Force & Considerations Theory Research – Physics

In this physics chapter we discuss force & considerations theory research.


the state of which the net force equals zero

newton’s 2nd law

Force = mass x acceleration

inertial frame of reference

a state of motion that is experiencing no acceleration (earth frame)

accelerated frame of reference

a frame of speed that is changing

scalar and vector

two forms of quantity


magnitude in units, distance and speed


have a magnitude in units of direction, displacement and velocity, and acceleration

Validity Types: Causality

Does the measure correlate with something else?
For example: test anxiety
everyone has it but some people have more. If they have high test anxiety, they’ll do less well in exams

Reliability Types: Internal Consistency

Do different items on the test give the same results?
Results should be the same over time

Reliability Types: Split half (odd & even)

Compare half of items with the other half of items
So compare responses on all the odd numbered responses to all the even numbered on the test

Reliability Types: Alternate Forms

2 versions of the test–very similar in terms of questions–then compare the responses

Reliability Types: Test-Retest

Happens over two different testing periods
One problem: practice effect might make people remember how they answered before

Reliability Types: Inter-rater

Do multiple raters have similar results?

True or False: You can have validity without reliability?

False, it has to be reliable in order to be valid. You can only have reliability w/o validity.

Define: Response Sets

threats to validity. They are not responding to the content/content tool, but something else

Response Sets: Acquiescence

“they go along with it”
Say yes to everything (extreme responding)

Response Sets: Extreme Responding

Saying yes or no to everything

Response Sets: Social Desirability

They want to make a good impression and be seen as a “good citizen” so they answer in a way that will make them seem so

Crowne-Marlowe Scale (1964)

Created to see if people are getting good answers from people: true or false scale.
If someone was to respond in a good light with all of the answers, chances are they aren’t that saint-like and are only answering to make a good impression

Forced Choice Format

Which would you most prefer to do?

Research Design: Case Study

Not generalizable

Research Design: Correlational

Can’t talk about cause and effect

Research Design: Experimental

CAN talk about cause and effect since researcher has control

What happens in a personality assessment in clinical practice?

1) initial interview/assessment where you get to know their personality
2) Ongoing sessions
3) May include testing


an action exerted on a body in order to change the body’s state of rest or motion

force has

magnitude and direction

freebody diagram

a diagram showing all the forces acting on an object

force diagram

forces on all objects involved

net force

a single force whose external effects on a rigid body are the same as the effects of several actual forces acting on the body


The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

a(av) = v/t

average acceleration


the rate at which velocity changes over time


science behind the motion of objects

frame of reference

a coordinate system for specifying the precise location of objects in space

position time graph

as slope goes so does velocity


Distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point.

horizontal and vertical components of velocity

what are independent of each other?

Who was the founder of personality Psychology ?

Gordon Allport

Define: Personality

Psychological qualities that contribute to enduring & distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking, & behaving

What do personality psychologists try to address?

Human universals, Individual differences, uniqueness of the individual

Human Universals

What is generally true about people
Looks at how human beings, personality wise, are alike

Individual Differences

How do we differ from each other?
Is there a standard way in which we differ?

Uniqueness of the Individual

Trying to understand universals but you can’t forget that each individual is different & unique

Theory “Building”

1) Scientific Observation
2) Systematic
3) Testable
4) Comprehensive
5) Applicable to Practice

What are the five theory considerations?

1) Structure
2) Process
3) Development
4) Causes of psychological problems
5) Informing interventions


What is the unit of analysis?


It is what is true about the person. Consistent

Define: Type

Grouping of traits (like Type A personality)

Define: System

Interconnected parts that help for us to understand how a person behaves and how things are organized
Think: “whole is greater than sum of its parts”

Theory Considerations: process

How do things change within the individual in the moment & over time?

Theory Considerations: Development

How do we become who we are? Do earlier experiences play a role: big or small?
Looks at genetic inheritance & cultural & environment & social class & family influence & influence by peers

Theory Considerations: Causes of psychological problems

Looks at how people develop healthy personality characteristics or how do they develop unhealthy characteristics?

Theory Considerations: Informing Inverentions

Looks at how well the theory informs and can be translated into interventions

Tool-Kit Metaphor

How useful is the theory, not which one is right/better

What does L.O.T.S Data stand for?

Life Record
Source off data (measures)

L.O.T.S Data: Life Record

Data that has already been archived.
Example: School data, medical records

L.O.T.S Data: Observer

Making conclusions based off observing the person’s behavior.
Might not be accurate because it’s only a small amount of knowledge in one setting.
Can be done by clinicians who are trained or a parent, or teacher

L.O.T.S Data: Test

Information obtained from experimental procedures while researchers measure people’s performance on the task

L.O.T.S Data: Self-Report

This is the most accessed.
People report on themselves and describe themselves.
Not always accurate because they may say what they think you want to hear

Sources of Data: Nomothetic

Given the same way–objective
Describes a population
Limitations–what if the person doesn’t know what a word means?

