Fundamental Social Behavior – Psychology

Fundamental Social Behavior – Psychology

This lesson is about Fundamental Social Behavior – Psychology


During lunch a group of computer science majors were discussing their choice of field. One student admitted that he had once considered becoming an accountant but decided against it because “accountants are all boring number crunchers without an ounce of creativity.” This statement best reflects the:

out-group homogeneity effect. – correct

fundamental attribution error.

just-world hypothesis.

cognitive dissonance.


When behaviors lead to negative consequences we have a tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational causes, whereas we attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal causes. This is referred to as:

fundamental attribution error.

social influence.

cognitive dissonance. – correct

the actor-observer discrepancy.


When their company downsized due to poor economic conditions, both Joanne and Trish were laid off. When discussing her situation with some acquaintances, Joanne said “Trish lost her job because she was incompetent and lazy, but I got fired because the boss couldn’t handle an assertive woman like me.” This example illustrates a social psychological principle called:

the actor-observer discrepancy. – correct

implicit personality theory.

social categories.

cognitive dissonance.


When Ainslie did poorly on the physics midterm exam, she blamed her low score on the unfair exam and the lousy professor. But when the final grades in the course were curved and she received an A-, she concluded that she had a real talent and mental capacity for logical scientific thinking. This example illustrates:

the fundamental attribution error.

the self-effacing bias.

blaming the victim.

the self-serving bias. – correct


Denis went on a diet to lose some weight. When he went to lunch with some co-workers, he hesitated when it was his turn to order. Finally, he ordered the burger and fries instead of the salad and yogurt. He felt inner tension, but then justified his choice by telling himself that some protein every day is important for good health.  As a result of his justification, his inner tension subsided.  Which concept does this highlight in Denis?  

cognitive dissonance. – correct

groupthink.

the self-effacing bias.

fundamental attribution error.


Ms. Lovejoy thinks that all teenagers are reckless, promiscuous, irresponsible delinquents. Ms. Lovejoy appears to be associating qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define this particular age group. This example illustrates:

stereotyped thinking. – correct

cognitive dissonance.

just-world hypothesis.

prejudice.


Nestor belongs to the cross-country ski club at his college but is not a member of the downhill ski club. In terms of basic social categories, Nestor’s cross-country club members are the _____ and the members of the downhill ski club are the _____.

out-group; in-group

social loafers; social facilitators

in-group; out-group – correct

social facilitators; social loafers


Which of the following is a basic principle involved in person perception?

All of the above are involved in person perception. – correct

In every situation, you evaluate people partly in terms of how you expect them to react in that situation.

Your reactions to others are determined by your perception of them, not by who or what they really are.

Your self-perception influences how you perceive others and how you act on your perceptions.


Pamela observes that people don’t sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela’s observations suggest that people’s behavior in these situations is governed by:

social facilitation.

social norms. – correct

stereotypes.

prejudice.


The “rules,” or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation are called:

self-serving standards.

social norms. – correct

social facilitation norms.

stereotypical standards.


_____ is the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of common characteristics.

Social facilitation

Cognitive dissonance

The bystander effect

Social categorization – correct


The Prologue in the text book describes how Fern labeled the man sitting on the steps with a cup in his hand as “homeless” on the basis of very limited information, which led her to make an embarrassing mistake. This is one disadvantage of using:

in-group bias

deindividuation.

social norms.

social categories. – correct


After twenty minutes of waiting outside the train station for your friend to pick you up, you decide to go to the pay phone to make a call. Standing a short distance from you is a kind-looking older woman. “Would you mind watching my back pack so I can go make a quick phone call?” you ask politely. “I’d be happy to watch it for you,” she replies, “my ride is not coming for another fifteen minutes.” When you return less than five minutes later, the old lady and your back pack are gone. This example illustrates one of the problems associated with:

social influence

an implicit personality theory. – correct

ethnocentrism.

self-serving bias


Before Mark had even heard the details of how Allison’s car accident had happened, he commented, “Allison is so absent-minded, I’m sure it happened because she was probably talking on her cell phone and not paying attention.”  You have just committed an attributional bias called:

diffusion of responsibility.

self-effacing bias.

fundamental attribution error. – correct

in-group bias.


Kidnapped at knifepoint from her bedroom in the middle of the night, 14-year-old Elizabeth Smart was held captive for over nine months by a drifter and his female companion. When police finally found her and the details of her captivity were widely publicized, some observers publicly questioned why the girl never tried to escape or get the attention of the police. Such responses illustrate an attributional pattern called:

in-group bias.

cognitive dissonance.

social categorization.

blaming the victim. – correct


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