Exam 1 Political Government and constitution Amendment
In this chapter we discuss political government and constitution amendment – Political Science.
Political power rests with COMPETING INTEREST GROUPS who share influence in the government.
John Locke Philosophies about why the governments should be formed?
Government exists only to protect, “LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY.”
A political system in which people GOVERN THEMSELVES, with capitalism.
Is an ALTERNATIVE economic system. In socialist societies, the means of generating wealth, such as factories, large farms, and banks, are owned by the GOVERNMENT and NOT BY PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS.
Only members of a certain POLITICAL PARTY or RULING ELITE can participate in government. Ex. China, the gov’t is run by members of the Chinese Communist Party.
The process of GAINING and EXERCISING control within a government for the purpose of settling and achieving particular goals, especially those related to the division of resources withing a nation.
Food, Clothing, and Housing are provided in ample supply by private businesses that earn a profit in return.
Such goods or services that are available to all WITHOUT CHARGE. Example: National security and Education.
Are available to many people, and many people can make use of them, but only if they can PAY THE PRICE. Example: Private Schooling
Goods that all people may use FREE OF CHARGE but that are of LIMITED supply, such as fish in the sea or clean drinking water.
Influence over INSTITUTIONS, LEADERS, AND POLICIES rests in the hands of the people.
The citizens DO NOT govern directly. They elect representatives to make decisions and pass laws behalf of all the people.
The opinions of the MAJORITY of the people have MORE INFLUENCE with government than those of the minority.
People cannot be deprived of certain rights even if an OVERWHELMING number of people think that they should be.
People participate DIRECTLY in making GOVERNMENT DECISIONS.
ONE RULER, usually a HEREDITARY ruler, holds political power.
The government is MORE IMPORTANT than THE CITIZENS, and it controls ALL ASPECTS of CITIZENS LIVES.
A set of elite citizen is really in charge of government in the United States and that others have NO INFLUENCE.
Engaged in either STATE or LOCAL POLITICS, were business people, or practiced law before being elected to congress.
The constitution gives Americans the right to express their OPINIONS on matters of concern to THEM; the federal government cannot interfere with this right.
the collective value of all social networks (who people know), and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other (norms of reciprocity)
Is the tendency to identify with and to support (often blindly) a paticular party, alienates some Americans who feel that elected representatives should vote in support of the nation’s best interests instead of voting in the way their party wishes them to.
Established beliefs and ideals that help shape political policy of one of the major parties.
beliefs and preferences people are NOT DEEPLY COMMITTED to and that change over time
Based on STRONG FEELINGS regarding an issue that some adheres to over time.
Provided stability to society, as well as many crucial services such as FEE PUBLIC EDUCATION, POLICE and FIRE SERVICES, and MAIL DELIVERY.
The scale for the governments
As government power INCREASES, individual FREEDOM DECREASES.
Articles of Confederation
Power of the national and state governments.
Why did the Articles Fail?
No REVENUE, no power to enforce national laws, no state DISPUTE SETTLEMENT.
Locke and The social contract
The consent of the governed
Government should protect rights
People should remove gov’t that fail to protect
Main principles embodied in the Declaration of Independence.
Had given everyone the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
People had created governments to protect these rights and consented to be governed by them so long as government functioned as intended.
A regime in which the people, not a monarch, held power and elected representatives to govern according to the rule of law.
An entity in which independent, self-governing states from a union for the purpose of acting together in areas such as defense.
Confederation Congress (continental congress)
The authority to exchange ambassadors and make treaties with foreign governments and Indian tribes, declare war, coin currency and borrow money, and settle disputes between states.
The incident panicked the governor of Massachusetts, who called upon the national government for assistance.
Representation: Population based (Higher population yields more representation)
Role of national government: Can legislate for states and veto state law.
New Jersey Plan
Representation: State based (each state equally represented)
Role of national government: Provides defense but does not override state authority
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Resolved the impasse, although not in a manner that truly satisfied anyone.
Separation of powers
Dividing the national government into three separate branches and assigning different responsibilities to each one.
Checks and balances
By giving each of three branches of government the power to restrict the actions of the others, thus requiring them to work together.
Power is divided between the federal (or national) government and the state governments.
Great or explicit powers, were granted to the federal government to declare wars, impose taxes, coin and regulate currency, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, raise and maintain an army and a navy, maintain a post office, make treaties with foreign nations and with Native American tribes, and make laws regulating the naturalization of immigrants.
All powers not expressly given to the national government, however, were intended to be exercised by the states.
In Article VI of the constitution proclaimed that the constitution, laws passed by congress, and treaties made by the federal government were “the supreme Law of the Land.”
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that voted to approve the document they had drafted over the course of many months.
The protections for RELIGION, SPEECH, THE PRESS, and ASSEMBLY that are granted.
The right to bear arms for protection
The right not to have to provide SHELTER and PROVISION FOR SOLDIERS in PEACETIME.
Protects Americans from UNWARRANTED search and seizure of their property, was also new.
Which requires among other things that people cannot be deprived of their life,liberty, or property except by a legal proceeding.
Sixth and Seventh Amendments
The right to a trial by jury.
Protection from excessive fines and from cruel and unusual punishment
Libertiees extend beyond those described in the preceding documents.
Ensures that states possess all powers not explicitly assigned to the federal government by the constitution
An institutional arrangement that creates two relatively autonomous levels of government, each possessing the capacity to act directly of behalf of the people with the authority granted to it by the national constitution.
Equal Rights Amendment
Which aims to guarantee equal rights regardless of sex have failed because they cannot garner sufficient consent among members of congress or, in the case of the ERA, the states.
A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are “necessary and proper” to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments. Range from taxing, borrowing, and making and enforcing laws to establishing court systems
Proclamation issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in areas still at war with the Union.
The states and national government exercise exclusive authority in distinctly delineated spheres of jurisdiction.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 law banning any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
The name of President Roosevelt’s program for getting the United States out of the depression
Premised on the idea that the decentralization of policies enhances administrative efficiency, reduces overall public spending, and improves policy outcomes.
Layer cake federalism
Programs and authority are CLEARLY DIVIDED among the national state, and local governments.
Marble cake federalism
Programs and authority are MIXED AMONG he national, state, and local governments
Federal transfers formulated to limit recipients, discretion in the use of funds and subject them to strict administrative criteria that guide project selection, performance, and financial oversight, among other things.
Come with less stringent federal administrative conditions and provide recipients more flexibility over how to spend grant funds.
Main powers granted by the Constitution to the Congress, President, and Supreme court.
CONGRESS: Power to TAX, DRAFT, and REGULATE COMMERCE
PRESIDENT: CONTROL of a MILITARY
SUPREME COURT: ADJUDICATE cases, FINAL DECISION
Presidential control of large standing army
“Necessary and Proper Clause”
No individual rights
Federalism controls tyranny, ambition
Checks and balances, Separation of Powers
Limited government, so all natural rights retained
“ANTI FEDERALISTS “WILL NOT CONTINUE WITHOUT A BILL OF RIGHTS”
Federalist 51 Response
The Bill of Rights
Based on English common law/issues before ware
Freedom of religion, speech, press
Freedom to have weapons
NO quartering of soldiers
Due process; no trying a case again
Trail by public jury, right to defend yourself
Cannot appeal to another court unless through common law
No cruel and unusual punishment.