U.S Ethical Approach & Human Rights – Ethics

U.S Ethical Approach & Human Rights – Ethics

This exam covers U.S Ethical Approach & Human Rights – Ethics.


Which of the following is the independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress and investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars?

Congressional Budgeting Office

Office of Finance Management and Budget

The Inspector General’s Office

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) – correct


Which of the following is a weakness in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Lack of clear enforcement mechanism

Lack of protection for groups

Lack of economic guarantees

All of the above – correct


Which of the following philosophers criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for not going far enough to guarantee equality, justice, and sustenance?

Robert Nozick

John Rawls – correct

Thomas Freidman

John Pogge


What legal provision did the Bush and Obama Administrations use to avoid detailed disclosures as to the disbursement of bailout funds?

The First Amendment

The Fourth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment

Executive Privilege – correct


If you were lobbying members of Congress to decrease restrictions on lobbying, which of the following ethical approaches would be most effective?

Utilitarian Approach – because reduced restrictions on lobbyist would promote greatest happiness for the greatest number

Rights Approach – because interacting with legislators is a basic political right – correct

Common Good Approach – because reduced restrictions on lobbyists lead to greater care for the U.S. as a whole

Virtue Approach – because reduced restrictions on lobbyists will promote good behavior


Which of the following is NOT a means by which a public sector employee at the Central Intelligence Agency should engage in “whistleblowing” conduct?

Disclosing information to the Inspector General

Providing information to the Intelligence Oversight Committee

Leaking evidence to the media – correct

Testifying in a court proceeding


If you were lobbying members of Congress to decrease regulation of the securities industry, in order to encourage more risk, greater return on investment, and more capital investment, which of the following ethical approaches would be helpful, based on how ethics and politics have impacted foreign aid during the past two decades?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach

Fairness or Justice Approach

All of the above – correct


Which ethical approach would be best for a school principal trying to justify firing a teacher for posting nude photos of herself on her Facebook page?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach

Virtue Approach – correct

Fairness or Justice Approach


If you were lobbying members of Congress to increase regulation of the financial industry, which of the following ethical approaches would be effective, based on how ethics and politics have impacted foreign aid during the past two decades?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach

Common Good Approach

All of the above – correct


Which country has seen the greatest increase in total dollars of foreign aid from the United States between 2000 and 2010?

China

Afghanistan – correct

Israel

Pakistan


Which of the following ethical approaches provides the best justification for Free Trade Agreements between the United States and foreign nations?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach

Common Good Approach – correct

Fairness or Justice Approach


Which of the following best explains the United States forgiving national debts of Poland, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq during the past decade?

Virtue ethics

Economic decline in each of these countries

Utilitarian ethics

Strategic objectives of U.S. national security policy – correct


Which of the following might result in the United States’ decision to reduce or remove military aid to a foreign country, following congressional pressure?

The country in question fails to provide equality and fundamental human rights to women within its borders.

Members of Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups hostile to the United States have found refuge and safe haven within the borders of the country in question during the past ten years.

The country in question suffers from famine, drought, disease, economic strife, and political instability and is at high risk for becoming a “failed state.”

All of the above – correct


In which case were Guantanamo detainees given the right to sue in U.S. District Court under the habeas corpus provision of the U.S. Constitution?

Hamdan v. Rumfeld

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Kiyemba v. Obama

Boumediene v. Bush – correct


Which ethical approach is most often used in arguments to support U.S. military intervention abroad?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach

Common Good Approach – correct

Fairness or Justice Approach


Which law formed the primary basis for the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling that the use of oral contraceptives for family planning purposes could not be deemed illegal per se?

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

U.S. Constitution, Amendment I

U.S. Constitution, Amendment IV

U.S. Constitution, Amendment XIV – correct


Assume that you are a lobbyist for a group seeking to restrict government regulation of surrogacy agreements. In light of existing laws, which argument would best support your position?

Decisions regarding whether to become a parent are constitutionally protected.- correct

The government has no legal authority to interfere in contractual relationships between adults of competent minds.

In the U.S. Constitution, Amendment I allows adults to freely associate with others, in the manner of their choosing.

In the U.S. Constitution, Amendment XIV bans state and local governments from regulating personal relationships.


Which ethical approach would best support an argument against euthanasia?

Common Good Approach

Rights Approach

Utilitarian Approach

Virtue Approach – correct


Which ethical approach would best support an argument for euthanasia?

Utilitarian Approach

Rights Approach – correct

Common Good Approach

Fairness or Justice Approach


Which of the following has been a contributing factor to the growing income gap in America?

Government policies regarding taxation

Lack of increases in earned wages

Inflation

All of the above – correct


In the spirit of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, what should be the legal outcome of the following scenario? A retail store refused to hire a Muslim man as a cashier and customer service representative because of his beard, which he wears for religious purposes. The company required him to either shave his beard or apply for a position as a night custodian, which was a lower paying position that would not require contact with the public. The applicant sued the retailer, claiming discrimination under the aforementioned title.

The court would dismiss the case, because the retail store did not intentionally discriminate against the applicant but was merely acting out of business necessity based on customer preferences.

The court would dismiss the case, because the retail store offered other suitable employment to the applicant.

The court would order the retailer to hire the applicant if he complied with the accommodation requirement of shaving his beard.

The court would order the retailer to hire the applicant and pay damages to him for violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.- correct


Which of the following has been deemed illegal per se by U.S. Courts reviewing cases involving discrimination and efforts to remedy these practices?

Preference point schemes given to persons based on race, national origin, gender, and veteran status

Physical tests and height/weight charts for hiring or continuation of employment

Quotas for hiring or promotion based solely on race, national origin, gender, and veteran status – correct

None of the above


What was the rationale of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Texas v. Johnson?

The Texas statute constituted cruel and unusual punishment.

The Texas statute violated the right to privacy.

Historically, the burning of flags has always been a form of political speech, and thus, entitled to the highest level of protection under the U.S. Constitution.- correct

The Texas statute violated the right to peaceably assemble.


Which ethical framework is most consistent with the rationale of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in the case of District of Columbia v. Heller?

Common Good Approach

Rights Approach – correct

Utilitarian Approach

Virtue Approach


Which ethical framework did Aristotle advocate?

Universal Approach

Fairness and Justice Approach – correct

Utilitarianism

Rights and Means Approach


Which of the following ethicists would support a preemptive military strike to deplete the nuclear capacity of a rogue nation as an act of duty?

John Rawls

Søren Kierkegaard

Blaise Pascal

Immanuel Kant – correct


Which ethical framework identifies the various courses of action, determines all of the foreseeable benefits and harms that would result from each course of action for everyone affected by the action, and then chooses the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs have been taken into account?

Common Good Approach

Rights Approach

Utilitarian Approach – correct

Virtue Approach


Which of the following philosophers argued that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights only prohibits governments from taking actions to harm individuals (negative rights) but does not grant actual substantive rights (positive rights) to individuals?

John Pogge – correct

Tariq Ali

Noam Chomsky

John Rawls


Which of the following countries has ratified and joined the International Criminal Court?

China

The United States

Russia

None of the above – correct


Which of the following is a weakness in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Lack of clear enforcement mechanism

Lack of protection for groups

Lack of economic guarantees

All of the above – correct


Which of the following philosophers criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for not going far enough to guarantee equality, justice, and sustenance?

Robert Nozick

John Rawls – correct

Thomas Freidman

John Pogge


Which political philosopher is credited with being the first to develop a comprehensive set of universal human rights?

Sun Tzu

Aristotle

John Locke – correct

St. Thomas Aquinas


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