Earth Matter & Acceleration Optical System – Physics

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Earth Matter & Acceleration Optical System – Physics

This Physics quiz covers earth matter and acceleration optical system.


acceleration

when the net force is 0 (zero) no __________ occurs


Newton’s second law

acceleration is directly proportional to force; if force is applied to an object in motion, the object will accelerate


Newton’s third law

for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; also, the normal force acts perpendicular to the object


law of universal gravitation

every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; F=G(m1m2/r^2)


vacuum

the speed of light in a ______ is constant when compared to any frame of reference (3 x 10^8 m/s AKA “C”); outside of this, it is slightly less


vaporization, melting, sublimation

phase changes in which atoms and molecules of matter spread apart, heat up, and move more quickly


condensation, freezing, deposition

phase changes in which atoms and molecules of matter condense, lose heat, and slow down


elastic collision

an encounter between two or more bodies in which total kinetic energy is conserved *collisions between particles of matter are perfectly this


inelastic collision

encounter between two bodies in which some kinetic energy is transferred to the environment MOVE TOGETHER


linear momentum

p=mv


angular momentum

circular motion; when motion stops, the object goes off on a tangent


Boyle’s law

apply pressure to gas, volume decreases


Charles’s law

increase temperature of gas, volume increases


Gay-Lussac’s law

increase pressure of gas, temperature increases


Avogadro’s hypothesis

2 gases of equal volume at the same temperature and pressure will have the same number of particles


solid

state of matter; low kinetic energy; particles vibrate in place; definite shape; definite volume; not compressible


liquid

state of matter; more kinetic energy than solid, less than gas; particles vibrate and slide; no definite shape; definite volume; not compressible


gas

state of matter; much kinetic energy; particles move freely; no definite shape; no definite volume; is compressible


plasma

state of matter; violent kinetic energy; particles have violent collisions in which electrons are knocked free; no definite shape; no definite volume; is compressible


chemical properties

ability of a substance to react or transform; describe how substances react with others; reactivity, combustibility, flammability, oxidation (tarnish)


physical properties

properties that describe the look and feel of a substance; odor, melting/freezing point, boiling/dew point, luster, phase, conductivity, compressibility, volume, mass, density, hardness, luminosity


volume

amount of space matter takes up


compressiblity

ability to be compressed


density

mass/volume


conductivity

ability to conduct electricity


malleability

ability to bend or work with a material


reactivity

refers to how fast a substance reacts


molecular composition

refers to how atoms and molecules are arranged in a substance


freezing point

temperature at which a liquid changed to a solid


melting point

temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid


boiling point

temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas


heterogeneous mixture

mixture in which individual components can be seen; substances remain separate


homogeneous mixture

mixture in which the individual components cannot be seen; single-phased


solution

type of homogeneous mixture; a substance is dissolved in another substance (air, salt water)


colloid

type of homogeneous mixture; substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance (milk, blood)


suspension

type of heterogeneous mixture; mixture of two chemicals with the property that one does not rapidly settle out (salad dressing)


chemical change

change in which atoms are rearranged into a new substance


physical change

change in which there is a change in physical properties without transforming


Dalton

developed the first atomic model; stated that an atom cannot be divided into smaller pieces; atomic theory


Thomson

developed the plum pudding model; discovered electron, assumed protons must exist


Rutherford

performed gold foil experiment; determined that there is a positive nucleus and that the atom is mostly empty space; created cherry model


Bohr

discovered that electrons move in specific orbitals; created Bohr model


proton

positively charged nucleon; charge of +1; mass ~1amu; in nucleus


neutron

nucleon with no charge; mass ~1amu; in nucleus


electron

negatively charged particle in electron cloud; charge -1; mass 99% smaller than proton/neutron


atomic number

number of protons


mass number

protons + neutrons


atomic mass

protons + neutrons + electrons


valence electrons

to determine the number of ______ _______ , you can draw a Bohr model OR know that group 1 – 1 VE, G2 – 2 VE, G13- 3 VE, G14 – 4 VE, G15 – 5 VE, G16 – 6 VE, G17 – 7 VE, G18 – 8 VE (helium has 2)


atoms

the building blocks of matter


molecules

2 or more atoms covalently bonded together


compounds

atoms bonded ionically


covalent bonds

bonds between 2 or more NONMETALS and are held together by their mutual attraction for electrons


ionic bonds

bonds between a metal and a nonmetal that are held together by giving away electrons; think +1, +2, etc


