Protein Transport & Exergonic Reaction – Biochemistry

Protein Transport & Exergonic Reaction – Biochemistry

This chapter of Biochemistry is about protein transport and exergonic and reaction.


What led Walter to study the mass extinction of the dinosaurs?

He was following in the footsteps of his mentor, a famous paleontologist

He has previously measured the amount or iridium in the KT boundary

While collecting magnetic samples, he observed some unusual rock markings indicating the KT boundary – correct

While playing with a small child, he began to wonder what had caused the extinction of the dinosaurs


After his surprising observation in the Appenes Mountains, the first scientific question Walter set out to answer was whether the extinction had happened gradually overtime or suddenly. To do this, they measured the concentration of Iridium in the KT boundary.

Match the hypothesis to the expected outcome and the actual results.

Clay was deposited slowly, gradual event

              About .1 atoms of Iridium/biollioncorrect

Clay was deposited rapidly, sudden event

              No Iridiumcorrect

Actual results (surprise!)

              3 atoms of Iridium/billioncorrect


The very high levels of Iridium at the KT boundary was confirmed in different parts of the world and supported an already existing hypothesis, a supernova had caused the extinction. How was this hypothesis tested?

Scientists looked for planetary evidence of a supernova

Scientists ruled out all the other hypothesis and only the supernova was left

Scientists tested the amount of plutonium in the KT boundary – correct

Scientists studied craters from ancient asteroids


Initially, Michel and Asaro found plutonium with the iridium in the KT boundary. Which important feature of science proved they were incorrect?

peer-review

replication- correct

hypotheses development

new observations


Which observations finally lead to the hypothesis that an asteroid had hit the earth at the KT boundary?

High levels of iridium- correct

Evidence of a mass extinction of global scale- correct

Absence of plutonium- correct

High levels of plutonium

Absence of iridium


How was community feedback important in developing the asteroid hypothesis?

Working alone allowed Walter to remain unbiased

Scientists working together were able to prove all the alternate hypotheses wrong

Scientists collected multiple lines of evidence from different fields to support the hypothesis- correct

Other scientists were able to disprove the asteroid hypotheses


Match each prediction to the type of evidence collected by scientists to support the asteroid hypothesis.

If an asteroid impact had actually caused a global ecological disaster, then we should find many fossils before the KT boundary and few afterwards.

              Extinctionscorrect

If a huge asteroid had struck Earth at the end of the Cretaceous, the we should be able to find quartz with deformations at the KT boundary.

              Shockwavescorrect

If a huge asteroid had struck Earth at the end of the Cretaceous, it would have generated a lot of heat, melting rock, and flinging particles away from the impact site.

              Glasscorrect

If a huge asteroid had struck Earth at the end of the Cretaceous, then we should be able to find the impact site.

              Cratercorrect

If a huge asteroid had struck Earth at the end of the Cretaceous, then we should find bebris flung from the impact site at the KT boundary.

              Impact debriscorrect

If a huge asteroid had struck one of Earth’s oceans at the end of the Cretaceous, the we should find debris beds containing ocean sediments at the KT boundary.

              Tsunami debriscorrect


The evidence that an asteroid did hit earth at the KT boundary is strong. But did it cause extinction of the dinosaurs? What additional hypotheses are scientists investigating?

Volcanic Activity

Over population

Climate Changecorrect

Tectonic Activitycorrect


Choose the correct statements.

Many scientific questions were answered- correct

There are no alternate hypotheses that explains the extinction of the dinosaurs

We cannot be 100% certain that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs- correct

Walter’s hypothesis remained the same throughout his journey


While making observations and discussion within the scientific community were vital to this story, which part of the scientific process pushed the process forward? Hint: study the figure on page 11.

