# Quantity Value Fraction Mathematics Vocabulary

## Quantity Value Fraction Mathematics Vocabulary

In this chapter we discuss Quantity Value Fraction Mathematics Vocabulary.

Divisor

a number by which another number is to be divided.

Dividend

a number to be divided by another number.

Difference

a quantity by which amounts differ; the remainder left after subtraction of one value from another.

Quotient

a result obtained by dividing one quantity by another.

Factors

a number that (when multiplied with another) produces a given number or expression.

Prime Number

a number evenly divisible only by itself and one (e.g., 2, 3, 5, 7, 11).

Composite Number

A whole number that can be divided exactly by numbers other than 1 or itself.

Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

The greatest common factor, or GCF, is the greatest factor that divides two numbers. To find the GCF of two numbers: List the prime factors of each number. Multiply those factors both numbers have in common. If there are no common prime factors, the GCF is 1.

Prime Factorization

Prime factorization of a number is breaking a number down into the set of prime numbers which multiply together to make the original number.

Fraction

A numerical quantity that is not a whole number (e.g., 1/2, 0.5).

Equivalent Fractions

Fractions that have the same total value

Numerator

The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.

Denominator

The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole.

Simplest Form

the form of a fraction when the numerator and denominator have no common factor other than 1

Multiple

The product of a whole number and any other whole number.

Least Common Multiple (LCM)

The least number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers.

Least Common Denominator (LCD)

the least common multiple of the denominators.

Proper Fraction

a fraction with a numerator smaller than the denominator

Improper Fraction

a fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator

Mixed Number

a number made up of a whole number and a fraction

Sum

Product

the answer to a multiplication problem

Reciprocal

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a.

Negative Number

a number less than zero

Positive Number

a number greater than zero

Opposites

two numbers that have the same absolute value but have different signs

Absolute Value

The distance a number is from zero on a number line

Integer

All whole numbers (both positive and negative) and zero.

Zero Pair

a pair of numbers whose sum is zero

Inverse Operations

operations that undo one another

Power Exponent

Base

The factor in an exponential equation

Exponent

A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.

Squared

A number multiplied by itself

Cubed

a number raised to the third power

Order of Operations

the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction (PEMDAS)

Rational Number

any number that can be written as a fraction

Variable

A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change

Algebraic Expression

A combination of variables, numbers, and at least one operation.

Equation

A mathematical sentence that contains an equals sign.Evaluateform an idea of the amount, number, or value of; assess.

Term

Each number in a sequence

Constant

A value that does not change

Coefficient

A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression.

Inequality

A statement that compares two quantities using <, >, ≤,≥, or ≠

Solution to an Inequality

any value that makes the inequality true

Ratio

A comparison of two quantities by division

Rate

a measure, quantity, or frequency, typically one measured against some other quantity or measure.

Unit Rate

A rate with a denominator of 1.

Conversion

A change from one unit to another, like inches to centimeters.

Complex Fraction

A fraction that contains one or more fractions in its numerator or denominator.

Proportion

An equation stating that two ratios are equal

Similar Figures

Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size

Corresponding Parts

A pair of sides or angles that have the same relative position in two congruent or similar figures

Congruent

Having the same size and shape

Scale Factor

the ratio of the lengths of two corresponding sides of two similar polygons

Percent

A ratio that compares a number to 100

Percent of Change

the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount

Percent of Increase

the percent of change when the new amount is greater than the original

Percent of Decrease

percent of change where the new number is less than the original number

Sales Tax

a tax on the dollar value of a good or service being sold

Mark-up

Artificial increase in price that creates more profit.

Discount

A straight reduction in price on purchases during a stated period of time or of larger quantities

Commission

A percentage paid to a store or employee for selling something.Probability like lihood that a particular event will occur

Outcome

a result or consequence

Event

anything that happens or is regarded as happening

Theoretical Probability

Probability based on comparing the number of possible favorable outcomes to the number of total possible outcomes

Pie Chart

a circular chart divided into triangular areas proportional to the percentages of the whole

Tree Diagram

A diagram used to show the total number of possible outcomes

Compound Probability

A mathematical term relating to the likeliness of two independent events occurring.

Independent Events

Two or more events in which the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event(s).

Dependent Events

Two or more events in which the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the other event(s).

Simulation

an imitation of a possible situationPopulationA group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same areaSamplea subset of the population

Representative Sample

a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole

Random Sample

a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected

Biased Sample

A sample drawn in such a way that one or more parts of the population are favored over others.

Inference

A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning

Mean

Mean is average

Median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

x-axis

the horizontal number line in a coordinate plane

y-axis

the vertical number line in a coordinate plane

Origin

A fixed point from which coordinates are measured. (0,0)

Four regions into which a coordinate plane is divided by the x-axis and the y-axis

Scatter Plot

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

Ordered Pairs

Pairs of numbers (x,y) that can represent a point in a coordinate plane.

Direct Variation

A relationship between two variable quantities with a constant ratio

Function

1. A relationship from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) that assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range.

2. The action or actions that an item is designed to perform.

Input-Output Table

a table of values that follows a rule; used to show the pattern in x-values and their corresponding y-values

Slope

the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change

Angle

A figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint

Ray

A part of a line, with one endpoint, that continues without end in one direction

Vertex

A point where two or more straight lines meet.

Angles that have a common side and a common vertex (corner point).

Protractor

A tool used to measure and draw angles.

Degrees

a unit for measuring angles

Acute Angle

an angle that measures less than 90 degrees

Right Angle

an angle that measures 90 degrees

Obtuse Angle

An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees

Straight Angle

an angle that measures 180 degrees

Complementary Angles

Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees

Supplementary Angles

Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees

Vertical Angles

A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines

Linear Pair

a pair of adjacent angles whose non-common sides are opposite rays

Area

Length x Width

Perimeter

the sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon

Square

A parallelogram with four congruent sides and four right angles.

Rectangle

a quadrilateral with four right angles

Parallelogram

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides

Trapezoid

a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides

Circle

A round plane figure whose boundary consists of points equidistant from the center

Center

the exact middle of a surface or object.

The distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle

Chord

A segment whose endpoints lie on a circle

Diameter

A straight line passing from side to side through the center of a circle or sphere.

Central Angle

an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle

Circumference

The distance around a circle

Pi

The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (3.14159…)

Composite Figure

A figure that is made of two or more three-dimensional figures.

Solid

Definite shape and volume

Face

A flat surface of a polyhedron

Polygon

A closed plane figure made up of line segments

Bases

the bottom of a figure. If the top is parallel to the bottom (as in a trapezoid or prism), both the top and bottom are called bases.

Lateral Face

In a polyhedron, a face that is not a base.

Edge

The line along which two surfaces of a solid meet.

Vertex/Vertices

The point at which two lines segments, lines, or rays, meet to form an angle.

Net

Geometry – A pattern that you can cut and fold to make a model of a solid shape.

Prism

A solid object with two identical ends and flat sides. The shape of the ends give the prism a name, such as “triangular prism” • The cross section is the same all along its length. • The sides are parallelograms (4-sided shape with opposites sides parallel)

Pyramid

A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex or apex)

Surface Area

The measurement of the outer surface of an object.

Volume

The amount of space an object takes up

Slant Height

the height of the lateral side of a pyramid or cone

Mathematics

Mathematics (Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) includes the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof.

Ruler

Measurement tool

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