National Assembly Constitution – History Hw

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National Assembly Constitution – History Hw

The key terms of History Exam include, National, Assembly, Constitution.


What actions were taken as a result of the Civil Constitution?

– Some church offices were abolished.
– Clergy were to be paid by the Church rather then the state- they should not be excessively religious.
– Most clergymen supported these reforms; Louis XVI also accepted this civil constitution.
– The Assembly added a requirement for the clergy to sign an oath of loyalty to the constitution changing the situation as many thought this was a step too far.


What was the ‘Legislative Assembly’

– From 1791, the government grew divided by suspicion. The more radical elements in the Assembly accuded the moderates (The Feuillants) of collaborating with the king.
– In September 1791, a new constitution was introduced and the National Assembly was replaces by a new body called the Legislative Assembly.
– This allowed the radicals, especially the Jacobins and Girondins to gain more influence.


What was the impact of the oath during the Civil Constitution?

– Only 7 bishops and half the Parish clergy agreed to take the oath- the pope publically condemned the Civil Constitution and the revolutionary reforms introduced.
– The French people were split between the support for the Civil Constitution and the revolutionary principles and those who remained faithful to the Church’s traditional role in society.
– The 1791 constitution benefitted the middle class but the San-Culottes in Paris, along with the lower-class mobs in provinces maintained disruptive powers that could not be ignored.


What was the situation in Paris by mid-1792?

– By mid-1792 the situation in Paris was dire: economic desperation continued, along with the threat of invasion. Rabble-rousing journalists like Marat and Desmoulins whipped up anger towards the king, La Fayette, Bailly, the Legislative Assembly and the Paris Commune.


Explain the Attack on the Tuilleries:

– hundreds of Parisians somehow gained access to the Tuileries. They invaded the hall occupied by the Legislative Assembly, then the apartments being used by the royal family. The king was approached by a man wielding an axe but managed to talk him out of using it. In another room, the queen and her children was surrounded by a hostile mob.
– Six weeks later, on August 9th, the Hotel de Ville was stormed and the ‘old’ Commune replaced by a more radical group, calling itself the ‘insurrectionary Commune’.
A mob was joined by several units of federes (radical republican troops from the National Guard). Together they marched on the Tuileries. Though protected by a garrison of the National Guard as well as almost a thousand soldiers of the Swiss Guard (a loyalist division of the army) the king had doubts about whether even they could protect him and, on advice, he sought asylum within the Legislative Assembly itself.
– The crowd and federes, well armed with guns and artillery, soon advanced and fired on the Swiss Guard, and a bloody battle ensued. More than two-thirds of the Swiss Guard was slaughtered; most of the rest were taken away to be tortured and killed in the city’s prisons. The crowd ordered the Legislative Assembly to depose the king and to disband in favour of a democratic ‘national convention’; it would eventually meet these demands.


What happened with The Estate System and the “grievances”?

– The three estates were ordered to create a list of grievances (cahiers) to present to the king.
– The three groups agreed on the need for a constitution, liberty of the press and an end to the internal trade barriers.
– The first and second estate disagreed on the surrendering of taxation privileges by the third estate.
– The king offered weak support, failing to take any firm decisions creating a deadlock.


How was the “National Constituent Assembly” formed?

– the third estate decided to break away from the estates general to form an independent assembly to address the demands of the lower classes.
– Clergy and nobles who favored reform joined this group calling itself the National Constituent Assembly (9 July 1789)


What was Louis XVI reaction to the National Constituent Assembly?

– Louis XVI was angered by what he perceived to be a challenge to his authority, although the National Assembly claimed to be working in favor of the king ordered that the hall of the assembly should be locked. Armed guards were posted at the door and members were denied entry.
– Louis resolved to reassert his power by overturning the decisions made by the assembly and dictating the few reforms that would be implemented.


What was the Tennis Court Oath?

– Members of the Assembly convened at a tennis court on 20th June, 576 members swore an oath not to disperse until a new constitution for France had been established.
– The Tennis Court Oath was the first act of defiance against the king-first demonstration that decisions about the government of the country could be made by the people.


What was the Storming of the Bastille?

– 14 July, 1789
– French citizens flocked to the center of Paris to show support of the new movement, as there was fears Louis XVI would bring in army to crush the gathering of the National Assembly.
– Crowds in Paris stormed in Bastille to seize guns and ammunition being stored to use against the King soldiers
– Those defending were killed


What was ‘The Great Fear’?

– Panic spread among the provenance after rumors that the king would overthrow the revolution. Peasants seized property from landlord and stole food from stores; records of services and taxes to be paid by the peasants were destroyed.
– Revolution gained momentum across France. Nobles (the émigrés) fled abroad to persuade other European monarchies to land support in putting down the rebellion.


