Lifespan Human Development – Psychology

Quiz 1 Lifespan Human Development – Psychology

Lifespan Human Development

An approach to studying human development that examines ways in which individuals grow, change, and stay the same throughout their lives, from conception to death.


Physical Development

Body maturation, including body size, proportion, appearance, health, and perceptual abilities.


Cognitive Development

Maturation of mental processes and tools individuals use to obtain knowledge, think, and solve problems.


Socioemotional Development

Maturation of social and emotional functioning, which includes changes in personality, emotions, personal perceptions, social skills, and interpersonal relationships.


Emerging Adulthood

An extended transition to adulthood that takes place from ages 18 to 25, in which a young person is no longer an adolescent yet has not assumed the roles that comprise adulthood.


Plasticity

A characteristic of development refers to malleability or openness to change in response to experience


Resilience

The ability to adapt to serious adversity.


Context

Unique conditions in which a person develops, including aspects of the physical and social environment such as family, neighborhood, culture, and historical time period.


Cohort

A generation of people born at the same time, influenced by the same historical and cultural conditions.


Culture

verses


Continuous Development

The view that development consists of gradual cumulative changes in existing skills and capacities.


Discontinuous Development

The view that growth entails abrupt transformations in abilities and capacities in which new ways of interacting with the world emerge.


Nature–Nurture Issue

A debate within the field of human development regarding whether development is caused by nature (genetics or heredity) or nurture (the physical and social environment).


Theory

An organized set of observations to describe, explain, and predict a phenomenon.


Hypotheses

A proposed explanation for a phenomenon that can be tested.


Psychoanalytic Theories

A perspective introduced by Freud that development and behavior are stage-like and influenced by inner drives, memories, and conflicts of which an individual is unaware and cannot control.


Behaviorism

A theoretical approach that studies how observable behavior is controlled by the physical and social environment through conditioning.


Classical Conditioning

A form of learning in which an environmental stimulus becomes associated with stimuli that elicit reflex responses.


Operant Conditioning

A form of learning in which behavior increases or decreases based on environmental consequences.


Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, the process by which a behavior is followed by a desirable outcome increases the likelihood of a response.


Punishment

In operant conditioning, the process in which a behavior is followed by an aversive or unpleasant outcome that decreases the likelihood of a response.


Social Learning Theory

An approach that emphasizes the role of modeling and observational learning over people’s behavior in addition to reinforcement and punishment.


Observational Learning

Learning that occurs by watching and imitating models, as posited by social learning theory.


Reciprocal Determinism

A perspective positing that individuals and the environment interact and influence each other.


Cognitive-developmental Theory

A perspective posited by Piaget that views individuals as active explorers of their world, learning by interacting with the world around them, and describes cognitive development as progressing through stages.


Cognitive Schemas

A mental representation, such as concepts, ideas, and ways of interacting with the world.


Information Processing Theory

A perspective that uses a computer analogy to describe how the mind receives information and manipulates, stores, recalls, and uses it to solve problems.


Sociocultural Theory

Vygotsky’s theory that individuals acquire culturally relevant ways of thinking through social interactions with members of their culture.


Bioecological Systems Theory

A theory introduced by Bronfenbrenner that emphasizes the role of context in development, positing that contexts are organized into a series of systems in which individuals are embedded and that interact with one another and the person to influence development.


Microsystem

In bioecological systems theory, the innermost level of context, which includes an individual’s immediate physical and social environment.


Mesosystem

In bioecological systems theory, the relations and interactions among microsystems.


Exosystem

In bioecological systems theory, social settings in which an individual does not participate but has an indirect influence on development.


Macrosystem

In bioecological systems theory, the sociohistorical context—cultural values, laws, and cultural values—in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded, posing indirect influences on individuals.


Chronosystem

In bioecological systems theory, refers to how the people and contexts change over time.


Ethology

Emphasizes the evolutionary basis of behavior and its adaptive value in ensuring survival of a species.


Evolutionary Developmental Theory

A perspective that applies principles of evolution and scientific knowledge about the interactive influence of genetic and environmental mechanisms to understand the adaptive value of developmental changes that are experienced with age.


Scientific Method

The process of forming and answering questions using systematic observations and gathering information.


Naturalistic Observation

A research method in which a researcher views and records an individual’s behavior in natural, real-world settings.


Structured Observation

An observational measure in which an individual’s behavior is viewed and recorded in a controlled environment; a situation created by the experimenter.


Open-Ended Interview

A research method in which a researcher asks a participant questions using a flexible, conversational style and may vary the order of questions, probe, and ask follow-up questions based on the participant’s responses.


Structured Interview

A research method in which each participant is asked the same set of questions in the same way.


Questionnaire

A research method in which researchers use a survey or set of questions to collect data from large samples of people.


Correlational Research

A research design that measures relationships among participants’ measured characteristics, behaviors, and development.


Experimental Research

A research design that permits inferences about cause and effect by exerting control, systematically manipulating a variable, and studying the effects on measured variables.


Dependent Variable

The behavior under study in an experiment; it is expected to be affected by changes in the independent variable.


Independent Variable

The factor proposed to change the behavior under study in an experiment; it is systematically manipulated during an experiment.


Random Assignment

A method of assigning participants that ensures each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental group or control group.


Cross-Sectional Research Study

A developmental research design that compares people of different ages at a single point in time to infer age differences.


Longitudinal Research Study

A developmental study in which one group of participants is studied repeatedly to infer age changes.


Sequential Research Design

A developmental design in which multiple groups of participants of different ages are followed over time, combining cross-sectional and longitudinal research.


Informed Consent

A participant’s informed (knowledge of the scope of the research and potential harm and benefits of participating), rational, and voluntary agreement to participate in a study.


Autonomy

The ability to make and carry out decisions independently.


Applied Developmental Science

A field that studies lifespan interactions between individuals and the contexts in which they live and applies research findings to real-world settings, such as to influence social policy and create interventions.


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