Earth Mineral & Metamorphic Sedimentary – Geology

Earth Soil Mineral & Metamorphic Sedimentary – Geology

This lesson is about Earth Soil, Mineral, Metamorphic, Sedimentary Geology.


Catastrophism

Earth’s landscapes were shaped primarily by catastrophes


Uniformitarianism

The physical, chemical, and biologic laws that operate today have operated throughout the geologic past


Sea Floor Spreading

New oceanic crust is created along Mid-Oceanic Ridges and moves away from the ridge


Atmosphere

Gases that envelop the Earth


Hydrosphere

Water on or near the Earth’s surface


Cryosphere

Frozen regions of Earth (ice, snow)


Biosphere

All living or once-living materials


Geosphere

Solid rocky Earth


Igneous rocks

Cooling and solidification of magma (molten rock)


Sedimentary rocks

• Sediments are derived from weathering of
preexisting rocks
• Sediments will lithify into sedimentary rocks
• Accumulate in layers at Earth’s surface


Metamorphic rocks

• Formed by “changing” preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks
• Driving forces are heat and pressure


Rock Cycle

Allows us to visualize the
interrelationships among different parts of the Earth system


Shields

Are expansive, flat regions of deformed
crystalline rocks in the cratons


Cratons

Are the stable interior of the continents


Stable platforms

Are the flat portions of cratons covered with a thin veneer of sedimentary rocks


Continental margins

are the portion of the seafloor
adjacent to major landmasses


continental shelf

is a gently sloping region of
continental crust extending from the shore


continental slope

is a relatively steep dropoff
that extends from the continental shelf to the deep
ocean floor


continental rise

consists of a thick wedge of
sediment that moved downward from the continental shelf and slope to accumulate on the seafloor


Deep ocean basins

are the portions of the seafloor between the continental margins and the oceanic ridges


abyssal plain

is a flat feature of the deep ocean basin


Deep-ocean trenches

are deep and relatively narrow depressions that make up only a small portion of the ocean floor


Seamounts

are small volcanic structures that dot the ocean floor


Oceanic ridges

are the most prominent feature on the ocean floor and are composed of igneous rock that has been fractured and uplifted


absolute motion

motion relative to an external reference frame


relative motion

absolute motions of plates leads to their motion relative to each other


What is the category name for the largest division of time used on the geologic time scale?

Eon


Why is the geologic time scale more detailed in the Phanerozoic than in previous eons?

The Phanerozoic Eon is more detailed because of the presence of organisms with hard parts and the rapid increase in biodiversity.


The Jurassic Period lies in the _____ Era, which was dominated by large terrestrial vertebrates, or _____.

Mesozoic; dinosaurs


Using a calendar year as an analogy to the geologic time scale, when do the oldest anatomically modern humans appear on Earth?

The oldest human fossils show up at about eleven minutes to midnight on December 31st.


Name the epoch, period, era and eon in which we currently live.

We live in the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period, which is part of the Cenzoic Era and Phanerozoic Eon.


The layers of Earth are based on what two sets of characteristics?

Chemical composition and physical properties


What is the D” layer?

A partially molten layer above the outer core at the base of the mantle.


The upper mantle can be divided into the asthenosphere and lithosphere based on what physical properties?

The asthenosphere is solid, but mobile, while the lithosphere is solid and relatively rigid.


What are the two types of crust?

Oceanic and continental


What happens to the atmosphere as you move away from Earth’s surface?

The atmosphere thins.


What is the difference between magma and lava?

Magma is molten rock located below the surface; lava is molten rock erupted above ground.


What are the two most important driving forces of metamorphism?

High heat and pressure


_____ igneous rocks are those that cool below the surface.

Intrusive


What are the two important processes involved in lithification of sedimentary rocks?

Cementation and compaction


An igneous rock becomes buried, is subject to high heat and pressure, and recrystallizes. This rock then is eroded, transported, deposited and subsequently lithified. Which rock types—in order—did the original igneous rock develop into?

Metamorphic and sedimentary


Which statement accurately describes continental shields?

Very old, stable regions composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks


What evidence supports that the glaciers on the southern continents were once part of a single, massive ice sheet?

Striations


The lithosphere is composed of material from the ________ and the rigid part of the ________.

Crust; Upper Mantle


Which type of convergence will result in a volcanic island arc?

Oceanic-Oceanic


Deep-ocean trenches are formed by _______.

Deep-ocean trenches are formed by _______.


Which of the following is not part of the definition of a mineral?

Naturally occurring
Definite chemical composition
Organic(X)
Orderly crystalline structure


Match the type of atomic bond with the correct definition.
Ionic Bond

Complete transfer of electrons between atoms


subduction In Convergent

ne plate descends below another; oceanic crust is “consumed” Plates to one another
– recycled back into the mantle


Luster

This property describes the appearance of reflected light from the mineral’s surface.


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