Neuron And Body Cells System-Psychology

Neuron And Body Cells System-Psychology

In This Chapter We Study About Neuron And Body Cells System-Psychology


The branch of psychology that is focused on understanding the internal physical events and processes that correspond with our experiences and behavior is called:

biological psychology – correct

cognitive psychology

clinical psychology

humanistic psychology


The cell body of a neuron:

provides the energy needed for the neuron to function.

regenerates about every 3 months.

manufactures myelin.

directs the creation of new neurons in response to new learning experiences. – correct


The amount of information that a neuron can receive increases with the number of _____ that the neuron has.

cell bodies

glial cells

dendrites – correct

axons


Which part of the neuron receives messages from other neurons?

dendrite – correct

axon

myelin sheath

nucleus


The part of the neuron that carries messages to other cells in the body is the:

nucleus

dendrite

axon – correct

soma


Compared to neurons that do not have myelin, neurons with myelin:

can communicate up to approximately 15 times faster. – correct

use much more energy.

do not have an axon.

are unable to communicate with other neurons.


As a general rule, communication within a neuron progresses from:

the cell body to the soma to the nucleus.

the axon to the dendrites to the cell body.

the myelin to the nucleus to the nodes of Ranvier.

the dendrites to the cell body to the axon. – correct


The all-or-none law refers to the fact that:

the myelin sheath either completely covers an axon or it does not.

either the neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or it is not sufficiently stimulated and the action potential does not occur. – correct

the resting potential occurs only when the neuron is completely depolarized.

a neurotransmitter is completely reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron or it is dissolved in the synaptic gap.


The point of communication between two neurons is called the:

nodes of Ranvier

neurotransmitters

glial cells

synapse – correct


Which of the following best defines a neurotransmitter?

a chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons – correct

a special magnetic wave used to generate detailed images of individual neurons

a microscopic channel through which sodium and potassium ions pass

a chemical communicator manufactured by glial cells


In synaptic transmission, the action potential stimulates the release of:

potassium ions by the glial cells.

myelin by the glial cells.

neurotransmitters by the synaptic vesicles. – correct

sodium ions by the dendrites.


What happens to the neurotransmitters that fail to attach to a receptor site?

They are destroyed by glial cells.

They bind with potassium ions.

In a process called depolarization, they are neutralized by negative ions.

In a process called reuptake, they are reabsorbed by the sending neuron and recycled. – correct


Like a key in a lock, the shape of the _____ must fit the _____ to affect the postsynaptic neuron.

dendrite; axon terminal

cell body; axon terminal

neurotransmitter; dendrite’s receptor site – correct

synaptic vesicle; dendrite’s receptor site


Which of the following is NOT one of the ways discussed in the text that drugs can interfere with synaptic transmission?

by mimicking a particular neurotransmitter and producing the same effect

by blocking a receptor site and preventing the neurotransmitter from having an effect

by bonding with the neurotransmitter and changing its molecular weight and shape – correct

by increasing the length of time a neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic gap, strengthening its effects


Stimulus threshold is:

the maximum amount of information needed in order for the neuron to fire the action potential

the firing of the message down the axon

the minimum amount of information needed in order for the neuron to fire the action potential – correct

the point where you will blow up at your friend


The peripheral nervous system is made up of:

all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system

the brain and the spinal cord – correct

motor neurons

the brain


You decide to go on a hike.  The conscious decision to move your legs and climb over the rocks is utilizing which nervous system?

parasympathetic

autonomic

somatic – correct

endocrine


The two main subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _____ nervous system and the _____ nervous system.

somatic; autonomic

sympathetic; parasympathetic

autonomic; spinal – correct

reticular; adrenal


Malcolm heard a strange thumping noise just outside his bedroom window in the middle of the night. He froze in fear, and his heart began to pound. Malcolm’s heightened physical arousal involved the activation of which subdivision of the nervous system?

reticular

endocrine

parasympathetic

sympathetic – correct


Maria heard a strange thumping noise just outside her bedroom window in the middle of the night.  Hearing a muffled meow, Maria realized that her cat was locked in the closet and was pushing against the door. Breathing a sigh of relief, Maria let the cat out of the closet and went back to bed. Which subdivision of the nervous system helped calm down and restore Maria’s body functioning back to normal?

sympathetic

somatic

parasympathetic – correct

endocrine


The heightened physical arousal that characterizes the fight-or-flight response involves the _____ branch of the nervous system.

somatic

sympathetic – correct

spinal

parasympathetic


In general, the sympathetic nervous system _____, while the parasympathetic nervous system _____.

arouses and mobilizes; maintains and conserves – correct

maintains and conserves; arouses and mobilizes

transmits sensory information; transmits motor information

transmits motor information; transmits sensory information


The central nervous system is composed of:

just the brain

brain and spinal chord

all other parts of the body except the brain and spinal chord

just the spinal chord – correct


The command-center of the body’s nervous system is the:

spinal chord

endocrine system

heart

brain – correct


The autonomic nervous system is responsible for all of the following functions, EXCEPT:

breathing

voluntary motor functions – correct

pupil dilation

orgas


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