### Research And Statistical Analysis, Correlation, Measurement – STATS

The key terms in these Statistics chapters include Population, Correlation, Measurement, Sample, Variables, Correlational Study, Square, Cause-And-Effect, Quasi-Independent-Variable, Square The Sum, Archival Research, Dependent And Independent Variable – Research And Statistical Analysis – STATS

The first step in computing S(X + 1) is to add 1 point to each score.**True**

A researcher is interested in the average income for registered voters in the United States. The entire group of registered voters is an example of a population.**True**

A recent study found a correlation between gum disease and heart disease. This result indicates that gum disease causes people to develop heart disease.**False**

You are instructed to subtract 4 points from each score, square the resulting value, and find the sum of the squared numbers. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

**a. E(X-4)^2**

b. EX-4^2

c. (EX-4)^2

d. EX^2-4

The final step in computing S(X + 1)2 is to square the sum of the (X + 1) values.**True**

What kind of variable requires the use of real limits?

a. independent

b. dependent**c. continuous**

d. discrete

What is the value of E(X + 1) for the scores 2, 4, 7?

**16**

You are instructed to subtract 4 points from each score and find the sum of the resulting values. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

**a. E(X-4)**

b. EX-4

c. 4-EX

d. E(4-X)

A researcher is curious about the average monthly cell phone bill for high school students in the state of Florida. If this average could be obtained, it would be an example of a ______.

a. population

b. sample

c. statistic**d. parameter**

The first step in computing S(X + 1) is to add 1 point to each score.**True**

A researcher is interested in the average income for registered voters in the United States. The entire group of registered voters is an example of a population.**True**

A recent study found a correlation between gum disease and heart disease. This result indicates that gum disease causes people to develop heart disease.

**False**

You are instructed to subtract 4 points from each score, square the resulting value, and find the sum of the squared numbers. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

**a. E(X-4)^2**

b. EX-4^2

c. (EX-4)^2

d. EX^2-4

The final step in computing S(X + 1)2 is to square the sum of the (X + 1) values.**True**

A recent report concluded that college graduates have higher life-satisfaction scores than individuals who do not receive college degrees. For this study, graduating versus not graduating is an example of a quasi-independent variable.**True**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.**a. parameter**

b. statistic

c. population

d. sample

A correlational study is used to examine the relationship between two variables but cannot determine whether it is a cause-and-effect relationship.

**True**

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?

a. the gender of each student in a psychology class

b. the number of males in a class offered by the college

c. the number of children in a family**d. the amount of time to solve a problem**

A recent study reports that students who just finished playing a prosocial video game were more likely to help others than students who had played a neutral or antisocial game. For this study, what is the independent variable?

a. the students who were given the prosocial game**b. the kind of game given to the student**

c. the helping behavior of the students

d. the students who were given the neutral or antisocial game

A researcher conducts an experiment to determine whether moderate doses of St. Johns Wort have any effect of memory for college students. For this study, what is the independent variable?**a. the amount of st johns wort given to each participant**

b. the memory score of each participant

c. the group of college students

d. cannot answer without more information

A recent report concluded that children with siblings have better social skills than children who grow up as an only child. This is an example of an experimental study.**False**

What is the value of EX + 1 for the scores 1, 0, 2, 4?

**8**

What is the final step to be performed when computing S(X – 2)^2?

a. square each value

b. subtract 2 points from each score

c. subtract 2 squared from each x squared value**d. sum the squared values**

In a correlational study,

a. 2 variables are measured and 2 groups are compared

b. 2 variables are measured and 2 groups are compared**c. 2 variables are measured and there is only 1 group of participants**

d. 1 variable is measured and 2 groups are compared

A correlational study typically uses only one group of participants but measures two different variables (two scores) for each individual.**True**

A doctor is measuring children’s heights to the nearest 1/2 inch and obtains scores such as 40.0, 40.5, 41.0, and so on. What are the real limits for a score of X = 42?

a. 41-43

b. 41.5-42.5**c. 41.25-42.25**

d. 41.25-42.75

For statistical purposes, there usually is not much reason to differentiate between interval and ratio scales.

**True**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a _____ variable.**a. discrete**

b. independent

c. dependent

d. continuous

Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) _______ scale of measurement.

a. nominal**b. ordinal**

c. interval

d. ratio

What scale of measurement is being used when a teacher measures the number of correct answers on a quiz for each student?

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. interval**d. ratio**

What kind of variable requires the use of real limits?**a. continuous**

b. independent

c. dependent

d. discrete

A correlational study typically uses only one group of participants but measures two different variables (two scores) for each individual.**True**

A doctor is measuring children’s heights to the nearest 1/2 inch and obtains scores such as 40.0, 40.5, 41.0, and so on. What are the real limits for a score of X = 42?

a. 41-43

b. 41.5-42.5**c. 41.25-42.25**

d. 41.25-42.75

For statistical purposes, there usually is not much reason to differentiate between interval and ratio scales.

**True**

Descriptive/Observational research

**Studying individual variables simply in order to describe them (e.g., what % of students read feedback on Blackboard?)**

Descriptive statistics

**Numbers or figures that summarize a set of data from a sample**

t

**An inferential statistical test used to see if two sample means are more different than we’d expect due to chance**

Research And Statistical Analysis – STATS

Noting the number of hours a week your sister spends playing video games is an example of the ____ method, while simply noting whether or not she played video games at all in a given week is an example of the ____ method.

**Duration, interval**

Analyzing historical records to measure behaviors that occurred in the past. What’s that called?

**Archival research**

Which research strategy would be used to figure out the average time per day that college students spend on their smartphones?

**Descriptive**

What’s the point of making a list of behaviors (behavioral categories) before starting an observational study?

**To improve the reliability of the measurements**

Although surveys can be used with a variety of different research strategies, the defining characteristic of the survey research design is that the ____.

**Intent is simply to describe behaviors**

What’s it called when you go back and forth between one minute of observation and one minute of writing down what you observed?

**Time sampling**

What’s the goal of the descriptive research strategy?

**Describe a variable or variables as they exist naturally**

Content analysis is about observing behaviors that ____.

**Occurs in movies or tv shows**

The primary advantage of a stratified random sample is that it ____.

**Ensures that group sizes will be adequate for statistical analysis**

To select a sample of 10 employees from a factory workforce of 100, a researcher puts each employee’s name on a slip of paper, then shuffles the papers in a hat and randomly picks 10 names. What kind of sampling is being used?

**Probability**

Research And Statistical Analysis – STATS