Force & Considerations Theory Research – Physics

Force & Considerations Theory Research – Physics

In this physics chapter we discuss force & considerations theory research.


equilibrium

the state of which the net force equals zero


newton’s 2nd law

Force = mass x acceleration


inertial frame of reference

a state of motion that is experiencing no acceleration (earth frame)


accelerated frame of reference

a frame of speed that is changing


scalar and vector

two forms of quantity


scalar

magnitude in units, distance and speed


vector

have a magnitude in units of direction, displacement and velocity, and acceleration


Validity Types: Causality

Does the measure correlate with something else?
For example: test anxiety
everyone has it but some people have more. If they have high test anxiety, they’ll do less well in exams


Reliability Types: Internal Consistency

Do different items on the test give the same results?
Results should be the same over time


Reliability Types: Split half (odd & even)

Compare half of items with the other half of items
So compare responses on all the odd numbered responses to all the even numbered on the test


Reliability Types: Alternate Forms

2 versions of the test–very similar in terms of questions–then compare the responses


Reliability Types: Test-Retest

Happens over two different testing periods
One problem: practice effect might make people remember how they answered before


Reliability Types: Inter-rater

Do multiple raters have similar results?


True or False: You can have validity without reliability?

False, it has to be reliable in order to be valid. You can only have reliability w/o validity.


Define: Response Sets

threats to validity. They are not responding to the content/content tool, but something else


Response Sets: Acquiescence

“they go along with it”
Say yes to everything (extreme responding)


Response Sets: Extreme Responding

Saying yes or no to everything


Response Sets: Social Desirability

They want to make a good impression and be seen as a “good citizen” so they answer in a way that will make them seem so


Crowne-Marlowe Scale (1964)

Created to see if people are getting good answers from people: true or false scale.
If someone was to respond in a good light with all of the answers, chances are they aren’t that saint-like and are only answering to make a good impression


Forced Choice Format

Which would you most prefer to do?


Research Design: Case Study

Not generalizable


Research Design: Correlational

Can’t talk about cause and effect


Research Design: Experimental

CAN talk about cause and effect since researcher has control


What happens in a personality assessment in clinical practice?

1) initial interview/assessment where you get to know their personality
2) Ongoing sessions
3) May include testing


forces

an action exerted on a body in order to change the body’s state of rest or motion


force has

magnitude and direction


freebody diagram

a diagram showing all the forces acting on an object


force diagram

forces on all objects involved


net force

a single force whose external effects on a rigid body are the same as the effects of several actual forces acting on the body


inertia

The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion


a(av) = v/t

average acceleration


acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes over time


kinematics

science behind the motion of objects


frame of reference

a coordinate system for specifying the precise location of objects in space


position time graph

as slope goes so does velocity


displacement

Distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point.


horizontal and vertical components of velocity

what are independent of each other?


Who was the founder of personality Psychology ?

Gordon Allport


Define: Personality

Psychological qualities that contribute to enduring & distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking, & behaving


What do personality psychologists try to address?

Human universals, Individual differences, uniqueness of the individual


Human Universals

What is generally true about people
Looks at how human beings, personality wise, are alike


Individual Differences

How do we differ from each other?
Is there a standard way in which we differ?


Uniqueness of the Individual

Trying to understand universals but you can’t forget that each individual is different & unique


Theory “Building”

1) Scientific Observation
2) Systematic
3) Testable
4) Comprehensive
5) Applicable to Practice


What are the five theory considerations?

1) Structure
2) Process
3) Development
4) Causes of psychological problems
5) Informing interventions


Structure

What is the unit of analysis?


Trait

It is what is true about the person. Consistent


Define: Type

Grouping of traits (like Type A personality)


Define: System

Interconnected parts that help for us to understand how a person behaves and how things are organized
Think: “whole is greater than sum of its parts”


Theory Considerations: process

How do things change within the individual in the moment & over time?


Theory Considerations: Development

How do we become who we are? Do earlier experiences play a role: big or small?
Looks at genetic inheritance & cultural & environment & social class & family influence & influence by peers


Theory Considerations: Causes of psychological problems

Looks at how people develop healthy personality characteristics or how do they develop unhealthy characteristics?


Theory Considerations: Informing Inverentions

Looks at how well the theory informs and can be translated into interventions


Tool-Kit Metaphor

How useful is the theory, not which one is right/better


What does L.O.T.S Data stand for?

Life Record
Observer
Test
Self-Report
Source off data (measures)


L.O.T.S Data: Life Record

Data that has already been archived.
Example: School data, medical records


L.O.T.S Data: Observer

Making conclusions based off observing the person’s behavior.
Might not be accurate because it’s only a small amount of knowledge in one setting.
Can be done by clinicians who are trained or a parent, or teacher


L.O.T.S Data: Test

Information obtained from experimental procedures while researchers measure people’s performance on the task


L.O.T.S Data: Self-Report

This is the most accessed.
People report on themselves and describe themselves.
Not always accurate because they may say what they think you want to hear


Sources of Data: Nomothetic

Fixed/Standardized
Given the same way–objective
Describes a population
Limitations–what if the person doesn’t know what a word means?