Explain the ‘August Decrees’

– The National Assembly issued the August Decrees- a series of new laws that effectively brought about the end of feudalism in France; granting more rights to peasants and workers.
– Nobility agreed to abolish compulsory service by peasants including unpaid work to repair roads and abandon the taxes that peasants usually had to pay their landlords at harvest time.
– The decrees also abolished law courts run by the nobility. The church gave up the right to collect payments from the rest of the population, previously adding greatly to its wealth.


Explain the “Declarations of the Rights of Man’

– 26th August 1789: The Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of a Man: Based on the American Declaration of Independence and was the first step in establishing a constitution for France stating:
– All men were born free and equal, they had the right of equality, liberty, security and property.
– Imprisonment without trial would be banned
– Taxation was to be fairly apportioned to al people based on their wealth sovereignty lay with the people, no individual or group should be allowed to make decisions that went against the will of the people.


What was the role of the Church during the French Revolution in the 1790s?

– The church was a symbol of the Ancien Regime thus becoming a target for reformers.
– Monasteries were dissolved and the church’s right to raise taxes was abolished. Although these weren’t controversial, leading to no protests or support for the pope.


What was the ‘Civil Constitution’?

July, 1790 the Assembly introduced the civil constitution of the clergy:
• The pope was deprived of his authority over the Church of France.
• He could no longer appoint archbishops or bishops; they were to be elected by state officials.
• The number of bishops (districts under the control of a bishop) was reduced.


What actions were taken as a result of the Civil Constitution?

– Some church offices were abolished.
– Clergy were to be paid by the Church rather then the state- they should not be excessively religious.
– Most clergymen supported these reforms; Louis XVI also accepted this civil constitution.
– The Assembly added a requirement for the clergy to sign an oath of loyalty to the constitution changing the situation as many thought this was a step too far.


What was the impact of the oath during the Civil Constitution?

– Only 7 bishops and half the Parish clergy agreed to take the oath- the pope publically condemned the Civil Constitution and the revolutionary reforms introduced.
– The French people were split between the support for the Civil Constitution and the revolutionary principles and those who remained faithful to the Church’s traditional role in society.
– The 1791 constitution benefitted the middle class but the San-Culottes in Paris, along with the lower-class mobs in provinces maintained disruptive powers that could not be ignored.


What was the ‘Legislative Assembly’

– From 1791, the government grew divided by suspicion. The more radical elements in the Assembly accuded the moderates (The Feuillants) of collaborating with the king.
– In September 1791, a new constitution was introduced and the National Assembly was replaces by a new body called the Legislative Assembly.
– This allowed the radicals, especially the Jacobins and Girondins to gain more influence.


What was the ‘Legislative Assembly’

– From 1791, the government grew divided by suspicion. The more radical elements in the Assembly accuded the moderates (The Feuillants) of collaborating with the king.
– In September 1791, a new constitution was introduced and the National Assembly was replaces by a new body called the Legislative Assembly.
– This allowed the radicals, especially the Jacobins and Girondins to gain more influence.


What was the situation in Paris by mid-1792?

– By mid-1792 the situation in Paris was dire: economic desperation continued, along with the threat of invasion. Rabble-rousing journalists like Marat and Desmoulins whipped up anger towards the king, La Fayette, Bailly, the Legislative Assembly and the Paris Commune.


Explain the Attack on the Tuilleries:

– hundreds of Parisians somehow gained access to the Tuileries. They invaded the hall occupied by the Legislative Assembly, then the apartments being used by the royal family. The king was approached by a man wielding an axe but managed to talk him out of using it. In another room, the queen and her children was surrounded by a hostile mob.
– Six weeks later, on August 9th, the Hotel de Ville was stormed and the ‘old’ Commune replaced by a more radical group, calling itself the ‘insurrectionary Commune’.
A mob was joined by several units of federes (radical republican troops from the National Guard). Together they marched on the Tuileries. Though protected by a garrison of the National Guard as well as almost a thousand soldiers of the Swiss Guard (a loyalist division of the army) the king had doubts about whether even they could protect him and, on advice, he sought asylum within the Legislative Assembly itself.
– The crowd and federes, well armed with guns and artillery, soon advanced and fired on the Swiss Guard, and a bloody battle ensued. More than two-thirds of the Swiss Guard was slaughtered; most of the rest were taken away to be tortured and killed in the city’s prisons. The crowd ordered the Legislative Assembly to depose the king and to disband in favour of a democratic ‘national convention’; it would eventually meet these demands.


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