Molecules Solution Substances Hydrogen Biochemistry

Molecules Solution Substances Hydrogen Biochemistry

In this chapter we discuss Molecules Solution Substances Hydrogen Biochemistry.


polarity

the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule


hydrogen bonds

weak bonds between polar molecules such as water


cohesion

the attraction of like molecules such as the attraction of water molecules to each other.


surface tension

water molecules at the surface of a body of water cling tightly together


adhesion

the attraction of unlike molecules such as when water molecules are attracted to other types of molecules


capillary action

the force of water rising in a thin tube due to cohesion and adhesion


mixture

a material that is composed of two or more substances that are physically combined


solution

a mixture where all substances are evenly distributed throughout.


solute

the substance that is dissolved in a solution


solvent

the substance in which the solute is dissolved within a solution


suspension

a mixture in which all of the components are not evenly mixed


pH scale

a scale to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) that exist in solutions


acidic

a solution that has a greater amount of H+ than OH- ions


basic

a solution that has a greater amount of OH- than H+


buffers

work to neutralize substances inside cells that are too acidic or too basic


macromolecules

Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) made up of many smaller molecules and atoms.


monomers

small chemical unit that can join together with other small units to form larger units called polymers


polymers

Large compounds formed from combinations of many monomers.


organic compounds

Compounds that contain carbon atoms and are found in living things.


inorganic compounds

Compounds that do not contain carbon; many are also essential to life.


polysaccharides

large sugar molecules composed of many smaller units, linked together in complex arrangements


disaccharides

sugar molecules with only two monomers


monosaccharides

simple sugar molecules that are a building block for polysaccharides


fatty acids

building blocks (monomers) of lipids


saturated fats

A fat that contains the maximum number of hydrogen (more stored energy) and is solid at room temperature, found in animal fats such as lard and butter.


unsaturated fats

A fat that contains fewer numbers of hydrogen (less stored energy) and is liquid at room temperature, found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.


nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus and are associated with organism’s genetic code


nucleotides

building blocks (monomers) of nucleic acids


proteins

macromolecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; proteins are considered the building blocks of tissue


amino acids

building blocks (monomers) of proteins; twenty kinds


enzymes

a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions within a living cell


biochemistry

Chemistry of life, the study of chemical substances and reactions within living organisms.


Carbohydrates

Supply quick energy, one gram releases 4 calories when burned, dietary sources include rice, pasta, bread, and cookies, has three classes.


Monosaccharide

Have chemical formula of C6H12O6. Examples: glucose, galactose, fructose.


Disaccharides

All have the chemical forumla C12H22O11. They consist of 2 monosaccharides joined by a process known as the Dehydration Process.


Polysaccharides

Macromolecules. Chains of two or more monosaccharides.


Dehydration Synthesis

The joining of 2 monosaccharides when they lose a water molecule. Monosaccharide + Monosaccharide = Disaccharide + Water


Chitin

Polysaccharides that make up the exoskeleton of arthropods and cell walls in mushrooms.


Amino Acids

The building blocks of Proteins.


Enzymes

Very big proteins, reduce the amount of energy for a chemical reaction.


Enzyme Co-factors

Minerals


Enzyme Co-enzymes

Vitamins


Maltose + Water

Glucose + Glucose


Lactose + Water

Glucose + Galactose


Sucrose + Water

Glucose + Fructose


Temperature and pH

The factors that affect the efficiency of an enzyme.


37 degrees Celsius

The point at which the efficiency of enzymes in the human body is at the highest.


pH

The measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a solution.


pH 4

Gastric Enzyme


pH 8

Intestinal Enzyme


Prions

A misfolded, infectious protein that are normally found in the brains of mammals and cause several brain diseases.


Nucleic Acids

Inside the nucleus of the cells. Store and transmit hereditary information. Types include DNA and RNA.


DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Double stranded chain. Deoxygenated (deoxyribose) 5 carbon sugar.


RNA

Ribonucleic Acid. Single stranded chain. Oxygenated (ribose), 5 carbon sugar.


Nucleotides

Building units (monomers) of nucleic acids. Each ____ is composed of 5 carbon sugar, Phosphate, and a Nitrogenous base.


Nitrogenous bases in DNA

Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. (ACGT)


Nitrogenous bases in RNA

Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. (ACGU)


Water

High specific heat, high heat vaporization, high adhesion properties, universal solvent.


Specific Heat

The amount of heat that must be absorbed in order for 1 gram of a substance to change its temperature.


Heat Vaporization

The amount of heat that is needed to evaporate water.


Adhesion

The clinging of one substance to another substance. Very important in helping water flow up from roots to leaves.


Cohesion

Attraction force or clinging of two molecules of the same substance.


Solvent

Dissolves solute.


Solute

Dissolves in solvent.


Water: Universal Solvent

Because it is a highly polar molecule, it can dissolve all polar and ionic substances.


Transpiration

Water loss (evaporation) from the stomata of leaves.


Capillary Action

Helps in moving water up to the leaves.


Ice

Less dense than water, allows life to exist beneath the frozen surface of water during cold seasons.


Stratification

Convective currents in water


Spring Overturn

The cycling of nutrients in a frozen lake.


pH 7

Neutral mark on the pH scale.


pH 0-6

Acidic


pH 8-14

Alkaline (base)


polarity

the unequal distribution of charges on a molecule


hydrogen bonds

weak bonds between polar molecules such as water


cohesion

the attraction of like molecules such as the attraction of water molecules to each other.


surface tension

water molecules at the surface of a body of water cling tightly together


adhesion

the attraction of unlike molecules such as when water molecules are attracted to other types of molecules


capillary action

the force of water rising in a thin tube due to cohesion and adhesion


mixture

a material that is composed of two or more substances that are physically combined


solution

a mixture where all substances are evenly distributed throughout.


solute

the substance that is dissolved in a solution


solvent

the substance in which the solute is dissolved within a solution


suspension

a mixture in which all of the components are not evenly mixed


pH scale

a scale to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) that exist in solutions


acidic

a solution that has a greater amount of H+ than OH- ions


basic

a solution that has a greater amount of OH- than H+


buffers

work to neutralize substances inside cells that are too acidic or too basic


macromolecules

Four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) made up of many smaller molecules and atoms.


monomers

small chemical unit that can join together with other small units to form larger units called polymers


polymers

Large compounds formed from combinations of many monomers.


organic compounds

Compounds that contain carbon atoms and are found in living things.


inorganic compounds

Compounds that do not contain carbon; many are also essential to life.


polysaccharides

large sugar molecules composed of many smaller units, linked together in complex arrangements


disaccharides

sugar molecules with only two monomers


monosaccharides

simple sugar molecules that are a building block for polysaccharides


fatty acids

building blocks (monomers) of lipids


saturated fats

A fat that contains the maximum number of hydrogen (more stored energy) and is solid at room temperature, found in animal fats such as lard and butter.


unsaturated fats

A fat that contains fewer numbers of hydrogen (less stored energy) and is liquid at room temperature, found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.


nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus and are associated with organism’s genetic code


nucleotides

building blocks (monomers) of nucleic acids


proteins

macromolecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; proteins are considered the building blocks of tissue


amino acids

building blocks (monomers) of proteins; twenty kinds


enzymes

a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions within a living cell


biochemistry

Chemistry of life, the study of chemical substances and reactions within living organisms.


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