### Research Survey Sample, Measurement – Statistics Final Quiz

The key terms in these Statistics chapters include Measurement, Statistics, Population, Survey, Ordinal Scale, Sample, Research Survey, Nominal Scale, Variable, Square, Continuous Variable, Square Each Score, Biased Sample, Inferential Statistics.

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

**a. sample**b. parameter

c. statistic

d. population

Students in an introductory art class are classified as art majors and non-art majors. What scale of measurement is being used to classify the students?

a. ordinal

b. interval

c. ratio**d. nominal**

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an ordinal scale compared to a nominal scale?

a. whether the measurements are the same or different**b. direction of the difference**

c. the size of the difference

d. none of the other options are correct

What is the final step to be performed in the mathematical expression, (EX)^2?

a. add the squared scores

b. square each score

c. add the scores**d. square the sum of the scores**

What is the value of EX + 1 for the scores 1, 6, 3?

**11**

If a researcher measures two individuals on a nominal scale, it is impossible to determine which individual has the larger score.

**True**

Which of the following is done last in the order of operations?

a. squaring

b. multiplication**c. addition**

d. summation

What is the first step to be performed in the following mathematical expression, EX2?

**a. square each score**

b. add the squared scores

c. add the scores

d. square the sum of the scores

A data set is described as consisting of n = 15 scores. Based on the notation being used, the data set is a sample.

**True**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

a. the age of each student in a psychology class**b. the gender of each student in a psychology class**

c. the amount of time to solve a problem

d. the amount of weight gained for each freshman at a local college

A researcher uses an anonymous survey to investigate the television-viewing habits of American adolescents. Based on the set of 356 surveys that were completed and returned, the researcher finds that these students spend an average of 3.1 hours each day watching television. For this study, the set of 356 students who returned surveys is an example of a _______.

**a. sample**b. parameter

c. statistic

d. population

Students in an introductory art class are classified as art majors and non-art majors. What scale of measurement is being used to classify the students?

a. ordinal

b. interval

c. ratio**d. nominal**

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an ordinal scale compared to a nominal scale?

a. whether the measurements are the same or different**b. direction of the difference**

c. the size of the difference

d. none of the other options are correct

What is the final step to be performed in the mathematical expression, (EX)^2?

a. add the squared scores

b. square each score

c. add the scores**d. square the sum of the scores**

For the following scores, SX2 = (SX)2. Scores: 1, 1, 1, 1

**False**

What is the first step to be performed when computing S(X + 2)2?

a. sum of the (x+2) values

b. square each value**c. add 2 points to each score**

d. sum of the squared values

If a researcher measures two individuals on an ordinal scale, it is impossible to determine how much difference exists between the two people.

**True**

A discrete variable must be measured on a nominal or an ordinal scale.

**False**

The average verbal SAT score for the entire class of entering freshmen is 530. However, if you select a sample of 20 freshmen and compute their average verbal SAT score you probably will not get exactly 530. What statistical concept is used to explain the natural difference that exists between a sample mean and the corresponding population mean?

a. statistical error

b. inferential error**c. sampling error**

d. parametric error

What additional information is obtained by measuring two individuals on an interval scale compared to a ordinal scale?

**a. the size of the difference**

b. whether the measurements are the same or different

c. the direction of the differences

d. none of the other options are correct

Using the average score to describe a sample is an example of inferential statistics.

**False**

A high school gym teacher records how much time each student requires to complete a one-mile run. This is an example of measuring a continuous variable

**True**

Recording the number of text messages you receive each day would be an example of measuring a discrete variable.

**True**

What is the value of S(X – 2) for the scores 2, 3, 5?

**4**

Although a research study is typically conducted with a relatively small group of participants known as a _________, most researchers hope to generalize their results to a much larger group known as a _________.

a. population, sample**b. sample, population**

c. statistic, sample

d. parameter, population

For the following scores, E(X – 1) = 10. Scores: 1, 3, 7

**False**

What is the value of S(X – 2 )2 for the scores 2, 3, 5?

