Consumer Behavior And Cognition – Psychology
This Psychology test is about Consumer Behavior And Cognition.
Which of the following statements is true of cognitive responses?
Cognitive responses are generally more influential than affective responses.
Source derogations result in a favorable initial attitude or resistance to attitude change.
Consumers exert little effort in responding to a direct marketing message.
Consumers form attitudes based on their cognitive responses. – correct
Source derogations are thoughts that express agreement with the message.
In the context of attitudes, which of the following describes how attitudes influence consumers’ behavior?
Connative function – correct
Ruelis Corp. is working on a new set of TV commercials. In one of its commercials, the company’s product is displayed alongside a product from an unnamed company. The commercial compares one of its products with the other company’s product. In this scenario, the commercial is using _____.
indirect comparative advertising – correct
Sapone Inc. is a leading clothing manufacturer. Linda likes the patterns and the fit of its clothes, but she is not satisfied with their quality and price. She routinely tries clothes from different clothing brands when she hears positive reviews about them. In this case, Linda’s attitude toward Sapone Inc. can be characterized as having _____.
ambivalence – correct
Steve watches an ad for a brand of soda that portrays people surfing and having a party on a beach. Steve now associates the soda with fun and exciting people. In the context of consumer attitudes, Steve’s behavior is an example of _____.
a heuristic demand
a feedback cue
a simple inference – correct
an affective cue
Freulia Corp. is a manufacturer of personal care products. In one of its TV advertisements, the shampoo manufactured by Freulia Corp. is placed near the shampoo manufactured by Magnira Corp., another manufacturer of personal care products. The advertisement compares the features of Freulia Corp.’s shampoo with Magnira Corp.’s. This is an example of _____.
the sleeper effect
direct comparative advertising – correct
An ad for Windrose Energy Drinks shows a man, wearing a suit, multitasking successfully. The ad has the caption “Get more done every day.” Marketers came up with this idea after considering that everyone wants to get more done in a day. In this scenario, the marketer’s idea behind involving the consumers in the message is an example of _____.
self-referencing – correct
Len wants to purchase a car and visits a car showroom to have a look at all the new models. In the showroom, Len assesses the cars’ key features, such as the quality, comfort, and performance of the engines. In this scenario, he is _____.
making dissonant decisions
making judgments – correct
retrieving information from short-term memory
retrieving information from long-term memory
formulating a body feedback
Diana likes Anakia, a tent-making company. When she saw the latest ad for its tents, she could recall how sturdy and easy to use they were. However, she could not recall any flaws about them. This is an example of _____.
confirmation bias – correct
Gnosis Inc. is an energy drink manufacturer. A white racing stag on a purple background is the logo on all of its drinks. When consumers see the logo, they immediately associate it with the brand. This increases the chances of them buying the energy drink. In this case, the logo of the brand is an example of a(n) _____.
retrieval cue – correct
Marketers at Raindew Cookies decide to change the packaging of their high-fiber nutritious oatmeal cookies to make them look like attractive chocolate bars. This move has led to a marked increase in the sales of these cookies. In this scenario, the marketers at Raindew Cookies considered repackaging the oatmeal cookies due to the _____.
body feedback theory – correct
rule of thumb theory
special relativity theory
general relativity theory
Robert has developed a favorable attitude toward a brand of stationery known as Impress because the brand is eco-friendly and promotes sustainability. He has since learned, through his own research, that Impress also engages in fair trade practices. Robert’s attitude formation is an example of _____.
attitude formation based on emotions
central-route processing – correct
the endowment effect
the sleeper effect
Judgment is a(n) _____ the decision-making process.
major outcome of
critical input into – correct
minor outcome of
affective feed into
estimate of the success of
estimate of the success of
Shawn is planning to gift his parents a camera for their wedding anniversary. As soon as he thought of gifting a camera, he is reminded of Armora brand of cameras. In this scenario, Shawn remembers Armora brand of cameras because:
of its lack of availability.
of its preference dispersion within the evoked set.
of its lack of retrieval cues.
of its prototypicality. – correct
of its lack of diagnostic information.
Which of the following strategies can help marketers include a brand in consumers’ consideration set?
Encouraging preference dispersion
Positioning the brand as far away as possible from the prototype
Associating products with certain goals and usage situations – correct
Reducing the brand’s association with retrieval cues
Avoiding incidental ad exposure
Marketers at Cephida Corp., an automobile manufacturer, advertise the company’s new product, an SUV, with the tagline “A must-have car for parents.” The ad highlights features that benefit parents. In this case, the marketers at Cephida Corp. stimulate consumer problem recognition by:
creating a new ideal state. – correct
making consumers involve in subliminal perception.
creating new inhibitions.
making consumers involve in preattentive processing.
Which of the following statements is true of peripheral-route processing?
Consumers’ attitudes are based on tangential analysis of the message. – correct
It involves high elaboration on the part of the consumer.
It happens when consumers’ motivation, ability, and opportunity is high.
It is an approach to attitude formation based on emotion.
Consumers form strong, accessible, and confidently held attitudes that are persistent and resistant to change.
