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American Industry And Society – History Ch 10,11

In these history chapters we study about American industry and society.

According to the theory of Social Darwinism, the government should do?

Stay out of the affairs of business.

What do economists call periods of bust and boom?

Business cycle.

What was the goal of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?

promote fairl industrial competition. to prevent companies from restraing trade.

What did critics of powerful industrialists refer to them as?

robber barons.

Which two inventions revolutionized American communications in the late 1800’s?

light weight camera, telegraph, shoe making machine, electric light bulb.

How did the government contribute to the building of the transcontinental railroad?

the US government gave millions of acers of land in the undeveloped west. the railrod companies sold all the land, and with the money raised, it funded the constuction of the railroad.

How did technological advances make American industrial growth possible?

increased number of immigrants wanted to help the environmental destruction caused by frequent supersticious canibles.

How did industrial growth affect the distribution of wealth in the United States?

The industrial growth in the United States created a group of elitists and industrialists who became extremely wealthy at the expense of the working class.

How did the government respond to the Pullman Strike?

using federal troops to control the workers.

What was Thomas Edison’s major accomplishment?

The electric light

What did the American Federation of Labor do?

they led strikes that led to higher wages with shorter work weeks.

How did John D. Rockefeller gain control over much of the oil industry?

one method was he bought out other competitors. he also prevented rival companies from using the rail roads he held a controlling interest in.

What did Carnegie say about the success of wealthy industrialists?

Wealthy people should use the fortune they’ve made to give opportunity for all and to increase knowledge of humans and the universe.

Why did so many children work in factories during the late 1800’s?

Children were employed during the 1800’s because there were no child labor laws at that point. Children were cheap if not free to have work. People could have a child work in a factory longer hours and pay less than they could an adult. Families also needed the extra money. So to get it they would have their children work.

How did the nation’s first labor strike begin?

railway workers angered by wage cuts.

Why did Samuel Gompers oppose letting women join the AFL?

He felt that women in the work force would drive down wages.

Why were some workers forced to sign “yellow dog” contracts?

they feared that if they had to pay higher wages and meet the other demands of unions, their costs would go up and they would be less competitive in the marketplace.

What did Alexander Graham Bell set up in 1885?

Long distance telephone lines.

What did the Bessemer process help to create?

burn off excess carbon from cast iron to make carbon steel.

How did Andrew Carnegie gain control of the steel industry?

One of the ways that Andrew Carnegie was able to gain control of the steel industry was by searching for ways to make products better but at a lower cost. He made smart investments and trades. He was not afraid to use new techniques and machinery to refine practices.

How did Rockefeller gain control of the oil industry?

Rockefeller became senior partner and the firm Rockefeller and Andrews became Cleveland’s largest refinery.
Rockefeller survived the bitter competition in the oil industry. He bought out most of the Cleveland refineries, then acquired others in New York, Pittsburgh, and Philadelphia. He turned to new transportation methods, including the railroad tank car and the pipeline. By 1879 he was refining 90 percent of American oil,

Why were some industrialists called “captains of industry”?

Captain of Industry’ was a term originally used in the U.S. during the Industrial Revolution describing a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way. This may have been through increased productivity, expansion of markets, providing more jobs, or acts of philanthropy. This contrasts with robber baron, a term used to describe a business leader using political means to achieve their ends.

What caused the emergence of labor unions?

A primary reason for the emergence of labor unions during the early 1920s was to develop safety measures for working conditions and equipment.

Why did the strike in Homestead occur?

Because of a wage cut.

What happened as a result of the Pullman Strike?

The effect of the Pullman strike was the federal court issuing a injunction (formal court order) directing the union to halt the boycott, the Pullman Strike then collapsed.

How did employers attempt to crush labor strikes?

Employers use many weapons to crush strikes; starvation, demoralizing propaganda, playing off one section of workers against another and bribing of leaders. – See more at:

Define Socialism?

a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies

define Collective Bargaining

talks between an employer and the leaders of a union about how much a group of workers will be paid, how many hours they will work, etc.

Define scabs?

Those temporary foot ball players.

Define anarchists?

a person who believes that government and laws are not necessary.

What were the main causes of population growth in American cities in the late 1800’s?

