able to think and reason with abstract concepts. (12-15)
Learning How to Feel
1. Identify feelings. 2. Display and Conceal emotions. 3. Control their emotions.
Proposed that normal personality develops through a series of stages in childhood.
Personality consists of three elements: Id, Ego and Superego.
Inborn drives, pleasure seeking.
Balance the id, rational, advices the ID to listen to the Superego.
The conscience, moral.
Three levels of moral development.
Defining right and wrong based on the consequence to follow.
Judging right and wrong based on the motive of the action at hand.
Judging actions by taking account of conflicting norms.
George H. Mead
Levels of Development of Self. When children learn to internalize the values of society.
First Level of Self Development
Imitation of others without a clear understanding of the action. Young infant.
Second Level of Self Development
Children behave like significant others according to the actions they perceive they want or like from them. Children ages 3 to 5.
Third Level of Self Development
Children are able to generalize the significant roles there are in society. Children age 5 to 7.
Fourth Level of Self Development
The ME. Internalized social values becoming only one part of our personality. Children according to their maturity.
Fifth Level of Self Development
The WE. Children began understanding collaborative behavior among their peers.
Sixth Level of Self Development
The I. The other part of our personality which can not be invade by society. The I is always spontaneous, impulsive, creative, unlike the me.
Meredith F. Small
States that boys and girls learn to be masculine and feminine by developing gender identities.
Images of whom they are expected to be on the basis of their sex.
Three Sources of Gender Development
1. Family. 2. School and Peers. 3. Media.
States that students who took a virginity pledge are just as likely to get an STD as those who did not take the pledge and are having sex.
Charles H. Cooley
Developed the theory of Looking-Glass self. Self-image can affect personality and behaior.
We develop a self-image from the way others treat us.
Idea of Twixters. Young people in their twenties living with their parents who are in transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Reasons for Twixters
High cost of living, high rate of divorce, postponement of marriage, increased difficulty in finding jobs to make self financially independent.
Agents of socialization
Family, School, Peer group, Mass media, Work place.
The process by which people learn to assume a role in the future (e.g. going to college).
The process by which people learn to be more competent in a role (e.g. learning how to be a better dad, a better son, a better professor).
The process by which people are forced to develop a new self (e.g. going to prison, the army, or a mental institution).
The process by which individuals act towards and react to others.
Treating others as competitors.
Treating others as friends.
People interpret others’ actions and behave according to that interpretation.
An interaction in which two individuals offer each other something in order to obtain a reward in return. Material reward or non-material.
People help those who have helped them.
An interaction in which two or more individuals work together to achieve a common goal.
Occurs frequently to become customary in society.
When neighbors come together to help friends after a tragedy.
Based on the direction of authority.
Based on some sort of planning.
The study of symbolic communication.
There is no actual connection between the object and a thing itself. A symbol is always.
The use of space for communication.
Referred to as “supportive interchanges”, or “mutual dealings”. All these words or actions should not be taken at face value because they are not what they appear to be. People pay more attention to the hidden meanings behind the expressed words or actions.
Usually involve people of different statuses. Higher-status people tend to perceive lower-status people as less worthy of respect. So they can behave disrespectful toward lower-status people.
There is some degree of cooperation because competitors must cooperate with each other by playing the game according to the rules
Contestants try to achieve the same goal according with the accepted rules. The competing parties should concentrate on defeating the other.
The study of individual and group interaction. Face to face interaction.
Casual encounters. Each individual indicates recognition of the other’s presence but avoids any gesture that might be taken as too intrusive (unfocussed interaction).
Studying the routine interactions of our social lives can tell us a lot about how our society is organized. People tend to break routines in creative ways; studying microsocial behavior can tell us about agency and the creative ability of people to shape reality. Micro-level interactions can tell us a lot about large social processes and institutions.
The exchange of information & meaning through facial expressions, gestures, & movements of the body “body language”.
Developed the FACS because he understood how important facial expressions were in communications.
Facial Action Coding System (FACS)
Describing movements of the facial muscles giving rise to particular expressions. He claims that basic modes of emotional expression are the same in all human beings.
Status and independence are primary goals
Avoid taking orders
Resist asking for help
Deal with own problems
Connection and intimacy are primary goals
Minimize differences and seek consensus
Talk to express feelings
Drama & plays are used to represent reality. They have been a common way to pass messages to children and young adults.
Developed the idea of dramaturgy.
The Social Construction
The process by which people create through social interactions certain ideas, feelings, and beliefs about their environment.
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. Often leads to self-fulfilling prophecy.
The analysis of how people define the world in which they live.
The study and practice of humor. Helps society by attacking our taken-for-granted beliefs.
The capacity for developing physical or social skills.
Mead’s term for people who do not have close ties to a child but who do influence the child’s internalization of society’s values.
The capacity for mental or intellectual achievement.
A group whose members are about the same age and have similar interests.