Community feedback

Testing Ideas- correct

Societal outcomes


Which of the following is both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

nucleus

mitochondrion

ribosomes– correct

vacuoles


In plant cells, the function of the lysosomes is carried out by __________.

vacuoles– correct

peroxisomes

ribosomes

nuclei


Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?

lysosome

mitochondria– correct

endoplasmic reticulum

golgi apparatus


Which of the following do not play a role in intracellular movement?

microfilaments and intermediate filaments

microfilaments and microtubules

intermediate filaments and microtubules

only intermediate filaments– correct


Which of the following are only in plant cells?

gap junctions

desmosome

plasmodesmata– correct

tight junctions


Valerie is a studious 15 year old who is also a valuable member of her school’s field hockey team. They are 15-1 this year and have a chance at winning the state championship. However, Valerie recently began feeling ill with noticeable signs of a high fever. After several days, her parents decided to take her to the ER and the attending physician admitted her to the hospital with an ongoing bacterial infection. After several more days, doctors are perplexed that her body is unable to fight off the infection. They decide to take a blood sample and have it sent to the lab for analysis. Lab results indicate that the vacuoles in her white blood cells are successfully trapping the bacteria. However, the bacteria are not being digested by the cell.

Which organelle is likely disrupted?

peroxisome

mitochondria

lysosome– correct

Rough ER

Smooth ER

Golgi apparatus


Jim and Lisa have lived in the state of New Jersey most of their lives. They are both in their early 30’s and recently married. They have been trying to have their first child for a number of months but Lisa has been unable to get pregnant. Recently, Jim and Lisa decided to go to their family physician to see if there may be something wrong. The physician obtained a sample of Jim’s sperm cells and had it sent to a lab for microscopic analysis. After several days, the physician received a micrograph of the sperm cells and noted a structural defect in the organelle responsible for cell movement. Analyze the micrograph below and determine the organelle responsible for Jim and Lisa’s inability to have a baby. Which organelle is likely defective?

Flagella

Rough ER

Smooth ER

Golgi apparatus

Flagella- correct

Peroxisome

Mitochondria


Mary is a fifty-five year old female, who arrived in the ER at 4:35 p.m. with complaints of severe fever and pain. The attending physician took blood work and revealed that there was a high concentration of oxidative enzymes in the blood such as catalase, D-amino acid oxidase, and uric acid oxidase. In addition, there were relatively high levels of fatty acids in the blood, which the physician suggested they were not being properly metabolized. A density gradient procedure found that an organelle approximately 0.5 microns in diameter was missing. The physician also diagnosed Mary with having gout in the joints in her hands and feet, a condition which is caused by the accumulation of uric acid. That same night around 11:00 p.m., Mary began to lose feeling in her lower back. The doctors performed a routine spinal tap (ST) to see if there was an infection in her cerebral spinal fluid. This test turned out to be negative; however, the attending physician did take a biopsy which revealed the nerve cells in Mary’s back were not producing enough myelin, a dielectric material needed for proper nervous system signaling. Which organelle is likely defective?

Rough ER

Mitochondria

lysosome

Smooth ER

Peroxisome– correct

Cytoskeleton


Lauren is a senior at a nearby high school. She is a good student who does her work on weekdays and likes to party on the weekends with her friends. A few months ago, Lauren developed a persistent cough that has worsened over time. She has also had trouble breathing over the past week or so. Her parents decided it was time she see a doctor and made an appointment with the family physician. Lauren arrived at the doctor’s office the following day. The doctor asked her a number of questions about her health history and daily habits, including, whether or not she smoked cigarettes. Lauren responded that she started smoking cigarettes (about 2 per day) her freshman year of high school and does not intend to quit anytime soon. The doctor decided it was necessary to take a biopsy of the cells that line the bronchus (passageway to the lungs). After several days, the biopsy report has come back along with a micrograph of the bronchial cells. Lauren’s cigarette smoking has badly damaged these organelles which are responsible for mucous  and dirt moving up-and-out of her respiratory system. Analyze the micrograph below and determine what cell organelles have been damaged.