Sources of Data: Idiographic

Flexible and personal
Fill in the blank questionnaires
Looking to get at the uniqueness of the person so people have a lot of room to describe themselves

Define: Targets

Areas of interest of assessment depending on the theory/what the goal is

What are some target areas?

Average behavior
Variability in behavior
Conscious Thought
Unconscious Thought

Define: Validity

Looking at whether study is measuring what it says it measures?

Define: Reliability

Looking at whether you get consistent results?

Validity Types: Face

On the surface it looks like it measures it, but it may look/sound like it does without having the research to back it up

Validity Types: Construct

Must be a valid measure of the psychological variable or construct that it says it will measure

Validity Types: Predictive

If a measure is good, it will be able to predict consistent results

Validity Types: Discriminant

Measure should be distinct from the other measures
Making sure a measure doesn’t have a correlation with something else

Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

Most frequently used.
Nomothetic tool w/ 567 true/false statements.
Very accurate and sued in research, diagnosis and clinical use

Define: Life Instinct


Define: Death Instinct


What does the Mind as Energy System say?

-Limited Energy
-Energy can be blocked
-Homeostatic Goal

What did Breuer say?

-Free association under hypnosis
-Symptoms related to earlier trauma
-Catharsis: emotional release

Who was Anna O.?

Patient of Breuer who experienced hysteria where she could not speak in her native language, but was able to speak in her second language.
Realized that catharsis “talking method” brought out past experiences

Define: Psychic Determinism

Nothing happens by chance
Freudian slips

Define: ID

“Below the surface”
Present at birth
Pleasure principle
Primary Process thinking

Which Model of the Mind is the pleasure principle?


Which Model of the Mind is the primary proccess of thinking?


Define: Superego

Internal representation of external social morals and rules
Functions to control behavior

Which Model of the Mind functions to control behavior?


Which Model of the Mind is the internal representation of external social morals and rules?


Define: Ego

Reality Principle
Satisfy ID desires & superego demands
Secondary Process of Thinking

What Model of the Mind is the reality principle?


What Model of the Mind satisfies id desires & superego demands?


What Model of the Mind is the secondary process thinking?


Stressful events lead to unacceptable thoughts & feelings that lead to an overuse of defense mechanisms which lead to what?

Neuroticism & symptoms

What area did Erik Erikson focus on?

Psychosocial development

What is the ego strength in Trust vs Mistrust?


What is the ego strength in autonomy vs shame & doubt?


What is the ego strength in initiative vs guilt?


What is the ego strength in industry vs inferiority?


What is the ego strength in identity vs role confusion?


What is the ego strength in intimacy vs isolation?


What is the ego strength in generativity vs stagnation?


What is the ego strength in integrity vs despair?


What did Alfred Adler study?

“individual psychology”
Social interest concept
Specifically: Birth order

What is individual psychology?

What are characteristics of the oral personality type?

Oral fixation
Themes of taking things into, toward and for oneself

What are characteristics of the anal personality?

Fixation at anal stage
Striving for power and control
Anal Triad

What is the Anal Triad in the Anal Personality?

Orderliness & cleanliness
Parsimony & stinginess

What are characteristics in the phallic personality for a man?

Emphasis on being masculine-macho-potent

What are the characteristics for the phallic personality for a female?

Naive, seductive, flirtatious
Hysterical personality

Define: Free Association

Reporting to the analyst every thought that comes to mind.
Able to go beyond the manifest content of the dream to the latent content, the hidden unconscious wish that the storyline of the dream expresses

Define: Transference

Patient’s development of attitudes toward the analyst based on attitudes held by the patient toward earlier parental figures.
Basically distortions of reality based on past experiences

What did Carl Jung focus on?

Analytical psychology.
Collective unconscious
Anima & animus

Define: collective unconscious

Carl Jung’s theory that people have stored the cumulative experiences of past generations so that they are universal

Define: Archetypes

Carl Jung defined archetypes as the universal images or symbols contained in the collective unconscious

Define: Anima

Carl Jung described the anima as the archetype of the feminine part that every male has

Define: Animus

Carl Jung described the animus as the archetype of the masculine part every female has

What did Karen Horney study?

The impact of culture & childhood
Basic anxiety & neurotic trends
Womb Envy

What did Harry Stack Sullivan study?

“Interpersonal theory”
Relations with others is key
Concept of SELF

What was Harry Stack Sullivan’s concept of SELF?

Feelings experienced & appraisal of being valued by others

Define: Object Relations Theory

Object= People
Looks at a person’s relationship with other people