The pattern of urbanization that had held up until the late twentieth century dates back nearly a hundred years to the Gilded Age, when technological advances fed the tremendous growth of industrial urban centers and helped create a new phenomenon in the American city: the suburb. Nineteenth-century manufacturing tended to concentrate in urban locations with abundant labor, easy access to a wide variety of local services and markets, and the all-important railroad connections linking to a larger constellation of customers and resources.

The increasing use of steam power late in the century allowed manufacturing growth to explode in these dense urban clusters. Immigration, Industrialization and the population growth provided the labor force for the factories, mines, and mills. they contributed to the pockets of people like Andrew Carnegie and john d Rockefeller. they pretty much did all of the grunt work.

Compare the idea of “robber barons” versus “captains of industry”?

A Captain of Industry, is a leader in their field. The prosperity their expertise generates does not necessarily go directly to them. It advances or benefits the entire economy. They create wealth. A Robber Baron, by comparison, focuses all their efforts on creating a benefit for themselves, at the expense of society as a whole. They exploit wealth. The same individuals were both. It’s a matter of perspective. Competitors, farmers and labor unions called them robber barons due to their ruthless business practices.

On the other hand, no one could question their unparalleled position as industrial leaders when they were at their peak. Industrial leaders in the 19th century were therefore called ‘captains of industry’ by many newspapers of the day and ‘robber barons’ by others. These powerful entrepreneurs led their respective fields. For example, Andrew Carnegie was the preeminent steel magnate. Similarly, John D. Rockefeller led in petroleum extraction, distillation and distribution. Morgan, Edison, and Vanderbilt were other leading industrialists at the time.

Explain the theory of Social Darwinism?

Social darwinism is survival of the fittest. What this effectively means is that in a market economy your survival is dependant on the amount of wealth, authority and property you have.
In a modern society this would mean the removal of all redistrubtive services of the state, a removal of wage regulation and a removal of universally provided education etc. This would be instead regulated by the amount of money you had, the perfection of your knowledge of the products available.
This would lead to a downward turn in social mobility for the lest well off stewing social unrest

“Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies Beyond…1844”

• America’s true identity begins to form
• America’s culture becomes more diverse and is no longer so closely related to Britain

Westward Expansion

The population, as a whole, is shifting

Landscape Changes

Large areas of land are ruined by harsh cash crops (tobacco etc.)
In some pockets, beaver, mink and otter almost become extinct due to over-trapping
Fun fact: besides humans, beavers have the most impact when it comes to landscape change
When you eradicate beavers, unfortunately the landscape will change without them

Ecological imperialism– Americans had so much dominance over the land that they started to control the course and change of the landscape of their country
Kentucky blue grass sprouts after grasses are burnt down- this helps livestock
Trees are being cut down for farming land
Dams are built- man-made lakes

Life in the West is Explored

George Catlin paints pictures of Native American tribes and buffalos in the West
Knowledge and appreciation is brought to the East

Influx of Irish and German Immigrants

At this time, America was manufacturing a lot of goods and producing a ton of farm goods
But we still want more people! Production must increase
Fortunately for the United States, there is a surplus in immigration during this time

Irish Immigrants- what pushed them away from their home country?

The Potato Famine
Occurred during 1840-1841 due to a few bad wet seasons and a mysterious fungus
People went into bakeries and national grain centers to steal fool
38% of Ireland wound up dying in this famine
Peoples’ immune systems broke down from being malnourished and they were more susceptible to illnesses

Irish Immigrants- what pulled them towards the US?

The Irish are generally illiterate and aren’t well educated; therefore, opportunity comes difficulty
Irishmen become bottom-tier factory workers and laborers
Irish built roads and canals, dug for coal etc.

Americans are frustrated with the Irish because they were loud, dirty and rowdy (due to the fact that they were cooped up in small living conditions)
The Irish also loved to drink- which just attributed to their rowdiness
The Irish are also Catholic- people questioned whether or not they would be able to function in a democracy due to their devotion to the Pope
Would there be a “Pope takeover” in America?

German Immigrants- what pushed them away from their home country?

Post-Napoleonic governmental persecutions of liberals and democrats
These Germans were rebelling against their ruler and were on the losing side of a revolution
They sought political freedom
These people were lawyers, artists and skilled people

German Immigrants- what pulled them towards the US?