Bronchial cells

Smooth ER

Peroxisome

mitochondria

Cilia– correct

Flagella

lysosome


Olivia is a sixteen year old track star at a local school nearby. She arrived in the ER at 5:03 p.m. with complaints of extreme muscle weakness and loss of muscle coordination, particularly in her arms and legs! She told the attending physician that for the past few days, she had been pretty exhausted with little energy to do anything. Blood taken did show one particular abnormality. Her glucose levels were rather high although she was an athlete and did mention she ate carbohydrates the night before a race. However, this notion could be dismissed since she did not have a race in the past week. The doctors concurred that something else must be going on to render such high glucose levels (i.e. something was not breaking down these sugar molecules). In addition, the doctors ordered for a muscle biopsy to be performed. After viewing the tissue sample under the microscope, the doctors saw that the muscle fibers were ragged red which contained mild accumulations of glycogen and decreased activity for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase.

Which organelle’s function is likely disrupted?

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Peroxisomes

Mitochondria– correct

Nucleus

Lysosomes

Cytoskeleton


For a protein to be an integral membrane protein, it would have to be ________.

hydrophillic

hydrophobic

amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region- correct

exposed on only one surface of the membrane


Which characteristic of a phospholipid contributes to the fluidity of the membrane?

its head

cholesterol

saturated fatty acid tail

A double bond in the fatty acid tail- correct


What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?

large and hydrophobic

small and hydrophobic- correct

large polar

small and ionic


In which situation would passive transport not use a transport protein for entry into a cell?

water flowing into a hypertonic environment

glucose being absorbed from the blood

an ion flowing into a nerve cell to create an electrical potential

oxygen moving into a cell after oxygen deprivation- correct


Which of the following statements correctly describes osmosis?

Osmosis only takes place in red blood cells.

Osmosis is an energy-demanding or “active” process.

In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration. – correct

In osmosis, solutes move across a membrane from areas of lower water concentration to areas of higher water concentration.


The force driving simple diffusion is ________, while the energy source for active transport is ________.

a concentration gradient; ADP

a concentration gradient; ATP hydrolysis- correct

transmembrane pumps; an electrochemical gradient

phosphorylated carrier proteins; ATP


What is the combination of an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient called?

potential gradient

electrical gradient

concentration potential

electrochemical gradient- correct


In what important way does receptor-mediated endocytosis differ from phagocytosis?

It transports only small amounts of fluid.

It does not involve the pinching off of membrane.

It brings in only a specifically targeted substance. – correct

It brings substances into the cell, while phagocytosis removes substances.


Which of the following molecules is likely to have the most potential energy?

sucrose– correct

ATP

glucose

ADP


Determine if each of the following is endergonic or exergonic.

Hydrolysis of ATP

              exergoniccorrect

A reaction causes an increase in disorder (entropy)

              exergoniccorrect

Dehydration reaction to build a triglyceride

              endergoniccorrect

A decrease in the disorder (entropy) of the cell

              endergoniccorrect

Catabolism of carbohydrates in muscle cells

              exergoniccorrect

Anabolism of peptide chains

              endergoniccorrect

Diffusion of glucose across the plasma membrane through a channel protein

              exergoniccorrect

Products have a higher free energy than the reactants

              endergonic – correct

Reactants have a higher free energy than the products

              exergoniccorrect


The figure illustrates the energy states associated with the reaction A + B ↔ C + D. Which of the following represents the activation energy required for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in the figure?

Activation energy. Protein Transport & Exergonic Endergonic Reaction- Biochemistry

a

b– correct

c

d


Which of the following statements describes a central role that ATP plays in cellular metabolism?

Hydrolysis of ATP provides an input of free energy for exergonic reactions.

ATP provides energy coupling between exergonic and endergonic reactions. – correct

Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate group stores free energy that is used for cellular work.

Its terminal phosphate bond is stronger than most covalent bonds in other biological macromolecules.


Which of the following is not true about enzymes:

They increase ∆G of reactions. – correct

They are usually made of amino acids.

They lower the activation energy of chemical reactions.

Each one is specific to the particular substrate(s) to which it binds.


An allosteric inhibitor does which of the following?

Binds to an enzyme away from the active site and changes the conformation of the active site, increasing its affinity for substrate binding.

