Rock Texture And Metamorphism – Geology

PART 1 Rock Texture And Metamorphism – Geology

This lesson covers Rock Texture And Metamorphism – Geology.


What are the three major rock types defined in the rock cycle?

sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic


The principle of _______ states that physical, chemical, and biological processes at work shaping the earth today have also operated in the geological past.

uniformitarianism


The protolith of quartzite is:

sandstone


The two most common elements in the Earth’s crust are:

oxygen and silicon


An igneous pluton will have what type of texture?

phaneritic


A large depression due to volcanic eruption followed by subsidence of the land surface as the magma chamber is emptied is called a ________ ?

caldera


A _______ is a mixture of volcanic debris and water that moves rapidly down the slopes of volcanoes, generally following stream channels.

lahar


If an atom of carbon has a mass number of 13 and an atomic number of 6, how many neutrons are located nucleus?

7


Which of the following locations is an example of intraplate volcanism?

Yellow Stone National Park in the central U.S.


A(n) ________ is a tentative explanation, whereas a(n) _______ has survived scrutiny over many years.

hypothesis; theory


Which of the following forces creates a foliated texture in metamorphic rocks?

compressive stress, tectonic forces, differential stress, shear stress


Which of the following common, rock forming minerals is a silicate?

potassium feldspar


Which of the following diagrams properly labels the Earth’s layers and the physical state of those layers?

the one that says inner core (solid), outer core (liquid), mantle (solid), crust (solid)


According to Bowen’s Reaction Series, the first mineral the melt in granite would be….

quartz


What type of igneous rock texture is due to tiny gas bubbles de-gassing as lava cools?

vesicular


Which of the following is NOT part of the definition of minerals

organic


Which of the following rocks would most likely be found at a divergent plate boundary?

basalt


The earth is ________ years old.

4,550,000,000


What is the definition of the geosphere?

the solid earth


The mantle is characterized by what rock type?

peridotite


The correct sequence of rocks that are formed when shale undergoes metamorphism is:

slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss


Which of the following processes can occur at divergent plate boundaries?

decompression melting


This type of metamorphism is due to relatively lower temperatures and pressures as sediment is deposited in basins.

burial


Name the era and eon in which we currently live.

we live in the cenozoic era of the phanerozoic eon


Which of the following statements about Mt. St. Helens is FALSE?

the volcano is an example of a cinder cone


Which of the following statements about a single silicate tetrahedron is FALSE?

a silicate tetrahedron has four silicon atoms


What is the name of a rock composed of fine-grained pyroclasts (dust and ash) that are cemented together?

tuff


Andesite and diorite:

-crystalized from magma/lava with the same silica content
-cooled at different rates
-have the same mineral composition
-have different textures


Which of the following diagrams shows how foliation could develop in a rock due to compression (the compression is shown with arrows)?

the one with the arrows point towards the block from directly above and below


Covalent bonding involves the _____ of valence electrons between atoms, and an example of a mineral with this type of bonding is ______.

sharing; diamond


Mafic magmas tend to produce less violent eruptions than felsic magmas because of:

lower magma viscosity


In which type of silicate structures are four oxygen atoms shared among silicate tetrahedra?

framework


A rock that has undergone metamorphism and partial melting is called a _________.

migmatite


Which of the following events occurred first and lead to the formation of planet earth?

rapid expansion of stellar matter (mostly H and He)


Which of the following rocks has a foliated texture?

slate


You observe a mineral sample that has smooth, planar sides. What could the smooth sides be caused by?

-cleavage
-crystal form


An aphanitic igneous rock with a felsic composition is called ________.

Rhyolite


Shield volcanoes have the following characteristics EXCEPT:

magma and lava that are felsic in composition


If increasing hear and pressure change basalt into hornfels, the rock has changed from a(n) _______ rock into a(n) _______ rock.

igneous, metamorphic


How are igneous rocks formed?

cooling and crystallization of molten rock


Cinder cones form due to the accumulation of ejected pyroclasts.

