Anxiety Stress Depression Disorder -Psychology

Anxiety Stress Depression Disorder – Psychology

In this chapter we discuss Anxiety Stress Depression Disorder – Psychology.

The three elements of anxiety and fear are

physiology, cognition, and behavior

Sally was extremely apprehensive about her meeting next week with her boss to discuss her annual performance review although she had been doing well at work. She was experiencing excessive


Sam has a spider phobia, and he has not gone to the woodshed since his wife complained of all the cobwebs in there. He has responded behaviorally with


A normal source of anxiety for a 1 to 2 year-old child is


Which of the following is a major factor in distinguishing between normal anxiety and an anxiety disorder?

developmental age, functional impairment, sociodemographics

Which of the following statements about anxiety disorders is not true?

Most anxiety disorders develop in early adulthood

Heart palpitations (pounding heart or accelerated heart rate), sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, choking, chest pain, nausea, and dizziness are

physiological symptoms of panic attack

Derealization or depersonalization (feelings of being detached from one’s body or one’s surroundings), fear of losing control or going crazy, and fear of dying are

Cognitive symptoms of panic attack

Todd is afraid of flying. He is invited for a job interview that requires air travel. He has a panic attack while preparing for his interview a week before his flight. His panic attack is

situationally cued

Fear of situations such as public transportation, enclosed spaces, lines or crowds, of being outside of the home alone is termed


For the past year, Maya has been experiencing uncontrollable worry about the future of her business, crime in the neighborhood, whether her husband truly cares for her, and her children’s health. All of these concerns are out of proportion to the actual situation. She may be experiencing

generalized anxiety disorder

Stuart has never had a romantic partner. When he talks with his therapist, he says that he is afraid to ask anyone out because he becomes extremely anxious about initiating and maintaining conversations. He is likely to have

social anxiety disorder

Which of the following is NOT on of the four groups of specific phobias?

a. natural environment phobia
b. agoraphobia – correct
c. animal phobia
d. blood/injection/injury phobia

What are the 2 criteria that determine if PHOBIA should be applied to a specific fear?

1. fear causes significant emotional distress for the person
2. impairs the person’s ability to function

Steve can’t leave home without checking the doors and windows repeatedly to see that they are locked. When he finds that everything is locked, a sense of relief comes over him. Which of the following learning principles is likely to be maintaining his compulsive checking behavior?

negative reinforcement

Sergio served in Iraq and fought in several difficult battles. Now whenever he hears a car backfire, he jumps out of his chair thinking that he is under attack. Sergio is showing a classic symptom of PTSD called


Although PTSD affects people of all ages, sexes, and ethnic backgrounds, it is slightly different in children because

children engage in traumatic play

Parents go to a clinical psychologist asking about their child who seems to worry all the time about being hurt. He refuses to go to school and won’t sleep alone. On the way to school, he often develops stomachaches or headaches. The clinical psychologist suggests that the child be evaluated for

separation anxiety disorder

The currently available data on the heritability of anxiety disorders suggest that

a general vulnerability factor or anxiety proneness is what is inherited

Why do biological theories of anxiety disorders consider serotonin to be important?

a. serotonin is lower in the CSF of people with anxiety disorder
b. biochemical challenges that alter serotonin levels are related to increases or decreases in feelings of anxiety
c. people who are prescribed SSRIs, which increase serotonin, report that their feelings of anxiety decrease
d. all of these – correct

The common ingredient in the most effective forms of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments of anxiety is


To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, a person must have abnormally low mood that

affects the ability to function in social or work settings.

People with persistent depressive disorder may also have major depressive episodes, a condition known as

double depression

Mania is not recognized in the DSM as a separate disorder because it

almost never occurs without depressive episodes

The main difference between bipolar 1 and bipolar 11 disorder is the

severity of the periods of mania

A person experiencing hypomanic episodes might not consider them problematic because they

may be times of high productivity or creativity

What describes the epidemiology of major depressive disorder

it is the most common psychiatric disorder worldwide and it affects far more women than men.

Before age 13, girls and boys are equally likely to have depression. During adolescence, rates of depression climb for girls, possibly because of

hormones, self-consciousness about bodily changes during puberty, victimization.

Passive suicide ideation includes

a wish to be dead

Compared with completed suicides, suicide attempts are

more likely in females than in males

What is a myth about suicide?

people who talk about committing suicide are never serious about it.

Neuroimaging studies of individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders have shown that

mood disorders involve a number of brain abnormalities

Stressful life events seem to lead to depression in some people but not in others. A likely reason is that

some people have more genetic sensitivity to life stress

In a interview with a clinician, a woman says, “i fail at everything i try.” Such a statement is an example of

an automatic thought

One technique used in cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression asks patients to

record their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

In behavioral activation treatment for depression, the therapist and patient

develop a comprehensive list of specific goals and activities in major life areas

Second- generation antidepressants are often preferred over first-generation drugs because

they have fewer troublesome side affects

Electroconvulsive therapy is most appropriate for patients who

are severely depressed and who have not responded to other treatments.

What are some biological treatment for depressive disorders?

electroconvulsive therapy, trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation

Major Depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern is often treated by means of

exposure to bright light.