### Hypothesis Test, Type I Error, Null Hypothesis, Standard Error

The key terms in these Statistic chapters include Type I Error, Type II Error, Hypothesis Test, The Probability, Null Hypothesis, Standard Error, Sample, Decreases The Probability, Population, Treatment Effect, Correlation, Research Study,

When is there a risk of a Type I error?

**a) whenever Ho is rejected**

b) whenever H1 is rejected

c) whenever the decision is “fail to reject Ho”

d) the risk of a Type I error is independent of the decision from a hypothesis test

Which of the following is an accurate definition of a Type II error?

a) rejecting a false null hypothesis

b) rejecting a true null hypothesis**c) failing to reject a false null hypothesis**

d) failing to reject a true null hypothesis

What is the consequence of a Type I error?

a) concluding that a treatment has an effect when it really does

b) concluding that a treatment has no effect when it really has no effect

c) concluding that a treatment has no effect when it really does**d) concluding that a treatment has an effect when it really has no effect**

##### What is the consequence of a Type II error?

a) concluding that a treatment has an effect when it really does

b) concluding that a treatment has no effect when it really has no effect**c) concluding that a treatment has no effect when it really does**

d) concluding that a treatment has an effect when it really has no effect

When is there a risk of a Type I error?

**a) whenever Ho is rejected**

b) whenever H1 is rejected

c) whenever the decision is “fail to reject Ho”

d) the risk of a Type I error is independent of the decision from a hypothesis test

A population is normally distributed with a mean of µ = 145 and σ = 20. Which is the percentile rank for X = 136?

**32.64%**

When is there a risk of a Type II error?

a) whenever Ho is rejected

b) whenever H1 is rejected**c) whenever the decision is “fail to reject Ho”**

d) the risk of a Type II error is independent of the decision from a hypothesis test

If a treatment has a very small effect, what is a likely outcome for a hypothesis test evaluating the treatment?

a) a type I error**b) a type II error**

c) correctly reject the null hypothesis

d) correctly fail to reject the null hypothesis

You complete a hypothesis test using a = .05, and based on the evidence from the sample, your decision is to reject the null hypothesis. Which of the following is true?

a) you have made a type I error

b) you have made a type II error**c) you might have made a type I error, but the probability is less than 5%**

d) you have made the correct decision

You complete a hypothesis test using a = .05, and based on the evidence from the sample, your decision is to reject the null hypothesis. If the treatment actually does have an effect, which of the following is true?

a) you have made a type I error

b) you have made a type II error

c) you might have made a type I error, but the probability is only 5% at most**d) you have made the correct decision**

A Spearman correlation coefficient should be computed to assess the correlation between variables when both variables are measured using a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

You complete a hypothesis test using a = .05, and based on the evidence from the sample, your decision is to reject the null hypothesis. If the treatment actually has no effect, which of the following is true?

**a) you have made a type I error**

b) you have made a type II error

c) you might have made a type I error, but the probability is only 5% at most

d) you have made the correct decision

You complete a hypothesis test using a = .05, and based on the evidence from the sample, your decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis. If the treatment actually has no effect, which of the following is true?

a) you have made a type I error**b) you have made a type II error**

c) you might have made a type I error, but the probability is only 5% at most

d) you have made the correct decision

If a treatment has a very small effect, what is a likely outcome for a hypothesis test evaluating the treatment?

a) a type I error**b) a type II error**

c) correctly reject the null hypothesis

d) correctly fail to reject the null hypothesis

You complete a hypothesis test using a = .05, and based on the evidence from the sample, your decision is to reject the null hypothesis. Which of the following is true?

a) you have made a type I error

b) you have made a type II error**c) you might have made a type I error, but the probability is less than 5%**

d) you have made the correct decision

**Positive**

The results from a research study indicate that adolescents who watch more violent content on television also tend to engage in more violent behavior than their peers. The correlation between amount of television violence consumed and amount of violent behavior is an example of a _____ correlation.