True


Science is a collection of facts.

False


Most volcanism occurs away from plate tectonic boundaries, in the cratons of plates.

False


Magma forms throughout the mantle because temperatures are sufficiently high to melt solid rock.

False


During metamorphism rock is melted.

False


The three agents of metamorphism include heat, pressure, and reactive fluids.

True


Quartz is a felsic rock.

False


Polymorphs are minerals that have identical chemical composition, but different mineral structures.

True


The three types of plate boundaries are divergent, convergent, and transform.

True


Partial melting of the mantle produces mafic magma.

True


What type of rock can be found at Yellowstone National Park and provides evidence that a supervolcano erupted violently in the past?

tuff


Gabbro and basalt:

-formed from magma with the same silica content
-formed at different depths within the earth
-have the same minerals
-have different textures


An intrusive igneous rock with a silica content greater than 65% is called:

granite


If an atom of carbon has a mass number of 13 and an atomic number of 6, how many neutrons are located in the nucleus?

7


Which of the following is NOT part of the definition of minerals?

organic


Which is NOT true of a single silicate tetrahedron?

a silicate tetrahedron has four silicon atoms


During the Cretacceous when dinosaurs were living, evaporite rocks were deposited in what is now southwest Arkansas and these rocks form part of the ___________ geologic division in Arkansas.

Gulf Coastal Plain


In order of decreasing grain size (largest listed first), sedimentary grain sizes include:

gravel, sand, silt, clay


This type of metamorphism occurs due to relatively high temperatures and lower pressures, without the addition of ions from an external source of water:

contact


The most common end product of the chemical weathering of feldspar is:

clay minerals


Plutonic rocks that cool slowly at depth typically have a(n) ________texture.

phaneritic


Which acid forms naturally due to rain water picking up carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and soil zone?

Carbonic


Which of the following ions or molecules is NOT a common end product of chemical weathering?

Nitrogen (N)


All of the following are true regarding Mount St. Helens, EXCEPT:

There has not been any igneous activity at the volacno since 1980


The correct sequence of rocks that are formed when shale undergoes prograde metamorphism is:

slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss


All of the following are examples of sedimentary rocks where minerals have precipitated out of an aqueous solution, EXCEPT:

shale


The temperature and pressure at the Earth’s surface is relatively lower than at depth within the crust or mantle. Which mineral is most stable at the Earth’s surface?

Quartz


The relative violence of volcanic eruptions are controlled by:

Si content of the magma
-the amount of gasses in the magma and the relative ease of escaping
-temperature of the magma
-magma viscosity


All of the following rocks have a non-foliated texture EXCEPT:

gneiss


Which of the following common, rock-forming minerals is a silicate?

muscovite


Which statement is true regarding the formation of magma in the mantle?

Decompression melting forms magma due to a decrease in pressure.


All of the following are true about compaction and cementation, EXCEPT:

Occur at temperatures and pressures similar to the formation of igneous rocks


If increasing heat and pressure changes subbituminous coal into anathracite, the rock has changed from a(n) _______ rock into a(n) _______rock.

sedimentary; metamorphic


The primary cause of fatalities related to volcanic eruptions is:

pyroclastic flows/surges


All minerals are crystalline, but not all mineral samples are cyrstals.

True


Mechanical weathering breaks down rocks into smaller pieces without affecting the composition of the minerals.

True


When minerals and rocks are removed from the environment in which they formed, they remain stable and are not broken down into new materials.

False


The magma beneath Yellowstone National Park continues to affect the park, causing changes in the land surface elevation and earthquakes.

True


Isotopes of the same element have the same number of neutrons.

False


Covalent bonding involves the sharing of valence electrons between atoms.

True


The Earths external heat engine is the primary driver of plate tectonics.