When consumers believe a statement simply because it has been repeated a number of times, it is referred to as _____.
the truth effect
a peripheral cue
an emotional appeal
the frequency heuristic
Which of the following emotional responses is elicited with a combination of medium pitch, firm rhythm, and dissonant harmony in a musical piece used in an ad?
The insurance on Carlos’ car is due to expire, and he wants to renew it with a different company. He met different insurance agents to collect information about individual policies. In this scenario, Carlos meets with different insurance agents because:
his involvement is low.
of the information format affecting the opportunity to process information.
his consideration set has only one item.
of the perceived low benefits relative to the costs of searching information.
of the number of items being chosen.
When Martha visited her favorite salon, a salon representative gave her a new moisturizer that was yet to be launched in the market. She was asked to try the product and provide a review about it. In this scenario, Martha acquired information about the new moisturizer through _____.
The speaker at the Tomarao Enterprises sales seminar asked her audience “Would you like to be financially independent before the age of 50?” This is best thought of as an example of using _____ to elicit self-referencing.
a rhetorical question
_____ is a special case of classical conditioning that produces an affective response by repeatedly pairing a neutral conditioned stimulus and an emotionally charged unconditioned stimulus.
A conditioned stimulus is something that:
does not automatically elicit an involuntary response by itself.
automatically elicits an involuntary response by itself.
stimulates an involuntary response.
does not stimulate several voluntary responses.
creates neural pathways to aid in the formation of schemas.
According to the _____, consumers can have a favorable attitude toward an ad either because they find it believable or because they feel good about it.
implicit personality theory
efficient market hypothesis
evaluative consistency theory
John likes an infomercial about a new piece of wearable technology. The celebrity in the infomercial explains how the technology works and shows its use in everyday life. In this scenario, John likes the ad because:
both positive and negative information.
of its two-sided message.
of its utilitarian dimension.
it creates the sleeper effect.
it evokes fear appeal.
When consumers aid their judgments by inferring that brands with more frequent ads are high in quality, they are forming _____, which are simple rules of thumb that are easy to invoke and require little thought.
Anna sees an ad for Naimo Lands, a theme park. Though she does not remember the price of the ticket or the names of the rides, she remembers how the employees had entertained the crowd during her last trip to Naimo Lands. She also remembers that she was given a gift before she left the park. In this case, the details remembered by Anna can be categorized as _____.
information gathered for problem recognition
information stored in olfactory memory
recall through external search
recall of experiences
Exotic King Foods used songs from the 60s and 70s in their ads to evoke a positive response in consumers who were baby boomers. The music could have acted as a(n) _____ in classical conditioning to create a good feeling toward Exotic King Foods.
Melissa watches an advertisement for Flyhigh Airlines on television. The advertisement brings back memories of family trips during her childhood, and it elicits an emotional response from her. In this scenario, Melissa’s reaction to the advertisement can be categorized as a(n) _____.
When Eric runs out of toothpaste, he buys Shonder toothpaste. If that brand is not available, Eric purchases Smoshable toothpaste even though the store has other brands of toothpastes that are inexpensive and of good quality. In this scenario, Shonder toothpaste:
is recalled through external search.
has preference dispersion.
is part of the evoked set.
has no retrieval cues.
is bought without problem recognition.
Cathy and Don are soon to be parents. Lately, they have been interested in childcare products. In this scenario, Cathy and Don’s behavior is an example of _____.
Jonathan has always been interested in computers. He consistently reads computer magazines, attends various seminars on computer technology, and follows developments in the field through the Internet. In this scenario, Jonathan is engaged in _____.
Ron wants to buy furniture for his living room. He does not know much about couches, but he knows that the expensive ones are better than the cheaper ones. In this case, the price of couches can be categorized as _____.
a peripheral cue
a goal-related cue
an affect-based cue
Brad often watches advertisements for acne removal creams. When he listens to claims that the product makes the users’ skin clearer in a few hours, he wonders, “No one’s skin can become clear within hours. The product will not work.” Brad’s thoughts are examples of _____.
reasoning by analogy
Which of the following statements is true of concrete emotional appeals?
They are less specific and generalized in nature.
They involve emotions such as a feeling of hope.
They are effective in stimulating short-term behavioral intentions.
They are emotions that are felt when unimportant events occur.
They cannot be linked to a specific experience or emotion.
Carlon International, a leading manufacturer of orthotic aids, launched an ad that contained claims that 9 out of 10 orthopedicians recommended the Carlon brand of orthotic aids for a speedy recovery. In this scenario, Carlon International is using _____ to influence consumers’ attitudes?
many message arguments
persuasiveness of arguments
Jeremiah watched an advertisement for a breakfast cereal on TV. The advertisement was endorsed by a famous actor. After a few weeks, he could not remember the actor who was featured in the ad, but he could remember the message of the ad. This is an example of _____.
the endowment effect
the sleeper effect
Brenda is an interior designer. Before buying products for interior furnishing, she gathers information about the products manufactured by a company and then moves on to the next company’s products. In this scenario, Brenda is:
searching by brand.
influenced by product placement.
subjected to subliminal perception.
engaged in preattentive processing.
involved in selective perception.
