Civil Political and Social Movements – History
This chapter is about some of the most popular civil, political and social movements in American history.
What was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) :
Student activist movement in the US that was one of the main iconic representations of the country’s New Left
When was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) :
How was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) :
They addressed problems of poverty, and impoverished neighborhoods; they organized communities to remedy certain situations. They also protested their universities’ academic policies and then, more passionately the Vietnam war.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS):
Although, they were not too successful, in 1965 they became the most visible group that was protesting about US involvement in the Vietnam War
Brown v. Board of Education
African American could not go to school with white children so her family (Brown) sued challenging the ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson’s of “separate but equal”.
Brown v. Board of Education When
Brown v. Board of Education Who
Thurgood Marshall (Charles Hamilton Houston’s partner), member of the NAACP defense team took the case
Brown v. Board of Education Why
separating black and white kids in not-so-equal facilities placed a permanent “badge of inferiority” on colored kids
Brown v. Board of Education So What:
Supreme ruled in favor of Brown and school segregation was ruled unconstitutional in 1954 spurring the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s. Overruled plessy v ferguson(1896)
1964 civil rights campaign in Mississippi
Montgomery Bus Boycott What
political and social protest during the Civil Rights movement where African Americans refused to use public transportation
Montgomery Bus Boycott When
December 1955-December 1956. Started after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Who
the Women’s Political Council circulated flyers the night of Parks’ arrest calling for the boycott. Many influential figures like MLK Jr. took part in the protest.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Why
tensions had been building in the south following several heated encounters/controversial arrests
Montgomery Bus Boycott So What
ended on December 20, 1956 when the Supreme Court ruled in Browder vs. Gayle that led to bus segregation being deemed Unconstitutional. Upheld the ruling in 1954’s Brown vs. Board of Education.
Social Darwinism What
application of Darwin’s biological theory of evolution by natural selection to the development of society. It was initiated by Herbert Spencer.
Social Darwinism When
Late 19th Century
Social Darwinism How
encouraged the notion that societies progress as a result of competition and “survival of the fittest” Also motivated people to play in the market and the strong be rewarded with riches.
Why was Social Darwinism
intervention by the state in this process thought to be counterproductive because it impeded healthy progress for society
Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of industrial American society as natural
Populists Party What
new party created by members of Farmer’s Alliance who had given up Democratic/Republican allegiances
Populists Party When
Populists Party How
empowering the constituents, asked for income tax and silver backing of currency, the ability to recall votes, pushed for labor and immigration legislation
Populists Party Why
both parties were seen as having been influenced by big businesses and lacking integrity
Populists Party So What
the first time agrarian protest truly challenged the two-party system, it also involved many women in the movement Hostility to banks, railroads and elites.
When was Cuban Missile Crisis
American Federation of Labor When
American Federation of Labor who
formed by Samuel Gompers and for craft unions. Members typically white men, exclusive membership. Had more success with collective bargaining and didn’t challenge capitalism/industrialism. They wanted pure and simple unionism, a bigger piece of the pie.
Anti-war [Vietnam] Movement So What
brought out 20-30,000 citizens, all diverse. Essentially said that war was unwinnable and no American objective is worth the suffering of Vietnamese
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) What
promoted “industrial unionism”; that is the CIO organized all the workers in an industry, from skilled machinist to broom-pushing janitors, into a single union.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) When
Equal Rights Amendment What
Stated that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex
Equal Rights Amendment When
Originally written in 1923 and reintroduced in 1972
Equal Rights Amendment How
passed both houses of Congress and went to the state legislature for ratification where it failed to receive the requisite number of ratifications therefore it was not adopted
Equal Rights Amendment Why
equality of rights no matter the sex
A French term that means “relaxation of tensions” regarding the summits in Beijing and Moscow.
During Nixon’s presidency in 1972
During his presidency Nixon had his eyes on solving the deteriorating relationship between the Soviet Union and China. These countries were basically fighting a border war. In 1971, Nixon saw an opportunity and sent his National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, to Beijing to explore an accommodation. The current leader of China Mao Zedong, and Nixon made preliminary agreements: The US would back away from Chinese Nationalists on Taiwan, permit China’s admission to the United Nations, and eventually grant recognition. Nixon then traveled to China despite publicity to ratify the deal. Nixon then shifted his focus to the Soviet Union. He already had a secret understanding with Leonid Brezhnev about Cuban issues. In exchange for an US promise not to invade, the Soviets would dismantle a submarine base and any missiles from Castro.
Detente So What
The summits in Beijing and Moscow led to the first Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT I) limiting the production and deployment of intercontinental missiles. The treaty was intended as only a first step toward comprehensive arms limitation. The agreements themselves were quite limited, but this marked a turning point in the Cold War. This brought a sense of relief to the three powers.
What was “Watergate”
result of a break-in at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters and the Nixon administration’s attempted cover-up.
attempt to gain access to insider information that would aid in Nixon’s reelection campaign.
“Watergate” So What
Lead to Nixon’s eventual resignation as President in 1974.