A fairly stable configuration of feelings attitudes, ideas and behaviors that characterizes an individual.
Mead’s terms for people who have close ties to a child and exert a strong influence on the child.
Places where people are not only cut off from the larger society, but also rigidly controlled by the administrators.
Linguistic styles that reflect the different worlds of men and women.
A form of interaction in which the participants perform certain acts to show reverence to each other.
Separating role-playing as outward performance from the inner self.
Normal Human Development
Requires continuing human interaction, as proven with the children raised in extreme isolation.
While nature sets limits, socialization plays a very large role in determining who we are.
Normally governed by the idea of reciprocity.
Have been determined but can always be changed.
Competition and US
The global market competing has helped U.S. companies become more efficient and productive.
Hernstein and Murray
More than half our intelligence comes from our genes. Many arguments against this.
DId studies at orphanages.
Mind of a child is a blank slate. Tabula Rasa.
Found that all geniuses were born into families that valued learning and achievement and had atleast one loving and supportive adult.
Moral development of women is different because they have a higher concern for other than their own survival. Called this Moral Maturity.
IMitate other people in their immediate environment. Not role play.
Taking the roles of significant others, internalize parents values and attitudes.
Playing the roles of generalized others, make believe jobs.
Native American Children
Network of relatives, Cultural values, cherish time spent, rarely praise.
African American Children
Strong Kinship bonds, informal adoption is common, permissive, strict, physical punishment.
Hispanic American Children
Always with parents, elder respect, strong familism, motherly love is greater than that of wife, sensitive to the feelings and nee
ds of others.
Asian American Children
Indulge the children, psychological punishment, an age of understanding, group over individual, intelligence and excellence.
Other Directed Behavior
Looking to others for approval and support as opposed to reliance on personal beliefs and traditional values.
A deep sense of hopelessness, pervasive, loss of initiative and deterioration of social skills. Loose the ability to function in a larger society.
Henslin and Biggs
Did pelvic exam studies, even without knowing exactly what to do, everyone still behaved in a specific way.
Tactful Blindness, act as though the embarrassing situation does not exist.
Loss of Poise
Stumbling or spilling a drink.
Getting someones name wrongs, or asking someone how their wife is after a divorce.
Dressing wrong or showing up at bad timing.
Define the world in vague ways, people like to understand without details, Ex. How are you? Good not in what way.
Consist of people who think of themselves as belonging together and interacting with one another. Members with a certain feeling of unity. Collections of people who share common identity and interact with each other based on shared expectations. These shape almost all our experiences.
A group that shares the same physical space but does not interact.
Consists of people who have something in common but do not interact with one another, they are not close together
Groups toward which we are strongly tied.
Groups of which we are not a member. Often look different from other members, have negative stereotypes of other groups and compete with other groups.
Provide face to face interaction. Are small intimate groups. e.g. families, friends. Their values and attitudes become fused into our identity.
Little face-to-face interaction. Impersonal groups that rarely involve emotional ties or enduring relationships. e.g: salesclerks and customers. Relate to each other in terms of a particular role.
The groups we use as standards to evaluate our behavior. Don’t have to be a member in order to use it. People imitate these groups.
An important factor in group dynamics. Large diffuse responsibility, small is more informal.
Four Member Group
Five Member Group
Six Member Group
Person that keeps the group moving toward its goals.
Person that tries to gain consensus, makes sure everyone is happy
A highly permissive person.
Group leaders are allowed to deviate from their society’s norms.
Showed people will chose group consensus over their own perceptions.
Showed people in groups do what they are told to-obedience, despite injury to others.
Members maintain a consensus to the extent of ignoring the truth.
Web of social relationships that link members or groups together. e.g. a friendship, a business transaction, expressions of feeling. Constitute broad sources of relationships, direct and indirect. Strength in weak ties.
Businesses, colleges, hospitals, schools. Setting and achieving goals are paramount. Tasks are assigned to workers with different skills. Power is exerted from higher to lower participants.
Rigidly committed to procedure or routine
All modern organizations are..
1) coercive; 2) ultilitarian; 3) normative. Are the three most common types of organizations.
Bureaucracy is a highly effective means of organizing large numbers of people (a necessary evil). A group that is rational in achieving its goal efficiently.
Large organizations have started to become less bureaucratic and more flexible. Characteristics include, Bottom-up decision making, Less specialization, Job security, Group orientation and merging of work and private lives.
Where power and responsibility are devolved downward throughout the organization.
The process of becoming less bureaucratic.
McDonaldization of Society
Principles of fast-food restaurants are dominating other sectors of society. Highly standardized and regulated. More automated systems are employed instead of human beings.
International Governmental Organizations
Organizations that are established by treaties among governments for conducting business among member nations.
Organizations that are established by agreements among individuals or private organizations.
Any act that violates a norm, what is deviant to one person is not necessarily deviant to another. Time, place and public consensus affect.
Involves violating a criminal law & away from social norms.