False


Volcanism occurs most frequently away from plate tectonic boundaries at plate interiors.

False


The three types of sedimentary rocks are chemical, detrital, and organic.

True


Most rock-forming minerals are oxides, such as hematite.

False


Which of the following is true concerning Bowen’s reaction series? As temperature and pressure decrease:

silicate structure becomes more complex


This mineral is an example of which type of silicate structure?

single-chain silicate structure


What is the correct mineral?

Amphibole


If this mineral has a high Ca content (as opposed to a high Na content), what is the correct term for its composition?

Mafic


The settling and/or accumulation of sediments and/or organic material.

deposition


The movement of sediment away from its source.

transportation


The physical picking up of sediment by water, wind, or ice.

erosion


Process by which sediment grains are separated according to grain size.

sorting


Processes that change the physical and chemical character of rocks at the Earth’s surface.

weathering


Process of magma evolution where Fe and Mg rich minerals separate from the magma through crystal settling.

differentiation


Process of magma evolution where minerals with higher Si content are the first to melt from rocks.

partial melting


Process of magma evolution where two magmas of different compositions combine

magma mixing


Process of magma formation due to the addition of volatiles (such as water).

flux melting


Process of magma evolution where hot magma incorporates melted country rock into the magma body.

assimilation


A(n) ________ is a tentative explanation, whereas a(n) ________ has survived extensive scrutiny over many years.

hypothesis; theory


Which process below is driven by Earth’s solar energy?

ocean circulation


The layers of Earth are based on what two sets of characteristics?

chemical composition and physical properties


The upper mantle can be divided into the athenosphere and lithosphere based on what physical properties?

The athenosphere is solid, but mobile, while the lithosphere is solid and relatively rigid.


What are the two types of crust?

Oceanic and Continental


What is the category name for the largest division of time used on the geologic time scale?

Eon


Why is the geologic time scale more detailed in the Phanerozoic than in previous eons?

The Phanerozoic Eon is more detailed because of the presence of organisms with hard parts and the rapid increase in biodiversity


The Jurassic Period lies in the _____ Era, which was dominated by large terrestrial vertebrates, or ________.

Mesozoic; dinosaurs


Name the epoch, period, era, and eon in which we currently live.

We live in the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period, which is part of the Cenozoic Era and Phanerozoic Eon


What are the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust?

Oxygen and Silicon


What minerals make up half of Earth’s crust?

Feldspars


What is an accurate description of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron?

The silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is a four-sided figure with a silicon atom in the middle bonded to four neighboring oxygen atoms


The micas (biotite and muscovite) exhibit what type of silicate structure?

sheet


Crystalization can occur _______.

-from solutions in water
-with temperature changes
-from biological processes


Which of these are minerals?

Ruby
-gold nugget
-quartz


Igneous rocks are formed by:

The cooling and crystallization of molten rock


What is required to generate an igneous rock with a fine-grained texture?

a fine grained texture is the product of rapid cooling and crystallization of lava


A phaneritic texture is characteristic of a(n) ________ igneous rock that cooled _________.

intrusive; below the surface


What does it mean if an igneous rock has an aphanitic texture?

The igneous rock exhibits mineral crystals too small to see with the naked eye.


Which of the following is an aphanitic rock?

rhyolite


The partial melting of _____ will yield mafic (basaltic) magma.

Peridotite


How can magma be generated from solid rock?

-by an addition of volatiles
-by a decrease in pressure
-by an increase in temperature


Why are shield volcanoes wider than composite volcanoes?

The lava that flows out of shield volcanoes is more fluid than the lava that flows out of composite volcanoes


Basaltic magmas have a _____ viscosity, whereas rhyolitic magmas have a _______ viscosity.

low;high


Shiel volcanoes produce lava that is primarily ______ in composition.

mafic


What is rock texture?

the way a rock looks


How will minerals orient when a rock is put under normal stress?

perpendicular to the direction of the greatest stress


How will minerals grow when a rock is put under normal stress?

perpendicular to the direction of the greatest stress


How will minerals orient when a rock is put under shear stress?

