Psychology 201 final review
This Psychology 201 final review exam cover chapter 13-16.
In Festinger’s classic experiment, college students did an extremely boring task for a long time. Afterward, they were asked to help lure others into the experiment by pretending that the task was interesting and enjoyable. Later they were asked their opinion of the task. Those paid $1 for luring more participants experienced a great deal of
cognitive dissonance – correct
In a study on social loafing, people played tug-of-war while blindfolded. Compared to when they thought they were pulling alone, people showed which of the following behaviors when they thought they were pulling as part of a group?
The made less of an effort to pull – correct
You are talking with a new acquaintance, and you move in closer. Most people will do all of the following EXCEPT
move forward toward you – correct
The systematic study of the human use of space, particularly in social settings is called
Proxemics – correct
As we speak, if I move my chair from in front of your desk to the side, I am attempting to move from social distance to a closer ______ distance.
personal – correct
Regarding spatial norms and behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE?
For the most part an ind. spatial behavior tends to be inconsistent – correct
In Western Europe, which of the following tend to sit the closest together when conversing?
English – correct
Daily behavior is probably most influenced by group pressures for
Conformity – correct
Studies of conformity indicate that people are more apt to be influenced by other if they
are concerned about the approval of others – correct
Group sanctions may include all of the following EXCEPT
attribution and social facilitation – correct
Harry and Sally’s public displays of love were met with staring, “rolling of eyes,” and “heavy sighs” by their friends and by strangers, too. Harry and Sally soon conformed to the expectations of the others due to
group sanctions – correct
In Paco’s group, all three of the other members disagree with his idea for the spring festival. In Taurus’s group, four out of five of the other…
PACO – correct
Which of the following persons analyzed a series of disastrous decisions made by government officials and came to the conclusion that many such fiascoes are the result of groupthink?
Irving Janis – correct
In decision-making, the presence of which of the following can lead to deadlock and delay the group taking necessary action?
too many alternatives – correct
Which of the following consists of getting a person committed to fulfilling a request and then making the terms of request less desirable?
lowball technique – correct
The section in this chapter entitled “Moo Like a Cow,” in which a psychology professor begins the first day of class by establishing the basic rules of conduct in the class, illustrates the students’
obedience to a legitimate authority – correct
“In order to help a young boy to overcome his fear of dogs, he is shown films of friendly dogs, and later he is exposed to another child playing and petting a friendly dog. This type of therapy is called”
vicarious desensitization – correct
In a technique called role reversal, a husband who complained of an uncommunicative wife would
act out the role of his wife in a therapeutic setting – correct
Freud believed that neuroses
involved all of these – correct
Which of the following statements regarding media psychologists is FALSE?
Most media psychologists view their work as being as therapeutic as individual counseling sessions. – correct
Which of the following statements regarding deinstitutionalization is/are TRUE?
Many former patients have become homeless or are repeatedly jailed for minor crimes. – correct
When participants receive benefits from sensitivity groups, encounter groups, and awareness groups, which of the following would NOT be a reason for these benefits?”
therapeutic alliance – correct
“When looking in the yellow pages, counselors are usually found under the heading ____; psychiatrists are generally listed under ____.”
Marriage and Family Counselors; Physicians – correct
“A behavior therapist wants to reward a developmentally delayed child for saying a word, but settles at first for getting her to say its first letter sound and then another letter sound, and so on. The therapist is using”
shaping. – correct
“____ therapy involves only one client and one therapist, while ____ therapy involves several clients participating at the same time.”
Individual; group – correct
The principal assumption of behavior modification is that
problems in behavior are learned and can be changed. – correct
Psychotherapy includes all of the following EXCEPT
the use of pharmacotherapy. – correct
Which of the following would a rational-emotive behavior therapist consider an irrational belief that could lead to emotional upset and conflict?
