Force & Considerations Theory Research – Physics
In this physics chapter we discuss force & considerations theory research.
the state of which the net force equals zero
newton’s 2nd law
Force = mass x acceleration
inertial frame of reference
a state of motion that is experiencing no acceleration (earth frame)
accelerated frame of reference
a frame of speed that is changing
scalar and vector
two forms of quantity
magnitude in units, distance and speed
have a magnitude in units of direction, displacement and velocity, and acceleration
Validity Types: Causality
Does the measure correlate with something else?
For example: test anxiety
everyone has it but some people have more. If they have high test anxiety, they’ll do less well in exams
Reliability Types: Internal Consistency
Do different items on the test give the same results?
Results should be the same over time
Reliability Types: Split half (odd & even)
Compare half of items with the other half of items
So compare responses on all the odd numbered responses to all the even numbered on the test
Reliability Types: Alternate Forms
2 versions of the test–very similar in terms of questions–then compare the responses
Reliability Types: Test-Retest
Happens over two different testing periods
One problem: practice effect might make people remember how they answered before
Reliability Types: Inter-rater
Do multiple raters have similar results?
True or False: You can have validity without reliability?
False, it has to be reliable in order to be valid. You can only have reliability w/o validity.
Define: Response Sets
threats to validity. They are not responding to the content/content tool, but something else
Response Sets: Acquiescence
“they go along with it”
Say yes to everything (extreme responding)
Response Sets: Extreme Responding
Saying yes or no to everything
Response Sets: Social Desirability
They want to make a good impression and be seen as a “good citizen” so they answer in a way that will make them seem so
Crowne-Marlowe Scale (1964)
Created to see if people are getting good answers from people: true or false scale.
If someone was to respond in a good light with all of the answers, chances are they aren’t that saint-like and are only answering to make a good impression
Forced Choice Format
Which would you most prefer to do?
Research Design: Case Study
Research Design: Correlational
Can’t talk about cause and effect
Research Design: Experimental
CAN talk about cause and effect since researcher has control
What happens in a personality assessment in clinical practice?
1) initial interview/assessment where you get to know their personality
2) Ongoing sessions
3) May include testing
an action exerted on a body in order to change the body’s state of rest or motion
magnitude and direction
a diagram showing all the forces acting on an object
forces on all objects involved
a single force whose external effects on a rigid body are the same as the effects of several actual forces acting on the body
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
a(av) = v/t
the rate at which velocity changes over time
science behind the motion of objects
frame of reference
a coordinate system for specifying the precise location of objects in space
position time graph
as slope goes so does velocity
Distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point.
horizontal and vertical components of velocity
what are independent of each other?
Who was the founder of personality Psychology ?
Psychological qualities that contribute to enduring & distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking, & behaving
What do personality psychologists try to address?
Human universals, Individual differences, uniqueness of the individual
What is generally true about people
Looks at how human beings, personality wise, are alike
How do we differ from each other?
Is there a standard way in which we differ?
Uniqueness of the Individual
Trying to understand universals but you can’t forget that each individual is different & unique
1) Scientific Observation
5) Applicable to Practice
What are the five theory considerations?
4) Causes of psychological problems
5) Informing interventions
What is the unit of analysis?
It is what is true about the person. Consistent
Grouping of traits (like Type A personality)
Interconnected parts that help for us to understand how a person behaves and how things are organized
Think: “whole is greater than sum of its parts”
Theory Considerations: process
How do things change within the individual in the moment & over time?
Theory Considerations: Development
How do we become who we are? Do earlier experiences play a role: big or small?
Looks at genetic inheritance & cultural & environment & social class & family influence & influence by peers
Theory Considerations: Causes of psychological problems
Looks at how people develop healthy personality characteristics or how do they develop unhealthy characteristics?
Theory Considerations: Informing Inverentions
Looks at how well the theory informs and can be translated into interventions
How useful is the theory, not which one is right/better
What does L.O.T.S Data stand for?
Source off data (measures)
L.O.T.S Data: Life Record
Data that has already been archived.
Example: School data, medical records
L.O.T.S Data: Observer
Making conclusions based off observing the person’s behavior.
Might not be accurate because it’s only a small amount of knowledge in one setting.