We had political freedom
Economic opportunities
Germans were generally accepted in the United States
Similar geography and climate to Germany
Several Germans went west (ex. Wisconsin)

The Order of the Star-Spangled Banner

An oath-bound secret society in New York City
Created in 1849 by Charles Allen to protest the rise of the Irish, German and Roman Catholic immigration into the United States
They saw Catholics as dangerous, illegal voters under control of the Pope in Rome
Members responded to questions about the OSSB by saying that they “knew nothing,” which earned themselves the label of “Know-Nothings”
In 1885-1886 members of this party ran in the election as the “American Party”

The Philadelphia Nativist Riots

A series of riots that took place between May 6th and 8th and July 6th and 7th in 1844
The riots were a result of the rising anti-Catholic sentiment at the growing population of Irish Catholic immigrants
In the months prior to the riots, nativist groups had been spreading a rumor that Catholics were trying to remove the Bible from public schools
A nativist rally in Kensington erupted in violence on May 6th and started a deadly riot that would result in the destruction for4 two catholic ch8ruches and numerous other buildings

Riots erupted again in July, after it was discovered that St. Philip Neri’s Catholic School in Southwark had armed itself for protection
Several people rioted against the soldiers protecting the school- some people were killed, but no Catholics
This event leads to the creation of Catholic schools
These riots also helped to fuel criticism against the nativist movement

Northern Economy

Shipping (ship building)
Grains (corn)

Western Economy

Cattle and livestock
Farm manufacturing

Southern Economy


The Cotton Craze/The Cotton Gin

Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1794 is a game-changer
Eli didn’t make a lot of money off of his invention because it was patented poorly and many copied his invention- he went out of business
The cotton gin removes the seeds from the cotton, which therefore makes production easier
At first, cotton was barely produced in the United States due to the fact that it was such an expensive crop and it took forever to hand-pick the seeds from the cotton tufts

Economic Impact of The Cotton Craze

Economic boom due to increase in production
Cotton becomes the staple crop in the South, “King Cotton”
Europe heavily relies on the South for their cotton

Social Impact

Demand for slaves increases
A widening gap between rich and poor
The people who grew cotton became fabulously wealthy
People have more clothes

Political Impact

South received more power and more reasons to keep slavery
The South will try to find/create laws that will protect slavery

Cyrus McCormick and the Mechanical Reaper

Reaping had to be done by hand by a scythe
This impacted a lot of people because 90% of the US was involved in farming
Cyrus McCormick continues what his father had destined to do (which was make farming easier) and creates the mechanical reaper
The mechanical reaper cuts and bails wheat
Horse pulls the machine

Prairies of the Midwest became the breadbasket of the nation
Production increases
People now have more opportunities to spend their energy on something else instead of farming
This is the nature of the results of all of the technological inventions of this time
Much fewer farmers can grow food for all of the non-farmers

John Deere’s Steel Plow

Tough, matted Midwest soil can be easily tilled and turned over

Sheep-Shearing Before the Mill

Sheep-shearing took forever and was absolutely laborious
Shearing took forever
Cleaning the wool took forever
Brushing the wool out took forever
Carting the wool took forever
Spinning the wool took forever
Weaving the wool took forever

Wool Production After the Introduction of Water-Powered Machines

Then…BUM BUM BUM BUM….water powered machines came along
Water wheels began to power more complicated devices, such as a carting machine
The carting machine took care of the job of brushing out the wool
The water frame spun cotton into cloth

Spinning mills at first sprang up all over England
Then, it reached England’s former colonies in America
By the 1820s, there was a mechanical loom that could weave the newly made yarn into cloth
These looms were used more up North because the water force was stronger up there due to the angle of the Appalachians

Samuel Slater

Worked in the mills in England and understood how to make machines similar to the spinning machines and he brought his brilliance to America to strike up a fortune

Francis Cabot

Creates Lowell Mills to get girls off of the farm and working

Pros of Working at Lowell Mills

Fed well
Hung out with other girls
Paid two dollars a week (more than working on a farm)

Making specie- economic independence
Workers live in a pleasant city with flower gardens and bushes
Merrimack Street
Has churches, a city hall, a high school, several banks, a library and concerts

