### Dependent Variable, Parameter, Descriptive Statistics, Measurements, Survey

The key terms in these Statistics chapters include Measurement, Sample, Research Study, Parameter, Variable, Inferential Statistics, Population, Dependent Variable, Descriptive Statistics, Interval, Scale of Measurement, Mathematical Expression, Summation Notation, Survey, Independent Variable.

A researcher interested in vocabulary development obtains a sample of 3-year-old children to participate in a research study. The average score for the group of children is an example of a parameter.

**True**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

a. a dependent variable**b. independent variable**

c. quasi independent variable

d. quasi dependent variable

Organizing a set of scores in a table is an example of using _______.**a. descriptive statistics**

b. parameters

c. statistics

d. inferential statistics

Statistical techniques are classified into two major categories: descriptive and inferential. Describe the general purpose of each category.

**Descriptive statistics “are statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data”. Descriptive take the raw scores of the data and place them in a way that is more manageable, such as a graph or table. Averages also make the scores more manageable.**

**Inferential statistics “consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they are selected”. Samples are selected from a population because a population is going to be too big to measure everyone. From the sample we can learn and draw conclusions about the population.**

For an experiment comparing two methods of teaching social skills training to autistic children, the independent variable is _______ and the dependent variable is _______.**a. teaching method, social skill that are learned**

b. teaching method, autistic children

c. autistic children, social skills that are learned

d. social skills that are learned, autistic children

What is the value of E(X + 1) for the scores 1, 0, 1, 4

**10**

To determine how much difference there is between two individuals, you must use either an interval or a ratio scale of measurement.**True**

What is the first step to be performed in the following mathematical expression, EX2?**a. square each score**

b. add the scores

c. add the squared scores

d. square the sum of the scores

Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?**a. the amount of time to solve a problem**

b. the gender of each student in a psychology class

c. the number of males in each class offered by the college

d. the number of children in a family

The participants in a research study are classified as high, medium, or low in self-esteem. What measurement scale is being used to classify self-esteem?

a. nominal**b. ordinal**

c. interval

d. ratio

A researcher interested in vocabulary development obtains a sample of 3-year-old children to participate in a research study. The average score for the group of children is an example of a parameter.

**True**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

a. a dependent variable**b. independent variable**

c. quasi independent variable

d. quasi dependent variable

Organizing a set of scores in a table is an example of using _______.**a. descriptive statistics**

b. parameters

c. statistics

d. inferential statistics

Statistical techniques are classified into two major categories: descriptive and inferential. Describe the general purpose of each category.

**Descriptive statistics “are statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data” (pg 6). Descriptive take the raw scores of the data and place them in a way that is more manageable, such as a graph or table. Averages also make the scores more manageable.**

**Inferential statistics “consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they are selected” (pg 6). Samples are selected from a population because a population is going to be too big to measure everyone. From the sample we can learn and draw conclusions about the population.**

After measuring two individuals, a researcher can say that Tom’s score is 4 points higher than Bill’s. The measurements must come from a(n) _______ scale.

a. nominal

b. ordinal

**c. interval or ratio**

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.**a. statistics**

b. parameter

c. variable

d. constant

You are instructed to subtract 4 points from each score, square the resulting value, and find the sum of the squared numbers. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

a. (EX-4)**b. E(X-4)^2**

c. EX-4^2

d. EX^2-4

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

a. parameter

b. statistics

c. population**d. sample**

Calculate each value requested for the following set of scores. Scores: 3, 4, 2, 6

a. SX – 2

b. S(X – 2)

c. S(X – 2)2

**a) 3+4+2+6=15. 15-2= 13**

**b) 3-2=1, 4-2=2, 2-2=0, and 6-2=4. 1+2+0+4= 7**

**c) (3-2)2 = 12 = 1, (4-2)2 = 22 = 4, (2-2)2 = 02 = 0, (6-2)2 = 42 = 16. 1+4+0+16 = 21**

In an experimental study,

a. 2 variables are measured and there is only 1 group of participants

b. 1 variable is measured and 2 groups are compared**c. 2 variables and 2 groups are compared**

d.1 variable is measured and there is only 1 group of participants

A researcher records the change in weight (gain or lost) during the first semester of college for each individual in a group of 25 freshmen and calculates the average change in weight. The average is an example of a _______.**a. statistics**

b. parameter

c. variable

d. constant

You are instructed to subtract 4 points from each score, square the resulting value, and find the sum of the squared numbers. How would this set of instructions be expressed in summation notation?