redox reactions

reactions that involve the transfer of electrons; LEO THE LION WENT GER; oxidation/reduction


acid-base reactions

reactions that involve the transfer of protons; neutralization; water and salt


synthesis reaction

2 or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product; A + B –> AB


decomposition

a compound is broken into smaller chemical pieces; AB –> A + B


single replacement

AB + C –> A + BC


double replacement

AB + CD –> AC + BD


combustion

double replacement where a nonmetal deteriorates; products are CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER


hydronium

water molecule with extra proton; formed by acid; H3O+


hydroxide

water molecule less one proton; formed by base; OH-


acids

have pH below 7


bases

have pH above 7


bases accept acids donate

BAAD


speed

distance per unit time


average speed

total distance of movement divided by total time


longitudinal wave

a wave in which matter moves parallel to the wave direction


frequency

the number of wavelengths that pass a point per second


rarefaction

less dense region of a compressional wave


amplitude

measure of energy carried by a wave


sonar

detection by reflecting underwater sound waves


decibel

unit of sound intensity


Doppler effect

change in wave frequency because of a moving source


acoustics

study of sound


ultrasonic

refers to sound above normal human hearing range


cochlea

region of the ear that converts vibrations into nerve impulses


resonator

region of the ear that amplifies sound waves


visible light

the range of electromagnetic waves that we can see


infrared

electromagnetic wave below visible light used in thermograms


ultraviolet

electromagnetic wave above visible light, blocked by ozone layer


photon

particle form of light


x-ray

electromagnetic wave used to produce images of the body


electromagnetic spectrum

all waves consisting of vibration of electrical and magnetic fields


gamma ray

high energy wave that can damage cells


microwave

shorter wave used in communications


radio wave

longest electromagnetic wave


coherent light

light with only one wavelength


translucent

describes a material that allows only some light through


opaque

describes a material that allows no light through


diverging lens

lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges


plane mirror

flat, smooth surface that reflects an image


focal length

distance from center of lens or mirror to the focus


cornea

transparent outer covering of the eye


real image

image formed by actual light rays


optical axis

imaginary line perpendicular to the center of a mirror or lens


retina

part of the eye containing light-sensing cells


converging lens

lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges


convex mirror

only mirror with one type of image: virtual, minimized, and smaller


electric current

flow of electrons through a material


conductor

material allowing easy flow of electrons


insulator

material that does not allow easy flow of electrons


resistance

measure of strength in opposing electron flow (in a circuit)


parallel circuit

circuit with multiple branches


power

rate at which electric energy is transferred (I x V)


voltage

electrical potential energy difference


series circuit

circuit with only one path


induction

method of charging an object by bringing it close to a charged object


transformer

device that increases or decreases AC voltage


generator

device that changes mechanical energy to electrical energy


turbine

large wheel that rotates when pushed by water, wind, and steam


magnetic pole

part of a magnet with the strongest force


direct current

type of electron flow in one constant direction


galvanometer

device that measures electric current with an electromagnet


alternating current

type of electron flow that changes direction periodically


fossil fuel

energy source from decayed organisms


photovoltaic cell

device that converts light energy into electricity


nonrenewable resource

energy source that cannot be replaced fast than it is used


geothermal energy

thermal energy from the earth that can be used to generate electricity


hydroelectricity

electrical energy from the energy of moving water


constructive interference

combination of waves that makes the resulting wave larger


destructive interference

combination of waves that makes the resulting wave smaller


electromagnetic radiation

radiation produced when objects become so hot they give off light


pigment

substance that absorbs and reflects particular colors


electromagnetic induction

principle by which generators move wire through a magnetic field to produce current


electromagnet

temporary magnet made with loops of wire around an iron core


petroleum

flammable crude oil formed by decayed organisms


nuclear waste

radioactive by-product resulting from use of radioactive sources


motion

a change in position, measured by distance and time


speed

the distance traveled by a moving object per unit of time
(distance/time)


average speed

total distance/ total time


velocity

speed in a given direction


acceleration

the rate of change in velocity


deceleration

a term commonly used to mean a decrease in speed


force

any push or pull


friction

a force that opposes motion


gravity

the force of attraction between all objects in the universe


free fall

an object falling under the influence of gravity


weight

the effect of gravity on an object’s mass


momentum

the product of the mass of an object and its velocity
(mass X velocity)


Newton’s 1st law of Motion

An object at rest will remain at rest, and a moving object will remain at a constant velocity unless unbalanced forces act on it


