## Correlational Research, Independent Variable, Research Study

The key terms in these Statistics chapters include Independent Variable, Survey, Parameter, Correlational, Dependent Variable, Population, Research Study, Sample, Sum of Squared Deviations, Hobbies, Subjective Well-Being, Aggression, Correlational Research, Distribution, Random, Hypothesis.

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

**Hypothesis.**

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

**Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.**

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

**Event-based**

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the dependent variable?

**Attraction level**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

**Sample**

A sample consists of n = 16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the range?

**2**

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5**12**

Researchers want to see if paying artists for their work causes them to lose motivation to work on their art. What is the independent variable?

**Paying artist or not paying artists**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. The goal of the research is to determine the average number of hours each day that American adolescents spend watching television. The researcher is trying to determine a number that is an example of a _____.

**Parameter**

Researchers are interested in what determines how easily people are persuaded. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. During the session, participants rate their attitude towards an increase in fees that has been proposed at their school. Following this, they listen to a persuasive message providing strong arguments in favor of the fee increase. Finally, they re-rate their attitude towards the proposed fee.

**Correlational**

A researcher is interested in the eating behavior of rats and selects a group of 25 rats to be tested in a research study. The group of 25 rats is an example of a ______.

**Sample**

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the independent variable?

**Alcohol consumption**

A researcher wants to see if an aspirin advertisement increases sales if it uses a doctor spokesperson instead of a kindergarten teacher spokesperson. What is the dependent variable?

**The increase or the decrease in sales**

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

**12**

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing variability?

**The distance from one score to another tends to INCREASE, and a single score tends to provide a LESS accurate representation of the entire distribution**

Researchers want to test whether increased alcohol consumption leads to risky decisions. What is the dependent variable?

**Risky behavior**

A researcher is interested in the relationship between caffeine consumption and level of stress. S/he has participants keep a diary for one week during which they count the number of cups of coffee, tea, and cola-based soft drinks they consume, as well as recording consumption of chocolate and medications that have caffeine as an ingredient. In addition, participants complete a measure of “daily hassles” experienced during the week.

**Correlational**

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the independent variable?

**Whether she has similar interests or different interests**

Researchers want to see if college students are more committed to their fraternity after going through a hazardous hazing ritual. What is the dependent variable? whether or not the student experiences a hazardous hazing ritual

**Commitment level**

Researchers are interested in influences on self-esteem. Half of the participants used in this study are male, and half are female. Participants are given a set of anagram problems to solve in a five minute time limit. Half are randomly assigned to receive very easy anagrams, and half are given difficult ones. After completing as many of the anagrams as they can, participants are given a questionnaire labeled “Thoughts and Feelings Questionnaire” that is really a measure of self-esteem. What kind of research design is this?

**Experimental**

An explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur is a(n)

**Hypothesis.**

The primary goal of using correlational research is to

**Determine the nature and strength of the association between two measured variables.**

Rhianna is participating in a study on social contacts and subjective well-being. After each social interaction that is longer than 5 minutes in duration, Rhianna logs into a site and responds to a series of questions about how she is feeling. The researcher is using _____ self-report in this study.

**Event-based**

A researcher wants to see if a man is more attracted to a woman who shares many interests with him, or if he is more attracted to a date who likes different hobbies. What is the dependent variable?

**Attraction level**

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

**Sample**

A sample consists of n = 16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the range?

**2**

What is the value of SS (sum of squared deviations) for the following population? Population: 1, 1, 1, 5

**12**