Sources of Data: Idiographic

Flexible and personal
Fill in the blank questionnaires
Looking to get at the uniqueness of the person so people have a lot of room to describe themselves


Define: Targets

Areas of interest of assessment depending on the theory/what the goal is


What are some target areas?

Average behavior
Variability in behavior
Conscious Thought
Unconscious Thought


Define: Validity

Looking at whether study is measuring what it says it measures?


Define: Reliability

Looking at whether you get consistent results?


Validity Types: Face

On the surface it looks like it measures it, but it may look/sound like it does without having the research to back it up


Validity Types: Construct

Must be a valid measure of the psychological variable or construct that it says it will measure


Validity Types: Predictive

If a measure is good, it will be able to predict consistent results


Validity Types: Discriminant

Measure should be distinct from the other measures
Making sure a measure doesn’t have a correlation with something else


Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

Most frequently used.
Nomothetic tool w/ 567 true/false statements.
Very accurate and sued in research, diagnosis and clinical use


Define: Life Instinct

Libido


Define: Death Instinct

Thanatos


What does the Mind as Energy System say?

-Limited Energy
-Energy can be blocked
-Homeostatic Goal


What did Breuer say?

-Free association under hypnosis
-Symptoms related to earlier trauma
-Catharsis: emotional release


Who was Anna O.?

Patient of Breuer who experienced hysteria where she could not speak in her native language, but was able to speak in her second language.
Realized that catharsis “talking method” brought out past experiences


Define: Psychic Determinism

Nothing happens by chance
Freudian slips


Define: ID

“Below the surface”
Present at birth
Pleasure principle
Primary Process thinking


Which Model of the Mind is the pleasure principle?

Id


Which Model of the Mind is the primary proccess of thinking?

ID


Define: Superego

Internal representation of external social morals and rules
Functions to control behavior


Which Model of the Mind functions to control behavior?

Superego


Which Model of the Mind is the internal representation of external social morals and rules?

Superego


Define: Ego

Reality Principle
Satisfy ID desires & superego demands
Secondary Process of Thinking


What Model of the Mind is the reality principle?

Ego


What Model of the Mind satisfies id desires & superego demands?

Ego


What Model of the Mind is the secondary process thinking?

Ego


Stressful events lead to unacceptable thoughts & feelings that lead to an overuse of defense mechanisms which lead to what?

Neuroticism & symptoms


What area did Erik Erikson focus on?

Psychosocial development


What is the ego strength in Trust vs Mistrust?

hope


What is the ego strength in autonomy vs shame & doubt?

Will


What is the ego strength in initiative vs guilt?

Purpose


What is the ego strength in industry vs inferiority?

Competence


What is the ego strength in identity vs role confusion?

Fidelity


What is the ego strength in intimacy vs isolation?

Love


What is the ego strength in generativity vs stagnation?

Care


What is the ego strength in integrity vs despair?

Wisdom


What did Alfred Adler study?

“individual psychology”
Social interest concept
Superiority/inferiority
Specifically: Birth order


What is individual psychology?


What are characteristics of the oral personality type?

Oral fixation
Themes of taking things into, toward and for oneself
Narcissistic


What are characteristics of the anal personality?

Fixation at anal stage
Striving for power and control
Anal Triad


What is the Anal Triad in the Anal Personality?

Orderliness & cleanliness
Parsimony & stinginess
Obstinacy


What are characteristics in the phallic personality for a man?

Emphasis on being masculine-macho-potent


What are the characteristics for the phallic personality for a female?

Naive, seductive, flirtatious
Hysterical personality


Define: Free Association

Reporting to the analyst every thought that comes to mind.
Able to go beyond the manifest content of the dream to the latent content, the hidden unconscious wish that the storyline of the dream expresses


Define: Transference

Patient’s development of attitudes toward the analyst based on attitudes held by the patient toward earlier parental figures.
Basically distortions of reality based on past experiences


What did Carl Jung focus on?

Analytical psychology.
Collective unconscious
Anima & animus


Define: collective unconscious

Carl Jung’s theory that people have stored the cumulative experiences of past generations so that they are universal


Define: Archetypes

Carl Jung defined archetypes as the universal images or symbols contained in the collective unconscious


Define: Anima

Carl Jung described the anima as the archetype of the feminine part that every male has


Define: Animus

Carl Jung described the animus as the archetype of the masculine part every female has


What did Karen Horney study?

The impact of culture & childhood
Basic anxiety & neurotic trends
Womb Envy


What did Harry Stack Sullivan study?

“Interpersonal theory”
Relations with others is key
Concept of SELF


What was Harry Stack Sullivan’s concept of SELF?

Feelings experienced & appraisal of being valued by others


Define: Object Relations Theory

Object= People
Looks at a person’s relationship with other people


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