Hypertension Drugs – Pharmacology for Nurses

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Chapter 22: Hypertension & Antihypertensive Drugs Test, Pharmacology for Nurses

The key terms in this Pharmacology course Hypertension & Antihypertensive Drugs, Nurse, Patient, Therapy, Enzyme Inhibitor, Angiotensin, Blood Pressure, Drug Therapy, Beta Blockers, Angiotensin Receptor Blocker (ARB), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors


The nurse understands a patient who is treated for hypertension may be switched to an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) because of which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor adverse effect?

Dry, nonproductive cough

Hypokalemia

Orthostatic hypotension

Fatigue

ACE inhibitors block the breakdown of bradykinins and may cause a dry, nonproductive cough. ARBs do not block this breakdown, thus minimizing this adverse effect. ACE inhibitors and ARBs are equally effective for the treatment of hypertension, but ARBs do not cause cough.


When counseling a male patient about the possible adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs, the nurse will discuss which potential problem?

Bradycardia

Impotence

Increased libido

Weight gain

Sexual dysfunction is a common complication of antihypertensive medications and may be manifested in men as decreased libido or impotence. The other options are incorrect.


A patient’s blood pressure elevates to 270/150 mm Hg, and a hypertensive emergency is obvious. He is transferred to the intensive care unit and started on a sodium nitroprusside (Nipride) drip to be titrated per his response. With this medication, the nurse knows that the maximum dose of this drug should be infused for how long?

10 minutes

1 hour

24 hours

30 minutes

Sodium nitroprusside is a potent vasodilator and may lead to extreme decreases in the patient’s blood pressure. For this reason, it is never infused at the maximum dose for more than 10 minutes. If this drug does not control a patient’s blood pressure after 10 minutes, it will most likely be ordered to be discontinued. The other times listed are incorrect.


A patient who has been taking antihypertensive drugs for a few months states that a new, persistent dry cough is very bothersome. The nurse knows that this cough is an adverse effect of which class of antihypertensive drugs?

Beta blockers

Calcium channel blockers

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

ACE inhibitors cause a characteristic dry, nonproductive cough that reverses when therapy is stopped. The other drug classes do not cause this cough.


A patient with primary hypertension is prescribed drug therapy for the first time. The patient asks how long drug therapy will be needed. Which answer by the nurse is the correct response?

“Therapy for high blood pressure is usually lifelong.”

“This therapy will go on until your symptoms disappear.”

“This therapy will take about 3 months.”

“This therapy will take about a year.”

There is no cure for the disease, and treatment will be lifelong. The other answers are not appropriate.


A patient is to receive enalapril (Vasotec) 5 mg IV every 6 hours. Each dose is given over 5 minutes. The medication is available in an injectable form, 1.25 mg/mL. Identify how many milliliters of medication will the nurse draw up for each dose. __

4 mL

1.25mg:1 mL :: 5 mg:x mL.
(1.25 × x) = (1 × 5); 1.25x = 5; x = 4.