All of these are irrational beliefs. – correct
“In terms of its approach, which of the following types of psychotherapy is considered a non-directive therapy?”
client-centered therapy – correct
Analysis of resistances and transference are standard features of
psychoanalysis. – correct
People with drug addiction may find it nearly impossible to resist the temptations for drug abuse in their daily lives without the use of
hospitalization. – correct
“Currently, psychological services are available through”
all of these. – correct
It is wise to remember when listening to phone-in radio psychologists that
the listener, like any consumer, must beware. – correct
Freud considered the distinction between manifest content and latent content essential for
dream analysis. – correct
The desired behaviors a therapist selects for improvement (which are then reinforced) are called
target behaviors. – correct
“Patients are randomly assigned to a therapy treatment group, while the other patients are placed on a waiting list. If members of this control group, who were placed on a waiting list and received no treatment, improved at the same rate as those in the experimental therapy group, we could conclude that ____ was responsible for improvement of the patients.”
spontaneous remission – correct
Which of the following would be a behavior that would help if you were providing support and counseling to a friend?
using open-ended questioning and supportive statements – correct
boring a hole into a person’s skull – correct
The negative impact of shortening psychiatric hospitalization has been to
discharge many chronic patients into hostile communities. – correct
“Tabor, an ex-addict, now works in the mental health program that he once attended. For the new clients coming to this drug program, Tabor , who has “”been there,”” tends to be more approachable than the doctors. Tabor is a”
paraprofessional. – correct
“Problem gamblers suffer from several cognitive distortions related to gambling, including which of the following?”
all of these – correct
The basis for much of the power that groups exert over us involves
group cohesiveness. – correct
Regarding bullying, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Female bullies are more likely to engage in direct aggression, while male bullies tend to specialize in indirect aggression. – correct
A friend asks you to bring dip to a party, and you agree. Then, your friend adds that you need to make at least two quarts of it and bring at least three bowls to serve it in and three bags of chips. This party planner has used which compliance strategy on you?
the lowball technique – correct
Unconscious prejudiced thoughts and feelings about members of other ethnic groups is called
implicit prejudice – correct
In general, helping behavior in emergency situations is discouraged by
being alone or with a passive bystander. – correct
A person has fainted and collapsed on the sidewalk. Latané and Darley suggest that if the sidewalk is crowded, few people will even see the person due to
the widely-accepted norms against staring at others in public. – correct
When we bring our behavior into agreement with the actions, norms, or values of others in the absence of any direct pressure, we are exhibiting
Conformity – correct
According to Sternberg, the form of love that only includes commitment is referred to as
empty love – correct
In a study, a group of women scored lower on math and finance tests after they were reminded that “most women are not good at math.” This illustrates the concept of
stereotype threat. – correct
Your phone rings, and a voice on the line asks if you will answer a short survey about your Internet service. When you agree and spend the next ten minutes answering questions regarding your Internet service, you have just exhibited
compliance. – correct
Abe and Sandy have deep emotional and sexual feelings for each other, which Sternberg referred to as
passion. – correct
Regarding Jane Elliot’s demonstration with blue-eyed and brown-eyed children, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Although the brown-eyed children were being mistreated by Jane Elliot, their academic performance and test scores did not suffer. – correct
In his research on stereotype threat, Steele found that when African-American college students were told that a task to be performed was a test of academic ability, their performance was
worse than the European-American college students. – correct
Assume that a supervisor tells an employee to falsify information for tax purposes. The employee would prefer not to do anything dishonest but is hesitant to disobey. Milgram’s studies suggest the employee will be most likely to disobey if the
supervisor is not a person of particularly high status. – correct
Regarding prejudice and direct experiences, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Prejudices that occur when members of another social group are perceived as a threat to one’s own interests are referred to as group prejudices. – correct
Regarding the relationship between aversive stimuli and aggression, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Aversive stimuli tend to lower one’s arousal levels, making one more likely to aggress. – correct
According to research, prejudice became worse when schools were first integrated due to all of the following factors EXCEPT for the
creation of mutual interdependence – correct
The observation that we are most likely to help someone else when we are able to “feel that person’s pain” is referred to as
the empathy-helping relationship. – correct
Cognitive dissonance theory is based on the human need for
consistency. – correct