Cons of Working at Lowell Mills

Long hours
The machinery is loud and bothersome- hearing issues
Their feel swelled and ached from standing for so long

“Wage Slaves”

Southerners ridiculed the mills girls as the “Wage Slaves”
Criticized their low pay and long hours
They talked about how their slaves were out in the fresh air all day and the girls were cooped up in the dank and dusty textile factories

Obviously, there really is no comparison between the two
The girls are paid and have the choice to leave if they want to and are given freedoms

Elias Howe and Isaac Singer’s Sewing Machine

Howe was not the first person with the idea of the sewing machine, but he was the first to bring it to the US
Resulted in faster production of clothes, more workers and better clothing designs
Singer made important improvements to the sewing machine and was the founder of Singer Sewing Company

Interchangeable Parts

Invented by Eli Whitney
Entire objects would no longer need to be replaced
Specific parts were produced by the masses
This was an unfortunate innovation for blacksmiths who would make weaponry by hand, but this was a major invention for the US
This invention would later aid the Union Army in the civil war- they would never be short on artillery

Robert Fulton and the Steamboat

Heis not the initial creator of the steamboat, but he commercializes it and makes it faster in the US
Ran his first steamboat in 1786
The cool thing about the steamboat is that it could travel easily upriver

The steamboat will go on to transform the way Americans traded and traveled
Instead of having to travel with the current, which would often take a long time, traders could just go upstream
Two-way traffic is now possible on the rivers


Canals, specifically the Erie Canal, will revolutionize travel

DeWitt Clinton funded the canal by taxing New Yorkers under the promise that would revolutionize their economy
Fun fact: horses power large boats that move on canals
Canals were basically large trenches on the road that were filled with water

Boats were hooked to large horses that would pull them along paths on the canal
The Erie Canal connects the Great Lakes
This would go on to revolutionize New York

For example, both Syracuse and Rochester would be nothing without the Erie Canal
In 9 years, the Canal paid for itself; so, it was a very economically efficient endeavor
All products brought to Detroit are just “one boat ride” away from reaching the Pacific

The National Road and Other Turnpikes

Skippack Pike and Germantown Pike, are built
Funding starts for a National Road (which eventually ceased later in time)
The National Road stretched from Maryland into western PA and then eventually went west to Illinois

Today, this road is known as Highway 30
In order to build these roads (which were about 60 feet wide) trees had to be cleared, paths had to cut, rocks had to be laid and then gravel and dirt were packed
There would be a toll house that would collect tolls from people who would take the turnpike

When one was driving in a wagon, they would stop by the house, ring a bell and pay their toll
Then, the pike would be turned open
Tollhouse food became very famous; people began to sell food at the tollhouses
This is where the term: “tollhouse cookie” comes from

Trains are Invented (The Iron Horse)

One of the first locomotives was called “The Rocket” which went 18 miles an hour
This locomotive trend started in England
Railroads had been around for a while, but trains had not
Peter Cooper creates “The Tom Thumb” train

Tom Thumb races a horse and loses, but only because the engine blew out
It was still clear that train power was the new way to go
Because of the railroad craze, the iron and timber industry rises
By Polk’s presidency, trains can go about 40 miles per hour
Trains provide a major improvement for transportation

Morse Code and the Telegraph

Beginning in 1836, the American artist Samuel Morse, the American physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail developed an electrical telegraph system
The system sent pulses of an electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet which was locating at the receiving end of the telegraph system
The first telegraph was sent from DC to Boston

Morse Code is the frequency of beeps and pauses made by the telegraph needle in order to beep out letters which will eventually beep out words
Telegraphs would help send directions to train and make communication more efficient
The multi-thousand year reign of the horse as the fastest means to carry information is over

The Pony Express

The Pony Express was a group of riders that would run horses to deliver messages
The riders would make these journeys in about 10 days

This was very dangerous- a lot of these men were hit by Indians
Of course, as soon as railroads come into use, the Pony Express is retired

Commonwealth vs. Hunt

1842- The supreme court of Massachusetts ruled in this case that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were “honorable and peaceful”

“Cult of Domesticity”

A prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the 19th century in Great Britain
This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity, the woman’s role within the home and the dynamics of work and family
True women” were pious, pure, domestic and submissive

Antebellum America

Rise of the South’s influence in America
The South found political stability, with little federal interference in state affairs
Southern economy flourishes

The Second Great Awakening

The amount of conversions to Christianity during this time was surprisingly high
Church began to have a higher influence on society
The Methodists were the most successful during this time: 70,000 followers to 1 million

Worked together to fight social corruption
Wanted to establish law and order
Overall working to reform society

Churches really didn’t have a lot of political power, but at the turn of the century there were people who thought that there were definitely some positives in having the church lead society
Issues such as alcoholism, slavery and child labor motivated church leaders to go on circuits (AKA: camp meetings)
The largest camp meeting had 20,000 thousand people in Cane Ridge, Kentucky along the frontier

Because of this 2nd Great Awakening, the church was further ingrained into people’s daily lives
The general time period of this event was from about 1800-1830s

The “Burnt Over” District

New England was considered the “burnt over” district of the religious revival; people had already been to so many meetings


Evangelists traveled and taught that you can get into heaven by doing good deeds; predestination is not a thing
Evangelicalism is a world-wide Protest Christian religious movement that also lead to the emergence of Methodists

Charles G. Finney

Charles G. Finney is one the preachers involved
Considered “The Father of Modern Revivalism”

Lyman Beecher

Was a Presbyterian revivalist involved in the 2nd Great Awakening

Joseph Smith

Starts the Mormonism movement
Product of the 2nd Great Awakening
He stated that he had a vision in which an angel guided him to golden plates that he later translated into the Book of Mormon

He quickly gained followers in upstate New Yorko Joseph Smith damages Mormons’ reputation after saying that he is actually a prophet of God and saying that he had a revelation in which God told him that it was okay to have multiple wives
Believes that God wanted the Mormons to repopulate the world
Therefore, it was okay for Mormons to have many wives and many children
The rest of society highly disagrees with this
A mob busts into the jail in which Smith was being held for treason in in Illinois and kill him

The Mormons (The Latter Day Saint Movement)

  • Mormonism spread to Ohio, Missouri and Illinois
  • This religion was meant to pull together all other religions
  • One of their main goals was to convert Native Americans
  • Mormons believe in baptism of the dead- they would go around to churches, courthouses and hospitals and get records of everyone and baptize the dead

Bringham Young

He picks up the pieces of the fallen Mormon movement
Takes all of the Mormons to Utah, which at the time was Mexico
They find fertile soil near a salt lake (Salt Lake City, Utah)
Utopian society?
After our war with Mexico, the US gains Utah, which upsets the Mormons


Were the followers of the teachings of William Miller, who, in 1833, first shared publicly his anticipation of the second coming of Christ roughly around 1843

Horace Mann

Father of American Education- over all helped to establish more public schools
From Massachusetts
He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1848 as an anti-slavery Whig to succeed John Quincy Adams

Noah Webster

Comes up with a “national language”
Standardizes spelling and grammar for Americans (color not colour)
Webster’s Dictionary

William H. McGuffey

  • His “readers” sold over 122 million copies
  • Born in PA, worked mainly in Ohio
  • Made high-interest, high-level readings that would create national narratives for kids to learn from in school

Emma Willard

In 1821, she established the Troy (New York) Female Seminary
Gained respect for women’s schools at a secondary level

Temperance Societies

Women were very involved
Women often got the brute of alcoholism- drunken husbands that wouldn’t work/would beat them/their kids
Alcoholism looked at as a social evil

Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There was a temperance novel written by Timothy Shay Arthur
This article demonized alcohol in American’s eyes (1854)
Maine Law of 1851
This law prohibited the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor- Neal S. Dow

Dorthea Dix

Wanted prison reforms to be made
Noticed that there were a lot of people in prison who didn’t do anything wrong, they were just mentally insane
Because of this, she travels to every town in Massachusetts and makes a record of her observations of what she saw throughout the state and will became the first woman to appear in front of the Massachusetts legislature….she tells them of her observations

I proceed, gentlemen, briefly to call your attention to the present state of insane persons confined within this Commonwealth, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods and lashed into obedience…
Wants changes to be made to how mentally insane people are treated
Because of Dorothea Dix, clinics, asylums and rehabs were created
Her movement spreads throughout the US and Europe- even the Pope thanks her for her services!