Involves moving away from society’s norm
The Biological View of Deviance
Old theories that tried to link biological factors with deviant behavior.
Tried to link skull shape with deviance.
Tried to link muscular activities with deviance.
The Psychological View of Deviance
Some crimes are associated with particular personality types.
Traits associated with these don’t have to be negative or lead to crime.
Emile Durkheim’s functionalist theory
Deviance benefits society by enhancing conformity, strengthening social solidarity, safely releasing discontent, and inducing social change.
Robert Merton’s strain theory
Deviance is caused by society’s stressing the importance of success without offering equal opportunities for achieving it. Five types of individuals who react to tensions between social values & the limited means to achieving them: conformist, innovators, ritualists, retreatists, & rebels
Travis Hirschi’s control theory
Deviance results from society’s failure to develop strong social bonds among its members.
John Braithwaite’s shaming theory
Deviance stems from society’s frequent use of disintegrative shaming to punish wrongdoers.
Edwin H. Sutherland’s differential association theory
Deviance arises from association with ‘other’ members of other groups that carries an excess of pro-deviant over anti-deviant definitions.
Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory
Being labeled deviant by society (i.e., negative societal reaction to certain behavior) leads people to see themselves as deviant and to live up to this self-image by committing more deviant acts.
Labeling theorists are interested in how behavior is defined as deviant and why certain groups, but not others, are labeled deviant.
Initial act of transgression.
Individual accepts the label and sees oneself as deviant.
Harold Garfinkel and Jack Kats’s phenomenological theory
Looking into people’s subjective interpretations of their own experiences is key to understanding their deviant behaviors.
Law enforcement favors the rich and powerful over the poor and weak, thus creating more deviants among the latter.
The dominant class produces deviance by making and enforcing laws, oppressing the subordinate class, and spreading crime ideology
Because of their stronger deviant motivation, greater deviant opportunity, and weaker social control, the powerful are more likely to engage in profitable deviance than the powerless in unprofitable deviance.
Conventional theories are largely inapplicable to women, while the status of women as certain victims and offenders reflects the continuing subordination of women in patriarchal society.
They are seen as deserving of crime.
White-collar crime as the crime committed by affluent people without the use of over force. E.g. tax fraud, illegal sales practices, antitrust violations, embezzlement, land fraud.
Offences committed by large corporations. Society is indifferent, environmental and financial are common.
Crime has become international with across border institutionalized networks of criminal activities. E.g. money laundering, narcotics trade, smuggling immigrants, trading human organs.
Believes in organized crime, activities are illegal still.
Criminal activity carried out with help of information technology.
Medicalization, informal control, formal control, death penalty, socialization.
Families, Friends and schoolmates are examples of social
John wants to be like his college professors, they are his
Ten people on campaign committee, didn’t know each other but now they are working together they are…
Which of the following is most likely to be a primary relationship?
Family enjoying a picnic at the beach.
Which is a social aggregate?
People waiting at Terminal C for flight 181.
Which is most likely to be an in-group?
What is the advantage of primary group
They help people meet their basic human needs for intimacy and security.
Tough leader and pushes people towards accomplishing project goals is an…
Supervisor provides support if needed but normally lets people do what they want he is an…
Group with diversity
Can devise more ways of solving problems.
Network focuses on
Asking friends and associates for a doctor reccomendation
Makes use of network.
Examples of Formal Organization
Hospital, phone company, prision.
People that share a common characteristics, gender, occupation or ethnicity but don’t necessarily interact.
The most effective way to control dieviance.
Poverty breeds crime is incorrect because
Young, male, single, middle class, educated, rational.
Is not an effective deterrent to murder.
Example of Organized Crime
Transporting human organs across borders.
What is the fastest growing crime during the 1990’s?
How are Japanease corporations different?
Use bottom up decision making, a collaborative model.
Scientific Managemnet Model of Industrial Organization
Company can achieve maximum productivity if its workers do a simple repetitive task under close supervision.
Max Weber’s term for replacing subjective, spontaneous, informal way of doing things with planned things.
The observation that in every hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
A modern Western organization defined by Max Weber as being rational in achieving its goal efficiency.
A group formed by the informal relationships among members of an organization, based on personal interactions, not on any plan by the organization.
Laissez- Faire Leaders
Leaders who let others do their work more or less on their own.
Theories that suggest what we should do to achieve our goals.
The observation that, “Work expands to fill the time available for its completion”.
A social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict.
The process of acquiring through interaction with others, an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of law.
The process by which the wrongdoer is punished in ways such as to be stigmatized, rejected or ostracized.
Marginal Surplus Population
Marxist term for unemployed workers who are useless to the economy.
The mental problem characterized by a persistent fear, anxiety, or worry about trivial matters.
The mental problem typified by loss of touch with reality.
Coercive sex that involves use of force to get a woman to do something sexual against her will.
Making wrongdoers feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness, or respect.
Feeling unable to achieve relatively high aspirations.