A selection committee was interviewing applicants for a new position in the media department of the college. The psychologist on the committee found it very interesting that a majority of the committee believed that the applicant who was a former beauty queen was the most intelligent, likeable, and socially skilled of all the applicants, although two of the other candidates had considerably more education and experience with college publications. The majority of the committee is exhibiting
the halo effect – correct
When members of a group show more mutual affection and when their behavior tends to be more closely coordinated, the members are demonstrating
Groupthink – correct
A “male-chauvinist” boss who vows to change his attitudes quickly reverts to his earlier sexist attitudes because of
long-standing habits – correct
Tony asks his friend Clay how he was able to get his mom to give him $10 for the movies. Clay replies that you first ask for a loan of $25. When she refuses, you then ask if she could at least loan you $10. Clay has learned that which approach works his mom
door-in-the-face effect – correct
Acceptable behavior in most situations is defined by society, as a whole, through the broadest set of
Norms – correct
A degree of uniformity is necessary if we are to interact comfortably with others and to anticipate their behaviors in schools and businesses and when driving on the highways. This degree of uniformity is due to
Conformity – correct
As Dana performs her ice skating program at the Nationals, she begins to feel like she is almost in a trance with time seeming to slow “almost to a crawl.” She feels at one with her performance and flows with it, having complete and perfect control over every movement. According to sports psychologists, Dana is experiencing
peak performance – correct
Most people in restricted environments find that they prefer
solitary pastimes. – correct
Any dial, screen, light, or other device used to provide information about a machine’s activity to a human user is referred to as a(n)
Display – correct
According to studies, juries usually
are influenced by what they think the judge wants – correct
Requiring refundable deposits on glass bottles is a good example of using which of the following to increase recycling?
Incentives – correct
Regarding “flow,” which of the following statements is FALSE?
During flow, the person experiences the subjective feeling that time is speeding up. – correct
Sid has always enjoyed working on his grandfather’s farm and tinkering with engines in the tractors and the other heavy machinery. If Sid were to take an interest inventory, his interest would most likely be within which theme area?
Realistic – correct
Areas of applied psychology include all of the following EXCEPT __________ psychology.
Comparative – correct
Regarding self-managed teams, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Self-managed teams are voluntary discussion groups that come up with suggestions for improvement that are sent to the management for approval. – correct
Space that extends about 18 inches out from the skin is referred as __________ distance.
Personal – correct
The key that underlies job enrichment is an increase in the workers’
knowledge. – correct
Sports psychologists are interested in studying factors that affect athletic achievement, such as
all of these – correct
The biodata of an employee would NOT include which of the following?
critical incident profile – correct
The world population is made up of approximately how many people?
seven billion – correct
The artificial sounds engineered into many otherwise quiet electric cars make it easier for pedestrians to detect their presence and illustrates how effective designs provide
feedback. – correct
Regarding scientific jury selection, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Psychologists watch for authoritarian personality traits in potential jurors, since authoritarian personalities do not believe that punishment is effective and often vote for acquittal. – correct
The thinking aloud protocol, in which people are asked to verbalize their thoughts as they use a machine, is an example of
usability testing. – correct
Environmental psychologists are interested in three types of environments. Which of the following is NOT one of these environments?
biological settings – correct
Which is a selection procedure used at an assessment center?
situational judgement test – correct
Work efficiency is to psychological efficiency as
Theory X leadership is to Theory Y leadership. – correct
Regarding ergonomics, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Psychologist Donald Norman referred to successful human factors engineering as intuitive design. – correct
An athlete evaluates his performance and makes adjustments to keep his performance at optimum levels. This athlete is using
self-regulation strategies – correct
Michael is preparing for an important job interview. For several days prior to the interview, he prepared additional copies of his résumé, checked over his portfolio, did additional research about the company he was applying to, selected what he would be wearing the day of the interview, practiced being interviewed by his roommate and in front of a mirror, and left for the interview early. Michael is demonstrating
impression management – correct
Which of the following is NOT a problem observed in jury behavior?
forming an opinion late in the trial after all evidence has been presented – correct
To prevent misusing or underusing your new advanced cell phone, you should do all of the following EXCEPT
try to satisfice by jumping right in and using the phone. – correct