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Earth Matter & Acceleration Optical System - Physics
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Earth Matter & Acceleration Optical System – Physics

This Physics quiz covers earth matter and acceleration optical system.


when the net force is 0 (zero) no __________ occurs

Newton’s second law

acceleration is directly proportional to force; if force is applied to an object in motion, the object will accelerate

Newton’s third law

for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; also, the normal force acts perpendicular to the object

law of universal gravitation

every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; F=G(m1m2/r^2)


the speed of light in a ______ is constant when compared to any frame of reference (3 x 10^8 m/s AKA “C”); outside of this, it is slightly less

vaporization, melting, sublimation

phase changes in which atoms and molecules of matter spread apart, heat up, and move more quickly

condensation, freezing, deposition

phase changes in which atoms and molecules of matter condense, lose heat, and slow down

elastic collision

an encounter between two or more bodies in which total kinetic energy is conserved *collisions between particles of matter are perfectly this

inelastic collision

encounter between two bodies in which some kinetic energy is transferred to the environment MOVE TOGETHER

linear momentum


angular momentum

circular motion; when motion stops, the object goes off on a tangent

Boyle’s law

apply pressure to gas, volume decreases

Charles’s law

increase temperature of gas, volume increases

Gay-Lussac’s law

increase pressure of gas, temperature increases

Avogadro’s hypothesis

2 gases of equal volume at the same temperature and pressure will have the same number of particles


state of matter; low kinetic energy; particles vibrate in place; definite shape; definite volume; not compressible


state of matter; more kinetic energy than solid, less than gas; particles vibrate and slide; no definite shape; definite volume; not compressible


state of matter; much kinetic energy; particles move freely; no definite shape; no definite volume; is compressible


state of matter; violent kinetic energy; particles have violent collisions in which electrons are knocked free; no definite shape; no definite volume; is compressible

chemical properties

ability of a substance to react or transform; describe how substances react with others; reactivity, combustibility, flammability, oxidation (tarnish)

physical properties

properties that describe the look and feel of a substance; odor, melting/freezing point, boiling/dew point, luster, phase, conductivity, compressibility, volume, mass, density, hardness, luminosity


amount of space matter takes up


ability to be compressed




ability to conduct electricity


ability to bend or work with a material


refers to how fast a substance reacts

molecular composition

refers to how atoms and molecules are arranged in a substance

freezing point

temperature at which a liquid changed to a solid

melting point

temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid

boiling point

temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas

heterogeneous mixture

mixture in which individual components can be seen; substances remain separate

homogeneous mixture

mixture in which the individual components cannot be seen; single-phased


type of homogeneous mixture; a substance is dissolved in another substance (air, salt water)


type of homogeneous mixture; substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance (milk, blood)


type of heterogeneous mixture; mixture of two chemicals with the property that one does not rapidly settle out (salad dressing)

chemical change

change in which atoms are rearranged into a new substance

physical change

change in which there is a change in physical properties without transforming


developed the first atomic model; stated that an atom cannot be divided into smaller pieces; atomic theory


developed the plum pudding model; discovered electron, assumed protons must exist


performed gold foil experiment; determined that there is a positive nucleus and that the atom is mostly empty space; created cherry model


discovered that electrons move in specific orbitals; created Bohr model


positively charged nucleon; charge of +1; mass ~1amu; in nucleus


nucleon with no charge; mass ~1amu; in nucleus


negatively charged particle in electron cloud; charge -1; mass 99% smaller than proton/neutron

atomic number

number of protons

mass number

protons + neutrons

atomic mass

protons + neutrons + electrons

valence electrons

to determine the number of ______ _______ , you can draw a Bohr model OR know that group 1 – 1 VE, G2 – 2 VE, G13- 3 VE, G14 – 4 VE, G15 – 5 VE, G16 – 6 VE, G17 – 7 VE, G18 – 8 VE (helium has 2)


the building blocks of matter


2 or more atoms covalently bonded together


atoms bonded ionically

covalent bonds

bonds between 2 or more NONMETALS and are held together by their mutual attraction for electrons