Newton’s 2nd law of Motion

Force = mass X acceleration


Newton’s 3rd law of Motion

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction


net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object


unbalanced force

the cause of an object to start moving, stop moving or change direction


balanced force

equal forces acting on one object


inertia

tendency of an object to resist change in motion


static friction

the friction that acts on objects that are NOT moving


sliding friction

the friction that occurs when two surfaces slide over each other


fluid friction

the friction that occurs when a solid object moves through a fluid


rolling friction

the friction that occurs when an object rolls across a surface


mass and distance

the two factors that affect gravity are:


air resistance

a type of fluid friction on which objects falling through air experience upward force


terminal velocity

the greatest velocity a falling object reaches, the point at which air resistance equals gravity


projectile

an object that is thrown, the only force acting upon it is gravity


centripetal force

force acting towards the center of a curved or circular path


law of conservation of momentum

LAW: Momentum before a collision is equal to the momentum after the collision


total momentum

sum of all objects moving together


energy

the ability to do work or cause change


law of conservation of energy

LAW: energy cannot be created or destroyed


gravitational potential energy

the potential energy of an object related to the object’s height


wave

a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space


mechanical waves

waves which require a medium are called:


medium

a form of matter through which a wave travels


transverse wave

a type of mechanical wave in which matter moves up and down at a right angle to the direction of the wave


longitudinal (compression) wave

a type of mechanical wave in which matter moves back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave


frequency

measures the number of waves that pass a certain point in one second


Hertz

frequency is measured in:


inversely

wavelength and frequency are _______ related


crest

the highest part of a transverse wave


trough

the lowest part of a transverse wave


amplitude

the maximum distance the particles of a medium move away from their rest positions through a medium


compression

a more compact section of a longitudinal (compression) wave


rarefaction

a looser section of a longitudinal (compression) wave


wavelength

the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave (crests or troughs)


reflection

when an object hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces


refraction

when a wave enters a new medium at an angle, and one side bends before the other and changes speed before the other


diffraction

when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it


constructive interference

when two crests hit at the same time to create a larger wave


destructive interference

when crests hit troughs, minimizing effects and creating a smaller wave


compressional wave

sound is a __________ type of wave


sound

a type of compressional wave that travels through the air as a series of compressions and rarefactions


sound intensity

the energy of the sound wave


different

different mediums cause sound to travel at _______ speeds


decibel

unit for loudness


outer ear

the section of the ear that gathers and channels sounds to the middle ear


pinna

the outer ear is also known as the


middle ear

the section of the ear that is an air filled cavity that amplifies and converts sound waves to vibrations


middle ear

the eardrum is located in which section of the ear?


hammer, anvil, stirrup

the three smallest bones in the human body, located in the middle ear are called the


inner ear

the section of the ear that converts nerve impulses which are then interpreted by the brain


cochlea

a snail shaped tube in the inner ear which is filled with around 20,000 hair cells that each have a specific frequency


pitch

frequency = __________.


loudness

amplitude = __________.


infrasonic

sounds with frequencies below 20 hertz (humans cannot hear)


ultrasonic

sounds with frequencies above 20,000 hertz (humans cannot hear)


angle of incidence

the angle between the incoming ray of light and the normal


angle of reflection

the angle between the outgoing ray of light and the normal


law of reflection

LAW: the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection


focus (focal point)

a place in a lens or mirror where all of the parallel light rays meet


image

what you think you see in a mirror or lens: the object is enlarged, reduced or moved


convex

this type of lens magnifies


convergent

a convex lens is ______________, because all the light rays come together


concave

this type of lens reduces


divergent

a concave lens is ______________, because the light rays spread apart


concave

this type of mirror or lens looks like the sides have caved in )(


convex

this type of mirror or lens has a middle that is bigger than the ends ()


opposite

lenses and mirrors work ___________ of each other.


convex

this type of mirror reduces


divergent

a convex mirror is _________, because all of the light rays spread apart


concave

this type of mirror magnifies


convergent

a concave mirror is ____________, because the light rays come together


optical systems

microscopes, telescopes, binoculars and cameras are all examples of ________________ that use a combination of mirrors and lenses to let us see very distant or very small objects


optics

the study of how light behaves


normal

an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the face of a mirror or lens


mirror

an optical device that works by reflection


lens

an optical device that works by refraction


plane mirror

a flat sheet of glass that has a smooth, silver colored coating on one side


virtual image

an upright image that forms where light seems to come from


virtual

plane mirrors produce a ______________ image that is upright and the same size as the object


virtual or real

concave mirrors can form either _______________ images


real image

a type of image that forms when rays actually meet


virtual

because the rays never meet, the images formed by convex mirrors are ___________ images and smaller than the object


mirage

an image of a distant object caised by refraction of light


position

the __________ of an object relitive to the focal point determines whether a convex lens produces a virtual or real image.