Charles Wilson Peele

Was a painter who gave people a window into nature

John J. Audubon

Was a French-American ornithologist, naturalist and painter
He was most notable for his expansive studies on American birds and for his color-plate entitled The Birds of America

Food Reforms

Food reforms were also made with people like Sylvester Graham, who was a Presbyterian minister, and the Adventists, like John Harvey and Kellogg come up with healthier graham crackers and cereal

American Literature and Transcendentalism

A core belief of the authors during this time wasan ideal spiritual state that ‘transcends’ the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual’s intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions (AKA: Transcendentalism)
Far more influential than their numbers seem to indicate- created a worldwide Intellectual Movement

Transcendentalists do not believe that evil is actually real
People are made evil due to the society around them
Evil exists only because we have allowed it to exist

Walt Whitman

  • Made a famous collection of poems called Leaves of Grass
  • Known for being highly romantic, emotional, unconventional and for handling sex with a shocking frankness- some of his books were even banned from Boston
  • His fame increased after his death
  • Transcendentalist

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Wrote an essay called “Nature” in 1836
This essay broke nature down into four parts
Nature was the way in which people could connect to God
The Oversoul- the transcendentalist’s concept of God
The Oversoul is a spirit that flows through everything and gives it life
Nature is not something apart from man- man should be in natural harmony with nature

James Fenimore Cooper

  • Was the first American novelist to gain world fame and to make New World themes respectable
  • Wrote The Spy and The Last of the Mohicans
  • Explored the viability and destiny of America’s republican experiment by contrasting the undefiled values of “natural men”

Herman Melville

Writes Moby Dick

David Henry Thoreau

Was a student of Emerson’s
Writes Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civic government as moral opposition to an unjust law
Moral law is more important than civic law!

Louisa May Alcott

o In search of independence for herself and financial security for her family, Alcott worked as a seamstress, governess, teacher and housemaid until writing finally brought her success
o Wrote her own autobiography called Little Women

Brook Farm

Transcendentalists made a commune called Brook Farm in Massachusetts- meant to be a utopian society
• They farm and they think…they farm and they think

Oneida, New York

• Originally was a utopian society established by John Noise
o Believed in “free love” and “eugenics”
The way to form a perfect society was to literally mate two intelligent people together- people were matched
People with lots of determination, intelligence, good looks and skill were paired
People here made unbelievably things, such as flatware (eating utensils)
After time, this mainly just became an economic community and the utopian/spiritual aspect was lost

The Shakers

• This religion was started by a woman named Ann Lee
• They start “Shaker communities
Communal living
Own a ton of property
No sex allowed
Children were adopted instead
You cannot marry
• Inspired by the story of Adam and Eve and the original sin
• This could also be attributed to the fact that Ann Lee lost four of children at a rather young age
o Very “lively” with their bodies
o The Shakers were very good craftsmen
• Eventually, there were only three Shakers left

Seneca Falls Convention

• Initially started to raise awareness for abolition
o When the women realized that they weren’t allowed to hold their own convention (when they weren’t allowed to speak at a convention in England), they then saw how important it was to fight for women rights
• Roughly 300 people show up
o Most people did not show up to get woman their suffrage
•Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Caldwell Stanton were the main coordinators- both involved in abolition
• Over the course of two days, they write a Declaration of Sentiment
o Points a ton of charges at men
o Women want all of the rights and privileges that belong to them as citizens
Suffrage is made a public goal in 1848
Fredrick Douglass, an ex-slave, gives a moving speech about rights for blacks as well
Following the convention, Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led the campaign for equal voting, legal, and property rights for women

The Grimke Sisters

• Sarah and Angelina Grimke, objected to male opposition to their antislavery activities. In protest, Sarah Grimke wrote her Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837)

Sojourner Truth

Was an African-American abolitionist and women’s rights activist who had escaped from slavery
o She went to court to recover her son and she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man
o Attended the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention
• “Ain’t I a Woman?”

What was to become of the movement for women’s rights?

The issue of women’s rights was shadowed over by the conflict over slavery