What is the relationship between the alpha level, the size of the critical region, and the risk of a Type I error?

**a) as the alpha level increases, the size of the critical region increases, and the risk of a Type I error increases**

b) as the alpha level increases, the size of the critical region increases, and the risk of a Type I error decreases

c) as the alpha level increases, the size of the critical region decreases, and the risk of Type I error increases

d) as the alpha level increases, the size of the critical region decreases, and the risk of a Type I error decreases

Consider that a researcher is examining the relationship between amounts of physical activity and weight among adults. The researcher goes to a local athletics club to sample individuals who frequently exercise to examine the correlation between physical activity and weight. What is the most prominent concern regarding this research study that may obscure the true nature of the relationship between physical activity and weight among the population of adults?

**Restriction of range**

Which of the following correctly describes the effect of increasing the alpha level (for example, from .01 to .05)?

**a) increase the likelihood of rejecting Ho and increase the risk of a Type I error**

b) decrease the likelihood of rejecting Ho and increase the risk of a Type I error

c) increase the likelihood of rejecting Ho and decrease the risk of a Type I error

d) decrease the likelihood of rejecting Ho and decrease the risk of a Type I error

By selecting a larger alpha level, a researcher is ________.

a) attempting to make it easier to reject Ho

b) better able to detect a treatment effect

c) increasing the risk of a type I error**d) all of the other options are the results of selecting a larger alpha level**

A researcher conducts a hypothesis test to examine the hypothesis that stress is positively associated with greater impulsive decision-making. Which statement below is consistent with the null hypothesis for this hypothesis test?

**ρ ≤ 0**

What is the effect of decreasing the alpha level (for example, from a = .05 to a = .01)?

a) it decreases the probability of a type I error

b) it decreases the size of the critical region

c) it decreases the probability that the sample will fall into the critical region**d) all of the other options are results of decreasing alpha**

Which of the following accurately describes the effect of increasing the sample size?

a) increases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error**b) decreases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error**

c) increases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error

d) decreases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error

Which of the following accurately describes the effect of increasing the alpha level?

a) increases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error

b) decreases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error**c) increases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error**

d) decreases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error

A population is normally distributed with a mean of µ = 145 and σ = 20. Which is the percentile rank for X = 136?

**32.64%**

Which of the following accurately describes the effect of increasing the sample size?

a) increases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error**b) decreases the standard error and has no effect on the risk of a type I error**

c) increases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error

d) decreases the risk of a type I error and has no effect on the standard error

A Spearman correlation coefficient should be computed to assess the correlation between variables when both variables are measured using a(n) _____ scale of measurement.

**Ordinal**

The results from a research study indicate that adolescents who watch more violent content on television also tend to engage in more violent behavior than their peers. The correlation between amount of television violence consumed and amount of violent behavior is an example of a _____ correlation.

**Positive**

Consider that a researcher is examining the relationship between amounts of physical activity and weight among adults. The researcher goes to a local athletics club to sample individuals who frequently exercise to examine the correlation between physical activity and weight. What is the most prominent concern regarding this research study that may obscure the true nature of the relationship between physical activity and weight among the population of adults?

**Restriction of range**

A researcher conducts a hypothesis test to examine the hypothesis that stress is positively associated with greater impulsive decision-making. Which statement below is consistent with the null hypothesis for this hypothesis test?

**ρ ≤ 0**

What is indicated by a Pearson correlation of r = +1.00 between X and Y?

**Each time X increases, there is a perfectly predictable increase in Y**

A linear regression equation is computed for a sample of n = 13 pairs of X and Y scores. For the analysis of regression testing the significance of the equation, what are the df values for the F-ratio?

**df = 1, 11**

A set of n = 10 pairs of scores has Σ X = 20, Σ Y = 30, and Σ XY = 74. What is the value of SP for these data?

**SP = 14**

Which of the following is not an aspect involved in computing the sum of products ( SP) of deviations?

**Subtracting the total sum of squares collapsed across all scores**