Can be done by clinicians who are trained or a parent, or teacher
L.O.T.S Data: Test
Information obtained from experimental procedures while researchers measure people’s performance on the task
L.O.T.S Data: Self-Report
This is the most accessed.
People report on themselves and describe themselves.
Not always accurate because they may say what they think you want to hear
Sources of Data: Nomothetic
Given the same way–objective
Describes a population
Limitations–what if the person doesn’t know what a word means?
Sources of Data: Idiographic
Flexible and personal
Fill in the blank questionnaires
Looking to get at the uniqueness of the person so people have a lot of room to describe themselves
Areas of interest of assessment depending on the theory/what the goal is
What are some target areas?
Variability in behavior
Looking at whether study is measuring what it says it measures?
Looking at whether you get consistent results?
Validity Types: Face
On the surface it looks like it measures it, but it may look/sound like it does without having the research to back it up
Validity Types: Construct
Must be a valid measure of the psychological variable or construct that it says it will measure
Validity Types: Predictive
If a measure is good, it will be able to predict consistent results
Validity Types: Discriminant
Measure should be distinct from the other measures
Making sure a measure doesn’t have a correlation with something else
Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
Most frequently used.
Nomothetic tool w/ 567 true/false statements.
Very accurate and sued in research, diagnosis and clinical use
Define: Life Instinct
Define: Death Instinct
What does the Mind as Energy System say?
-Energy can be blocked
What did Breuer say?
-Free association under hypnosis
-Symptoms related to earlier trauma
-Catharsis: emotional release
Who was Anna O.?
Patient of Breuer who experienced hysteria where she could not speak in her native language, but was able to speak in her second language.
Realized that catharsis “talking method” brought out past experiences
Define: Psychic Determinism
Nothing happens by chance
“Below the surface”
Present at birth
Primary Process thinking
Which Model of the Mind is the pleasure principle?
Which Model of the Mind is the primary proccess of thinking?
Internal representation of external social morals and rules
Functions to control behavior
Which Model of the Mind functions to control behavior?
Which Model of the Mind is the internal representation of external social morals and rules?
Satisfy ID desires & superego demands
Secondary Process of Thinking
What Model of the Mind is the reality principle?
What Model of the Mind satisfies id desires & superego demands?
What Model of the Mind is the secondary process thinking?
Stressful events lead to unacceptable thoughts & feelings that lead to an overuse of defense mechanisms which lead to what?
Neuroticism & symptoms
What area did Erik Erikson focus on?
What is the ego strength in Trust vs Mistrust?
What is the ego strength in autonomy vs shame & doubt?
What is the ego strength in initiative vs guilt?
What is the ego strength in industry vs inferiority?
What is the ego strength in identity vs role confusion?
What is the ego strength in intimacy vs isolation?
What is the ego strength in generativity vs stagnation?
What is the ego strength in integrity vs despair?
What did Alfred Adler study?
Social interest concept
Specifically: Birth order
What is individual psychology?
What are characteristics of the oral personality type?
Themes of taking things into, toward and for oneself
What are characteristics of the anal personality?
Fixation at anal stage
Striving for power and control
What is the Anal Triad in the Anal Personality?
Orderliness & cleanliness
Parsimony & stinginess
What are characteristics in the phallic personality for a man?
Emphasis on being masculine-macho-potent
What are the characteristics for the phallic personality for a female?
Naive, seductive, flirtatious
Define: Free Association
Reporting to the analyst every thought that comes to mind.
Able to go beyond the manifest content of the dream to the latent content, the hidden unconscious wish that the storyline of the dream expresses
Patient’s development of attitudes toward the analyst based on attitudes held by the patient toward earlier parental figures.
Basically distortions of reality based on past experiences
What did Carl Jung focus on?
Anima & animus
Define: collective unconscious
Carl Jung’s theory that people have stored the cumulative experiences of past generations so that they are universal
Carl Jung defined archetypes as the universal images or symbols contained in the collective unconscious
Carl Jung described the anima as the archetype of the feminine part that every male has
Carl Jung described the animus as the archetype of the masculine part every female has
What did Karen Horney study?
The impact of culture & childhood
Basic anxiety & neurotic trends
What did Harry Stack Sullivan study?
Relations with others is key
Concept of SELF
What was Harry Stack Sullivan’s concept of SELF?
Feelings experienced & appraisal of being valued by others
Define: Object Relations Theory
Looks at a person’s relationship with other people