a. (EX-4)**b. E(X-4)^2**

c. EX-4^2

d. EX^2-4

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

a. parameter

b. statistics

c. population**d. sample**

Calculate each value requested for the following set of scores. Scores: 3, 4, 2, 6

a. SX – 2

b. S(X – 2)

c. S(X – 2)2

**a) 3+4+2+6=15. 15-2= 13b) 3-2=1, 4-2=2, 2-2=0, and 6-2=4. 1+2+0+4= 7c) (3-2)2 = 12 = 1, (4-2)2 = 22 = 4, (2-2)2 = 02 = 0, (6-2)2 = 42 = 16. 1+4+0+16 = 21**

What scale of measurement is being used when a researcher measures the amount of car accidents that participants have been involved in during their lifetime?

**Ratio**

The relationship between a statistic and a sample is the same as the relationship between _____.

**A parameter and a population.**

___________ are cues to participants about how they’re expected to behave in a study

**Demand characteristics**

Dr. Harmony is a social psychologist. In one study she measures relationship satisfaction in couples by observing non-verbal behavior (e.g., smiling, mimicking partner actions). For that study, non-verbal behavior is an example of a(n) _____.

**Operational definition**

Which of the following is necessary in order to obtain a random sample?

**Ensure that each person in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample**

A tenet of the scientific method is that _____ allow researchers to examine mental processes and behavior in an empirical, scientific manner.

**Operational definitions**

The mathematical expression of Σ X – 2 differs from the mathematical expression of Σ( X – 2) in each of the following ways except for which?

**Squaring takes place in one equation but not the other.**

If you could somehow magically know the mean monthly cost of ramen noodles for all college students in the entire world, that mean would be an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

If it is impossible to divide the existing categories of a variable, then it is an example of a(n) _____ variable.

**Discrete**

Which of the following is true about an operational definition?

**It is not the same as the construct itself**

Dr. H. I. Strung has created a new way to measure anxiety and it turns out that people who score high on Dr. Strung’s measure show more anxious behavior than people who score low on the measure. What’s it called when this happens?

**Predictive validity**

One kind of validity is all about showing that we’re really measuring just one construct, rather than two constructs combined. Which one is that?

**Divergent validity**

Dr. N. Sight has developed a new intelligence test for school children. But she’s worried the test might be measuring reading ability rather than intelligence. In order to demonstrate that the test is really measuring intelligence and not reading ability, Dr. Sight demonstrate ____validity.

**Divergent**

A researcher interested in vocabulary development obtains a sample of 3-year-old children to participate in a research study. The average score for the group of children is an example of a parameter.

**True**

For a research study comparing attitude scores for males and females, participant gender is an example of what kind of variable?

a. a dependent variable**b. independent variable**

c. quasi independent variable

d. quasi dependent variable

Organizing a set of scores in a table is an example of using _______.**a. descriptive statistics**

b. parameters

c. statistics

d. inferential statistics

What is the value of E(X + 1) for the scores 1, 0, 1, 4

**10**

To determine how much difference there is between two individuals, you must use either an interval or a ratio scale of measurement.**True**

After measuring two individuals, a researcher can say that Tom’s score is 4 points higher than Bill’s. The measurements must come from a(n) _______ scale.

a. nominal

b. ordinal**c. interval or ratio**

Calculate each value requested for the following set of scores. Scores: 3, 4, 2, 6

a. SX – 2

b. S(X – 2)

c. S(X – 2)2

**a) 3+4+2+6=15. 15-2= 13b) 3-2=1, 4-2=2, 2-2=0, and 6-2=4. 1+2+0+4= 7c) (3-2)2 = 12 = 1, (4-2)2 = 22 = 4, (2-2)2 = 02 = 0, (6-2)2 = 42 = 16. 1+4+0+16 = 21**

The mathematical expression of Σ X – 2 differs from the mathematical expression of Σ( X – 2) in each of the following ways except for which?

**Squaring takes place in one equation but not the other.**

If you could somehow magically know the mean monthly cost of ramen noodles for all college students in the entire world, that mean would be an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

What is the value of E(X + 1) for the scores 1, 0, 1, 4