Parallel to the direction of the shear stress


Why do bands of minerals form when rocks are put under normal stress?

Minerals dissolve, atoms migrate to new locations, and minerals reform


Why are mineral bands in metamorphic rocks light and dark colored?

dark minerals rich in iron and magnesium separate from light minerals rich in silica and aluminum


Shale subject to high grade metamorphism will change into____.

gneiss


Where does Earth’s internal heat come from?

-radioactive decay
-energy from earths formation
-magma


In confining pressure, forces are applied ______.

equally in all directions


What type of volcano is Cerro Negro?

cinder cone


Slate is a ______ grade metamorphic rock.

low


Peridotite is the main constituent of which part of the Earth?

upper mantle


The principle of _______ states that the physical, chemical , and biological processes at work shaping the Earth today have also operated in the geologic past.

unifromitatianism


Polymorphs are minerals that will have two identical mineral structures, but different chemical compositions

false


A(n) _______ is a silicate structure where no silica tetrahedra share any oxygen ions.

independent


What mineral has a sheet silicate structure?

Muscovite


If the temperature in the Earth generally increases with depth, how is it possible that the Inner Core is a solid?

The pressures in the core are immense ad keep it in a solid state in spite of the temperature


What was the rate of cooling and the environment of formation for an extrusive igneous rock?

fast because it was erupted from a volcano


Metamorphism ends when the rock begins to melt.

True


The lithosphere is the layer in the interior of the Earth that is just below the crust.

False


What is the extrusive equivalent of the intrusive igneous rock Gabbro?

Basalt


Which mineral on the Bowen’s Reaction Series will be the first to melt if an igneous rock is heated?

quartz


The more silica in magma, the lower the viscosity.

False


What kind of lava is most closely associated with composite cones?

andesite


Generally speaking, how is the chemical composition of most metamorphic rocks going to compare to that of the parent rock?

chemical compositions will be nearly the same


What agent is always required in all metamorphic processes on Earth?

heat


The stable interior of a continent is called a _____.

shield


Which mineral class makes up most igneous rocks?

silicates


What are the three types of plate boundaries?

convergent, divergent, and transform


Which of these is NOT part of the definition of minerals?

liquid


All of the following rocks have a non0foliated texture EXCEPT:

phyllite


Which of the these common, rock forming minerals is a silicate?

pyroxene


Which statement is true concerning Bowen’s reaction series? As temperature and pressure decease:

mineral composition changes from mafic to felsic


This type of metamorphism occurs dues to relatively high temperatures and lower pressures, without the addition of ions from an external source of water:

contact


Ionic bonding involves the _____ of valence electrons between atoms, and an example of a mineral with this type of bonding is ______.

transfer; halite


The primary cause of fatalities related to volcanic eruptions is:

pyroclastic flows/ surges


If an atom of oxygen has a mass number of 18 and an atomic number of 8, how many neutrons are located in the nucleus?

10


Which of the following diagrams shows how floiation could develop in a rock due to shearing?

the image of the block with the arrows on both the top and the bottom going opposite directions from each other


Which of the following forces creates a folliated texture in metamorphic rocks?

-compressive stress
-tectonic force
-differential stress
-shear stress


Which statement is TRUE regarding magma formation

adding water can lower the melting point of rocks to form magma


Which of the following statements about Mt. St. Helens is FALSE

there has not been any igneous activity at the volcano since 1980


gabbro and basalt:

-crystallized from magma with the same silica content
-cooled at different rates
-have the same mineral composition
-have different textures


A large depression due to volcanic eruption followed by a subsidence of the land surface as the magma chamber is emptied is called a _______?

Caldera


Index minerals can be sued to understand the temperature and pressure conditions during metamorphism.

True


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