Relani.com is a new Internet search engine. The site focuses on displaying the most popular, frequently accessed sites worldwide first in any search, encouraging users to explore the most optimal options. In this case, Relani.com avoids:
Ryan has just started a new semester in college. He attends his first lecture on statistics. Halfway through the lecture, Ryan’s disinterest in the subject prompts him to make up his mind that statistics will be boring for the rest of the semester. In this scenario, Ryan has made the _____ form of assessment.
deterministic safety decision
Jenny, a frequent jogger, sees a television ad for sports shoes that features a famous marathon runner. Viewing the ad makes her think “This must be a good product if he is endorsing it because he has won many marathons.” In this scenario, Jenny is:
being a persuasive ad viewer and a critical judge of the product.
using memorable sources that help encode associations about the product.
using credible sources to make an inference about the product.
being attracted by having her attention levels raised.
focusing on the central arguments in her persuasion.
Sarah, a fitness enthusiast, watches a TV advertisement for the latest type of fitness equipment. She is impressed by the product and thinks that she needs to buy the equipment as soon as possible. In this case, Sarah’s thoughts are examples of _____.
Which of the following is an internal search that involves retrieving information from autobiographical memory in the form of specific images and the effect associated with them?
Recall through retailer search
Recall through experiential search
Recall of experiences
Recall of inhibitions
Recall through independent search
Bill suffers from athlete’s foot but is skeptical of getting himself treated. After watching an advertisement for a particular athlete’s foot treatment that depicts a famous professional footballer being successfully treated, Bill changes his mind and decides that this treatment will be effective. This is an example of simple beliefs based on:
explanation from affective deliberation.
the truth effect elaboration.
explanations from an endorsement.
associative messages of a brand.
body feedback elaboration.
Mousetrap Corp.’s new advertisements feature Harris, a celebrity. Harris endorses the firm’s products and claims that the products work wonders. Some consumers who were dissatisfied with the firm’s products view the ad and think that he had been paid to present a positive picture of Mousetrap Corp. In this scenario, the consumers’ responses are examples of _____.
the endowment effect
the sleeper effect
The mere exposure effect results in:
an increased understanding of the cognitions in an argument.
raised attention levels toward the message.
familiarity leading to liking the object.
an increased number of associations attached to the schema.
attachment of several favorable associations to the schema.
A TV commercial for a local blood bank features a young boy in urgent need of a blood transfusion. The commercial makes viewers feel guilty about not donating blood. This ad is using _____.
the sleeper effect
A two-sided message is one that:
contains both positive and negative information.
contains information from two different sources.
has both hedonic and utilitarian aspects.
uses two types of comparative advertising.
opens up communication between two sources.
Expectancy-value models are analytical processes that explain:
the different levels of abstractness in the associations that a consumer has about concepts.
the beliefs or knowledge consumers have about an object or action.
how fear or anxiety are elicited by stressing negative consequences.
how losses loom larger than gains for consumers even when the two outcomes are of the same magnitude.
how consumers’ cultures can vary along four main value dimensions.
In the context of high effort, explain the major factors that have been found to lead to a positive attitude toward an ad.
Attitude towards the ad is considered in two dimensions – utalitarian, which indicates how informative the ad was(influenced by how reliable the source is, how strong was the message), and hedonic, which indicates whether ad creates positive or nagative emotions(was there an emotional appeal in the ad that generated response, whether the source is attractive)
Explain the theory of planned behavior.
This is the theory that links person’s beliefs and behavior. A person’s intention to engage in the behavior depend on his/her beliefs and his/her evaluation of this beliefs in the context of such behavior, which involves consideration of the outcomes of the behavior
Briefly explain the peripheral route to persuasion.
The attitude of the person is influenced by factors, other than key message arguments, e.g. attractiveness of the source.
Briefly explain thin-slice judgments based on brief observations with examples.
Thin-slice judgments are when the pattern is found based on a very limited sample.
E.g. the salad in the restaurant was not good, so the customer assumes that chef is not qualified enough and other courses will not be delisious as well.
In the context of involving messages, briefly explain a self-referencing strategy.
Self-refferencing strategies are those that involve making associations between the message and person’s experience or self-concept
Explain how the recall of brands can have an impact on decision-making.
Recalling the brand leads to consumer’s familiarity with it and, potentially, brand preference.
Explain the inverted-U relationship between knowledge and search.
Explain the situational factors that might affect consumers’ search process.
The consumers in different situations may have different abilities and opportunities to search. These factors are time constrain, information available, amount of information to process, it’s format, demographic to which consumer belongs, consumer knowledge, cognitive abilities, etc.
In the context of judgments about likelihood and goodness and badness, briefly explain the anchoring and adjustment process.
The consumer makes an initial valuation about the product, and based on that marketers can adjust it giving a new information to support or counter initial opinion
Describe framing and give an example of decision framing in consumer decision-making.
Framing is the way of presenting a choice to consumer.
E.g. if you go to car salon to want to buy a car, a sales person tells you all about its great features, but when you go to second salon,