ionic bonds

bonds between a metal and a nonmetal that are held together by giving away electrons; think +1, +2, etc

redox reactions

reactions that involve the transfer of electrons; LEO THE LION WENT GER; oxidation/reduction

acid-base reactions

reactions that involve the transfer of protons; neutralization; water and salt

synthesis reaction

2 or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product; A + B –> AB


a compound is broken into smaller chemical pieces; AB –> A + B

single replacement

AB + C –> A + BC

double replacement

AB + CD –> AC + BD


double replacement where a nonmetal deteriorates; products are CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER


water molecule with extra proton; formed by acid; H3O+


water molecule less one proton; formed by base; OH-


have pH below 7


have pH above 7

bases accept acids donate



distance per unit time

average speed

total distance of movement divided by total time

longitudinal wave

a wave in which matter moves parallel to the wave direction


the number of wavelengths that pass a point per second


less dense region of a compressional wave


measure of energy carried by a wave


detection by reflecting underwater sound waves


unit of sound intensity

Doppler effect

change in wave frequency because of a moving source


study of sound


refers to sound above normal human hearing range


region of the ear that converts vibrations into nerve impulses


region of the ear that amplifies sound waves

visible light

the range of electromagnetic waves that we can see


electromagnetic wave below visible light used in thermograms


electromagnetic wave above visible light, blocked by ozone layer


particle form of light


electromagnetic wave used to produce images of the body

electromagnetic spectrum

all waves consisting of vibration of electrical and magnetic fields

gamma ray

high energy wave that can damage cells


shorter wave used in communications

radio wave

longest electromagnetic wave

coherent light

light with only one wavelength


describes a material that allows only some light through


describes a material that allows no light through

diverging lens

lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges

plane mirror

flat, smooth surface that reflects an image

focal length

distance from center of lens or mirror to the focus


transparent outer covering of the eye

real image

image formed by actual light rays

optical axis

imaginary line perpendicular to the center of a mirror or lens


part of the eye containing light-sensing cells

converging lens

lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges

convex mirror

only mirror with one type of image: virtual, minimized, and smaller

electric current

flow of electrons through a material


material allowing easy flow of electrons


material that does not allow easy flow of electrons


measure of strength in opposing electron flow (in a circuit)

parallel circuit

circuit with multiple branches


rate at which electric energy is transferred (I x V)


electrical potential energy difference

series circuit

circuit with only one path


method of charging an object by bringing it close to a charged object


device that increases or decreases AC voltage


device that changes mechanical energy to electrical energy


large wheel that rotates when pushed by water, wind, and steam

magnetic pole

part of a magnet with the strongest force

direct current

type of electron flow in one constant direction


device that measures electric current with an electromagnet

alternating current

type of electron flow that changes direction periodically

fossil fuel

energy source from decayed organisms

photovoltaic cell

device that converts light energy into electricity

nonrenewable resource

energy source that cannot be replaced fast than it is used

geothermal energy

thermal energy from the earth that can be used to generate electricity


electrical energy from the energy of moving water

constructive interference

combination of waves that makes the resulting wave larger

destructive interference

combination of waves that makes the resulting wave smaller

electromagnetic radiation

radiation produced when objects become so hot they give off light


substance that absorbs and reflects particular colors

electromagnetic induction

principle by which generators move wire through a magnetic field to produce current


temporary magnet made with loops of wire around an iron core


flammable crude oil formed by decayed organisms

nuclear waste

radioactive by-product resulting from use of radioactive sources


a change in position, measured by distance and time


the distance traveled by a moving object per unit of time

average speed

total distance/ total time


speed in a given direction


the rate of change in velocity


a term commonly used to mean a decrease in speed


any push or pull


a force that opposes motion


the force of attraction between all objects in the universe

free fall

an object falling under the influence of gravity


the effect of gravity on an object’s mass


the product of the mass of an object and its velocity
(mass X velocity)

Newton’s 1st law of Motion

An object at rest will remain at rest, and a moving object will remain at a constant velocity unless unbalanced forces act on it