It revealed 2 issues for Americans: executive privilege (how much power does president have?) and millions of people watched the hearings on TV (demoralized public on economy, cultures = faith in govt was at an all-time low).
Women’s Rights Movement (1960s) When
Spanish-American War What
war with Spain over territories
Spanish-American War When
Spanish-American War How
troops (extra were budgeted for by Congress) fought along with the cuban rebels to attack Guantanamo, San Juan and Daiquiria
Spanish-American War Why
“Spain had sunk” the battleship Maine in the Havana harbor (cuba), and cubans had been rebelling for freedom from Spain
Spanish-American War So What
As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire — Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands.
STOP ERA movement
Campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Played a significant role in the fight against ratification of the ERA during the 1970’s because it would lead to homosexual marriages, women in combat, taxpayer-funded abortions, unisex bathrooms and elimination of Social security benefits for widows.
La Raza Unida When
Established in January 17, 1970.
La Raza Unida
Supported United Farm Workers. Campaigned for better housing, work and educational opportunities for Mexican Americans. Challenged discrimination against Mexican Americans.
Energy Crisis When
Energy Crisis What
period in which the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the US face substantial shortages of petroleum.
Energy Crisis Why
Included the 1973 oil crisis caused by the Arab Oil Embargo of OPEC and the 1979 energy crisis caused by the Iranian Revolution. Led to stagflation (high inflation, slow economic growth and high levels of unemployment)
Economic Libertarianism (laissez-faire)
The idea that the economy can regulate itself without need of government intervention
This was part of the Post WW2 conservatism
term given to Reagan’s presidency in recognition of the political realignment in favor of conservatism and economic liberalism
“Second Industrial Revolution” When
“Second Industrial Revolution” What
Industrial output nearly doubled, new consumer goods (automobiles, electric appliances), technological advances (moving assembly line by Henry Ford), the automobile industry became a model for consumer goods. People could now live in suburbs, which made the construction industry increase.
100% Americanism What
Common ideology of purging nation of elements that aren’t American
100% Americanism When
100% Americanism How
Suppression of government opposition
100% Americanism Why
Communist revolutions sprang up in Russia and overtook the government
100% Americanism So What
The American standard was white, protestant and Anglo-Saxon. Basis for the Palmer Raids Traditionalist Revolt in the 1920s teaching of German language, “Liberty Sandwiches”. It was basically an Anti-German hysteria. It does tie in with what mentioned above.
Milton Friedman When
He called for “capitalism and freedom” in 1962
Milton Friedman What
His admirers and critics referred to him as the “father of modern day free market fundamentalism”
He insisted that there be no government regulation and intrusion
Scopes’ Trial What
High school bio teacher arrested for teaching evolution in his class
Scopes’ Trial When
Scopes’ Trial How
Clarence Darrow, a famous criminal lawyer, defended Scopes and William Jennings Bryan, a fundamentalist former Democratic nominee for president, represented the prosecution. TN had passed, by majority, the law to forbid the teaching of evolution in school.
Scopes’ Trial Why
Teaching evolution was illegal in Tennessee
Scopes’ Trial so What
Attracted much national attention for polarizing fundamentalism and secular science and the role of religion in US classroom, as well as because it brought into question whether some things should be above majority rule.
“Moral Majority” When
“Moral Majority” What
Formed by Reverend Jerry Falwell. Part of the New Right that promoted family values and patriotism. Played a key role in Reagan’s race for the Republican presidential nom.
“Dust Bowl” What
Period of dust storms that plagued the Great Plains farmland area
“Dust Bowl” When
“Dust Bowl” How
Winds and poor farming practices allowed for loose dirt to scatter across plains and wipe out many farmers chance for healthy vegetation
“Dust Bowl” Why
Severe drought and unusually high temperatures
“Dust Bowl” So What
Major factor leading to the Great Depression
Bonus Army What
March that had veterans, families and related groups demanding an immediate cash purchase of their service certificates. Each certificate that was issued bore face value equal to the soldier’s promised payment plus compound interest.
Bonus Army When
Spring and Summer of 1932
Bonus Army How
Marched to capital and set up camps near there
Bonus Army Why
Struggling during the depression and needed relief because many were unemployed. Certificates weren’t redeemable until 1945.
Bonus Army so What
This was part of the rising discontent of Americans during the depression. “We were heroes in 1917 but we’re bums now” was a saying that summed up the need for these soldiers to get aid. Significant because this turned into chaos when shots were fired, and shelters and belongings were burned at the campsite.
Civilian Conservation Corps What
Work relief program for unemployed, unmarried men ages 17-23
Civilian Conservation Corps When
1933 – 1942
Civilian Conservation Corps Why
It provided work, ideally, for young men who needed to take care of relief families during the Great Depression
Civilian Conservation Corps How
provided unskilled manual labor jobs in conservation and reforestation to 25,000 young men
Civilian Conservation Corps So What
This was one of the New Deal programs that was a job placement program rather than a monetary handout system