cornea

light enters the eye through the transparent front surface called the


pupil

an opening in the eye through which light enters the inside of the eye


iris

a ring of muscle in the eye that contracts and expands to change the pupil’s size and gives the eye its color


retina

a layer of cells on the inside of the eyeball, made of rods and cones, where light rays hit


transparent

a ____________ material transmits most of the light that strikes it.


translucent

a ____________ material scatters light as it passes through


opaque

a ____________material reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it


primary colors of light

Red, green and blue are also known as the


primary colors of pigments:

Magenta, yellow, and cyan are also known as the


white

When combined together in equal amounts, the three primary colors of light produce this color light:


black

When combined together in equal amounts, the three primary colors of pigments produce this color:


pigments

Inks, paints and dyes contain these:


optic nerve

the rods and cones send images to the brain along a short, thick nerve called the _______________.


nearsighted

a type of vision that sees nearby things clearly, but objects at a distance are blurred because the eyeball is too long.


farsighted

a type of vision that sees distant objects clearly, but nearby objects are blurred because the eyeball is too short.


concave

Nearsighted vision can be corrected with this type of lens


convex

Farsighted vision can be corrected with this type of lens


circuit breaker

a reusable safety switch that breaks the circuit when the current becomes too high


electric field

the region around a charged object where an electric force is present


insulator

a material that does NOT allow electrical charges to move through it easily


series circuit

an electrical circuit with a single path


conductor

a material through which electrical charges can easily flow


alternating current

electrical current that changes direction is called


amperes (amps)

unit for the number of electrons moving in a current


ohms

unit for electrical resistance


resistance

the higher this is, the lower the current


transformer

a device that increases or decreases the voltage of alternating current


voltage

as this increases, so does the current


magnet

any material that attracts iron or materials containing iron


static electricity

clothes often stick together because of this


electric force

this is the force between two charged objects


magnetic pole

one of two points, such as the ends of a magnet, that have opposing magnetic qualities


reference point

a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion


meters/second

unit for acceleration:


not moving

on a graph showing distance vs. time, a horizontal line represents that the object is __________.


constant speed

when the speed of an object does NOT change


instantaneous speed

the rate at which an object is moving in a given instant


electromagnetic waves

which waves have some electrical properties and some magnetic properties?


medium

Electromagnetic waves transfer energy without a:


speed

In a vacuum, all electromagnetic waves have the same :


infared rays, microwaves, radio waves

visible light has a higher frequency than:


electromagnetic spectrum

the range of electromagnetic waves placed in a certain order is called the:


one million times faster

about how much faster that sound are electromagnetic waves?


transverse

electromagnetic waves are classified as what type of wave?


polarized

_____________ light consists of waves that vibrate in one direction only.


infared radiation

thermograms are produced by what?


visible light

the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum humans can see


gamma rays

the highest frequency waves on the electromagnetic spectrum with the shortest wavelength and the greatest energy


yellow

the most irritating color to the human eye is:


work

a force exerted on an object that causes the object to move some distance ( force X distance)


absorption

when a wave is dampened inside a soft boundary


autotrophs

producers that produce their own food


biomass

each trophic level is higher in total mass than the level above it


second trophic level

also known as the primary consumers. ie grasshoppers


third trophic level

toads consuming grasshoppers


fourth and fifth trophic levels

snakes consume toads


food web

varying form of the food chain


hydrologic cycle

the cycle where water is circulated through the biosphere


greenhouse gas

water vapor in the air that reflects radiation from the earths surface back toward the earth, whichs traps heat


nitrogen fixing

the process of combining nitrogen with either hydrogen or oxygen


nitrogen fixing bacteria

bacteria that combines nitrogen with either hydrogen or oxygen


nitrates

a thing plants use instead of ammonia


nitrification

a process which further breaks down ammonia into nitrates


ammonification

large of amounts of nitrogen that are returned to the earth by bacteria and fungi, which decompose dead plant and animal matter into ammonia and other substances


denitrification

various species of bacteria that ar responsible for breaking down excess nitrates, which releases nitrogen gas back into the air


density

sound travels faster in substances with a greater…


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