Newton’s 2nd law of Motion

Force = mass X acceleration

Newton’s 3rd law of Motion

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object

unbalanced force

the cause of an object to start moving, stop moving or change direction

balanced force

equal forces acting on one object


tendency of an object to resist change in motion

static friction

the friction that acts on objects that are NOT moving

sliding friction

the friction that occurs when two surfaces slide over each other

fluid friction

the friction that occurs when a solid object moves through a fluid

rolling friction

the friction that occurs when an object rolls across a surface

mass and distance

the two factors that affect gravity are:

air resistance

a type of fluid friction on which objects falling through air experience upward force

terminal velocity

the greatest velocity a falling object reaches, the point at which air resistance equals gravity


an object that is thrown, the only force acting upon it is gravity

centripetal force

force acting towards the center of a curved or circular path

law of conservation of momentum

LAW: Momentum before a collision is equal to the momentum after the collision

total momentum

sum of all objects moving together


the ability to do work or cause change

law of conservation of energy

LAW: energy cannot be created or destroyed

gravitational potential energy

the potential energy of an object related to the object’s height


a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space

mechanical waves

waves which require a medium are called:


a form of matter through which a wave travels

transverse wave

a type of mechanical wave in which matter moves up and down at a right angle to the direction of the wave

longitudinal (compression) wave

a type of mechanical wave in which matter moves back and forth parallel to the direction of the wave


measures the number of waves that pass a certain point in one second


frequency is measured in:


wavelength and frequency are _______ related


the highest part of a transverse wave


the lowest part of a transverse wave


the maximum distance the particles of a medium move away from their rest positions through a medium


a more compact section of a longitudinal (compression) wave


a looser section of a longitudinal (compression) wave


the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave (crests or troughs)


when an object hits a surface through which it cannot pass, it bounces


when a wave enters a new medium at an angle, and one side bends before the other and changes speed before the other


when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it

constructive interference

when two crests hit at the same time to create a larger wave

destructive interference

when crests hit troughs, minimizing effects and creating a smaller wave

compressional wave

sound is a __________ type of wave


a type of compressional wave that travels through the air as a series of compressions and rarefactions

sound intensity

the energy of the sound wave


different mediums cause sound to travel at _______ speeds


unit for loudness

outer ear

the section of the ear that gathers and channels sounds to the middle ear


the outer ear is also known as the

middle ear

the section of the ear that is an air filled cavity that amplifies and converts sound waves to vibrations

middle ear

the eardrum is located in which section of the ear?

hammer, anvil, stirrup

the three smallest bones in the human body, located in the middle ear are called the

inner ear

the section of the ear that converts nerve impulses which are then interpreted by the brain


a snail shaped tube in the inner ear which is filled with around 20,000 hair cells that each have a specific frequency


frequency = __________.


amplitude = __________.


sounds with frequencies below 20 hertz (humans cannot hear)


sounds with frequencies above 20,000 hertz (humans cannot hear)

angle of incidence

the angle between the incoming ray of light and the normal

angle of reflection

the angle between the outgoing ray of light and the normal

law of reflection

LAW: the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

focus (focal point)

a place in a lens or mirror where all of the parallel light rays meet


what you think you see in a mirror or lens: the object is enlarged, reduced or moved


this type of lens magnifies


a convex lens is ______________, because all the light rays come together


this type of lens reduces


a concave lens is ______________, because the light rays spread apart


this type of mirror or lens looks like the sides have caved in )(


this type of mirror or lens has a middle that is bigger than the ends ()


lenses and mirrors work ___________ of each other.


this type of mirror reduces


a convex mirror is _________, because all of the light rays spread apart


this type of mirror magnifies


a concave mirror is ____________, because the light rays come together

optical systems

microscopes, telescopes, binoculars and cameras are all examples of ________________ that use a combination of mirrors and lenses to let us see very distant or very small objects


the study of how light behaves


an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the face of a mirror or lens


an optical device that works by reflection


an optical device that works by refraction

plane mirror

a flat sheet of glass that has a smooth, silver colored coating on one side

virtual image

an upright image that forms where light seems to come from


plane mirrors produce a ______________ image that is upright and the same size as the object

virtual or real

concave mirrors can form either _______________ images

real image

a type of image that forms when rays actually meet


because the rays never meet, the images formed by convex mirrors are ___________ images and smaller than the object


an image of a distant object caised by refraction of light


the __________ of an object relitive to the focal point determines whether a convex lens produces a virtual or real image.