Binds to the active site and blocks it from binding substrate

Binds to an enzyme away from the active site and changes the conformation of the active site, decreasing its affinity for the substrate. – correct

Binds directly to the active site and mimics the substrate.


Choose the correct options to label the mitochondria below.

Mitochondria

Cristae

              E

Matrix

              B

Inner mitochondrial memebrane

              C

Outer mitochondrial membrane

              A

Innermembrane space

              D


In which reactions of cellular respiration does oxidative phosphorylation occur? Choose ALL the correct choices.

Glycolysis

Pyruvate Oxidation

Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport Chain- correct


Fill in the Blank.

  1. Each molecule of NAD+ can accept 2 ​ ________ and 1 ​ _________ .
  2. Each molecule of FAD can accept 2 ​ electrons and ________.

Answer 1:

electrons- correct

Answer 2:

proton – correct

Answer 3:

hydrogen atoms- correct


Fill in the blanks with the choices below.

  1. During the citric acid cycle, NAD+ is ​ Reduced  to NADH.
  2. During Cellular Respiration, glucose is ​ Oxidized to carbon dioxide.
  3. During Cellular Respiration, oxygen is reduced to ​ Water .
  4. At the electron transport chain, ​ NADH  is oxidized to ​ NAD+ .

Answer 1:

Reduced- correct

Answer 2:

Oxidized- correct

Answer 3:

Water- correct

Answer 4:

NADH- correct

Answer 5:

NAD+- correct


Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?

an agent that reacts with oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell

an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it

an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized- correct

an agent that reacts with NADH and oxidizes it to NAD+


In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate, ___

two molecules of ATP are used, and two molecules of ATP are produced

two molecules of ATP are used, and four molecules of ATP are produced- correct

four molecules of ATP are used, and two molecules of ATP are produced

two molecules of ATP are used, and six molecules of ATP are produced


 If glucose is the sole energy source, what fraction of the carbon dioxide exhaled by animals is generated only by the reactions involved in oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?

1/6

1/3- correct

1/2

2/3

All of it


Which of the following combinations of products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle?

1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2

3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and 3 FADH2

3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2- correct

6 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and 12 FADH2


How many NADH molecules are produced on each turn of the citric acid cycle?

one

two

three- correct

four


Which of the following statements best describes the primary role played by oxygen in cellular respiration?

It yields energy in the form of ATP as it is passed down the electron transport chain.

It oxidizes glucose to form two molecules of pyruvate.

It serves as an acceptor for carbon, forming CO2 in the citric acid cycle.

It serves as the final acceptor for electrons from the electron transport chain. – correct


Which of the following maintains the proton gradient across in the inner mitochondrial membrane? Choose ALL the correct choices.

The ETC pumps protons into the matrix

The ETC pumps protons into the inner membrane space- correct

Water is formed in the matrix reducing the hydrogen concentration in the matrix- correct

Water is formed in the matrix increasing the hydrogen concentration in the matrix

Water is formed in the inner membrane space increasing the hydrogen concentration in the inner membrane space

Water is formed in the inner membrane space decreasing the hydrogen concentration in the inner membrane space


Which of the following sequences describes the path by which electrons travel downhill energetically in aerobic respiration?

glucose → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen  – correct

glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen

glucose → pyruvate → electron transport chain → NADH → ATP

food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP


In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, which results in the production of which of the following sets of molecules?

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) – correct

ATP, CO2, and lactate

ATP, NADH, and ethanol

ATP, CO2, and acetyl CoA


Match the following to label the diagram of the chloroplast.

Chloroplast

Stroma

              F

Tylakoid Space

              E

Thylakoid Membrane

              G

Outer membrane

              B

Granum

              D

Inner membrane

              C

Intermembrane Space

              A


In a plant, which of the following reactions produce molecular oxygen (O2)?

the light reactions alone- correct

the Calvin cycle alone

the light reactions and the Calvin cycle

neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle


Plants containing only chlorophyll b are exposed to radiation with the following wavelengths: 10nm (x-rays), 450nm (blue light), 670nm (red light), and 800nm (infrared light). Which plants harness the most energy for photosynthesis?