**10**

For the following scores, SX2 = 49. Scores: 1, 4, 2, 0

**False**

What is the value of EX + 1 for the scores 1, 6, 3

**11**

Describe the sequence of mathematical operations that would be used to evaluate each of the following expressions:

a. EX2

b. (EX)2

c. EX – 2

d. E(X – 2)

e. S(X – 2)2

**a. we take the scores and square individually and then add the total. example score: 1, 2. 1×1=1, 2×2=4. 1+4=5. Answer is 5.**

**b. parenthesizes first. Place the score in the parenthesize and square total at end. example scores: 3, 5. 3+5=8. 8×8=64. Answer is 64.**

**c. take the scores subtract 2, then add together. example scores 7, 10. 7-2=5. 10-2=8. 5+8=13. Answer is 13.**

**d. parenthesizes first. place score in parenthesizes and add 1. then add all together. example scores: 2, 3, 5. 2+1=3. 3+1=4. 5+1=6. 3+4+6=13. Answer is 13.**

**e. parenthesizes first. place score in parenthesizes, subtract 2. take that answer and square. example scores: 2,3. 2-2=0. 0x0=0. 3-2=1. 1×1=1. Answer is 1.**

Although a research study is typically conducted with a relatively small group of participants known as a _________, most researchers hope to generalize their results to a much larger group known as a _________.

a. population, sample**b. sample, population**

c. statistic, sample

d. parameter, population

For the following scores, E(X – 1) = 10. Scores: 1, 3, 7

**False**

What is the value of S(X – 2 )2 for the scores 2, 3, 5?

**10**

Research Survey Sample – Inferential Statistics

For the following scores, SX2 = 49. Scores: 1, 4, 2, 0

**False**

What is the value of EX + 1 for the scores 1, 6, 3

**11**

The workers in a factory are organized into five-person teams. When conducting a work-environment survey, a researcher randomly selected 10 teams to obtain a total sample of 50 workers. The researcher used ____ sampling.

**Cluster**

Which sampling technique is most likely to result in a biased sample?

**Convenience sampling**

Dr. Ziser conducts an experiment on life satisfaction using participants above the age of 80. All people above the age of 80 would make up the ____.

**Population**

If every possible outcome is equally likely during sample selection, then the sample is said to be _____.

**Random**

The law of large numbers states that larger samples are _____.

**Usually more representative of a population**

If the individuals in a sample have characteristics that are noticeably different from the individuals in the population, then the sample is said to be ____.

**Biased**

The most commonly used sampling method in psychological research is probably ____ sampling

**Convenience**

A systematic sample does not qualify as a true random sample because ____.

**The selections are not independent of each other**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

a. the age of each student in a psychology class**b. the gender of each student in a psychology class**

c. the amount of time to solve a problem

d. the amount of weight gained for each freshman at a local college

If a researcher measures two individuals on a nominal scale, it is impossible to determine which individual has the larger score.

**True**

For the following scores, SX2 = (SX)2. Scores: 1, 1, 1, 1

**False**

If a researcher measures two individuals on an ordinal scale, it is impossible to determine how much difference exists between the two people.

**True**

Using the average score to describe a sample is an example of inferential statistics.

**False**

A high school gym teacher records how much time each student requires to complete a one-mile run. This is an example of measuring a continuous variable.

**True**

Recording the number of text messages you receive each day would be an example of measuring a discrete variable.

**True**

What is the value of S(X – 2) for the scores 2, 3, 5?

**4**

Which sampling technique is most likely to result in a biased sample?

**Convenience sampling**

Dr. Ziser conducts an experiment on life satisfaction using participants above the age of 80. All people above the age of 80 would make up the ____.

**Population**

The law of large numbers states that larger samples are _____.

**Usually more representative of a population**

The most commonly used sampling method in psychological research is probably ____ sampling

**Convenience**

A systematic sample does not qualify as a true random sample because ____.

**The selections are not independent of each other**

Which of the following is an example of a discrete variable?

a. the age of each student in a psychology class**b. the gender of each student in a psychology class**

c. the amount of time to solve a problem

d. the amount of weight gained for each freshman at a local college

If a researcher measures two individuals on a nominal scale, it is impossible to determine which individual has the larger score.

**True**

For the following scores, SX2 = (SX)2. Scores: 1, 1, 1, 1

**False**

If a researcher measures two individuals on an ordinal scale, it is impossible to determine how much difference exists between the two people.

**True**

Using the average score to describe a sample is an example of inferential statistics.

**False**

A high school gym teacher records how much time each student requires to complete a one-mile run. This is an example of measuring a continuous variable.

**True**

Research Survey Sample – Inferential Statistics