light enters the eye through the transparent front surface called the


an opening in the eye through which light enters the inside of the eye


a ring of muscle in the eye that contracts and expands to change the pupil’s size and gives the eye its color


a layer of cells on the inside of the eyeball, made of rods and cones, where light rays hit


a ____________ material transmits most of the light that strikes it.


a ____________ material scatters light as it passes through


a ____________material reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it

primary colors of light

Red, green and blue are also known as the

primary colors of pigments:

Magenta, yellow, and cyan are also known as the


When combined together in equal amounts, the three primary colors of light produce this color light:


When combined together in equal amounts, the three primary colors of pigments produce this color:


Inks, paints and dyes contain these:

optic nerve

the rods and cones send images to the brain along a short, thick nerve called the _______________.


a type of vision that sees nearby things clearly, but objects at a distance are blurred because the eyeball is too long.


a type of vision that sees distant objects clearly, but nearby objects are blurred because the eyeball is too short.


Nearsighted vision can be corrected with this type of lens


Farsighted vision can be corrected with this type of lens

circuit breaker

a reusable safety switch that breaks the circuit when the current becomes too high

electric field

the region around a charged object where an electric force is present


a material that does NOT allow electrical charges to move through it easily

series circuit

an electrical circuit with a single path


a material through which electrical charges can easily flow

alternating current

electrical current that changes direction is called

amperes (amps)

unit for the number of electrons moving in a current


unit for electrical resistance


the higher this is, the lower the current


a device that increases or decreases the voltage of alternating current


as this increases, so does the current


any material that attracts iron or materials containing iron

static electricity

clothes often stick together because of this

electric force

this is the force between two charged objects

magnetic pole

one of two points, such as the ends of a magnet, that have opposing magnetic qualities

reference point

a place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion


unit for acceleration:

not moving

on a graph showing distance vs. time, a horizontal line represents that the object is __________.

constant speed

when the speed of an object does NOT change

instantaneous speed

the rate at which an object is moving in a given instant

electromagnetic waves

which waves have some electrical properties and some magnetic properties?


Electromagnetic waves transfer energy without a:


In a vacuum, all electromagnetic waves have the same :

infared rays, microwaves, radio waves

visible light has a higher frequency than:

electromagnetic spectrum

the range of electromagnetic waves placed in a certain order is called the:

one million times faster

about how much faster that sound are electromagnetic waves?


electromagnetic waves are classified as what type of wave?


_____________ light consists of waves that vibrate in one direction only.

infared radiation

thermograms are produced by what?

visible light

the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum humans can see

gamma rays

the highest frequency waves on the electromagnetic spectrum with the shortest wavelength and the greatest energy


the most irritating color to the human eye is:


a force exerted on an object that causes the object to move some distance ( force X distance)


when a wave is dampened inside a soft boundary


producers that produce their own food


each trophic level is higher in total mass than the level above it

second trophic level

also known as the primary consumers. ie grasshoppers

third trophic level

toads consuming grasshoppers

fourth and fifth trophic levels

snakes consume toads

food web

varying form of the food chain

hydrologic cycle

the cycle where water is circulated through the biosphere

greenhouse gas

water vapor in the air that reflects radiation from the earths surface back toward the earth, whichs traps heat

nitrogen fixing

the process of combining nitrogen with either hydrogen or oxygen

nitrogen fixing bacteria

bacteria that combines nitrogen with either hydrogen or oxygen


a thing plants use instead of ammonia


a process which further breaks down ammonia into nitrates


large of amounts of nitrogen that are returned to the earth by bacteria and fungi, which decompose dead plant and animal matter into ammonia and other substances


various species of bacteria that ar responsible for breaking down excess nitrates, which releases nitrogen gas back into the air


sound travels faster in substances with a greater…