X-ray irradiated plants

Blue light irradiated plants- correct

Red light irradiated plants

Infrared irradiated plants


Match the following to label the diagram.

Stroma. Protein Transport & Exergonic Endergonic Reaction- Biochemistry

Reaction Center

              D

Thylakoid Membrane

              A

Light Harvesting Complex

              B

Primary Electron Acceptor

              E

Pigment Molecules (e.g. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, beta-carotene)

              C


From which component of the light-dependent reactions does NADPH form most directly?

photosystem II

photosystem I  – correct

cytochrome complex

ATP synthase


What happens to the free energy released as electrons are passed from photosystem II to photosystem I through a series of electron carriers?

It excites electrons of the reaction center in photosystem I.

It is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient. – correct

It is used to synthesize ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation.

It is used to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADPH.


Which of the following events accompanies absorption of energy by pigment molecules of the light harvesting complex?

ATP is synthesized from the energy absorbed.

An electron is excited. – correct

NADP+ is reduced to NADPH.

A molecule of water is split.


Which complex is not involved in the establishment of conditions for ATP synthesis?

photosystem– correct

ATP synthase

photosystem II

cytochrome complex


Which order of molecular conversions is correct for the Calvin cycle?

RuBP + G3P → 3-PGA → sugar

RuBisCO → CO2 → RuBP → G3P

RuBP + CO2 → [RuBisCO] 3-PGA → G3P- correct

CO2 → 3-PGA → RuBP → G3P


Which molecule must enter the Calvin cycle continually for the light-independent reactions to take place?

RuBisCO

RuBP

3-PGA

CO2- correct


Which of the following processes occurs during the Calvin cycle?

oxidation of NADPH- correct

release of oxygen

production of CO2

production of ATP


CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they ________.

fix CO2 into organic acids during the night- correct

fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells

fix CO2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells

use photosystem I and photosystem II at night


When an enzyme catalyzes a chemical reaction, it will lower the:

activation energy needed for the reaction to occur. – correct

free energy stored in the products.

change in free energy of the reaction.

free energy stored in the reactants.

energy present in the system.


During the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis (PS = Photosystem): 

Water is split to supply electrons to PS II. – correct

NADP+ reductase functions right after PS II.

Electrons originally in water end up in ATP.

Electrons from the electron transport chain get transferred to oxygen.

Light energy is used to pump protons inside PS I.


Electron transport chains (ETCs) are used to make ATP in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Which of the following is correct?

In mitochondria, protons are pumped across a membrane, but in chloroplasts, electrons are pumped.

In the mitochondria, electrons from the ETC end up in ATP.

The mitochondrial ETC is in an inner membrane, but the chloroplast ETC is in the outer membrane.

In chloroplast ETCs, the electrons originally come from water. – correct

In chloroplasts, electrons end up in water after the ETC, but in mitochondria, they end up in oxygen.


 Which of the following will increase the fluidity of a phospholipid bilayer at low temperature?

Replacing carbon atoms with a heavier isotope of carbon.

Adding trans double bonds to the phospholipids.

Reducing the amount of cholesterol in the membrane.

Exposing both sides of the bilayer to different concentrations of a polar solvent.

Adding cis double bonds to the phospholipids. – correct


Small particles and liquids are taken into cells by:

Plasmolysis

phagocytosis

Exocytosis

Pinocytosis- correct


Two different systems are shown for transporting solutes across membranes. In the first system, sodium and potassium ions (Na+ and K+) are moved up their concentration gradients, in opposite directions, using energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the second, protons move from high to low concentration, which allows transport of sucrose in the same direction, up its concentration gradient. Which is a correct statement?

Transport. Protein Transport & Exergonic Endergonic Reaction- Biochemistry

System 2 uses a channel protein.

Systems 1 and 2 are both examples of active transport- correct

System 1 is active transport, and system 2 is passive transport.

System 1 is exocytosis, and system 2 is endocytosis.

System 2 is an example of facilitated diffusion.


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