Group & Period – Periodic Table – Chemistry

Group & Period – Periodic Table – Chemistry 1

These Chemistry chapters discuss periodic table in great detail, explaining each group & period present in the Periodic Table .


Elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table are called…

A) alloys
B) main-group elements  – correct
C) metals
D) transition metals


Elements in Group 18 have…

A) very low reactivity  – correct
B) good conductivity
C) very high reactivity
D) metallic character


Nonmetallic elements in Group 17 that react with most metals to form salts are…

A) alkali metals
B) halogens  – correct
C) lanthanides
D) noble gases


The outer-level electron configuration of a neutral alkaline-earth metal atom consists of…

A) one electron in the s orbital  – correct

B) two electrons in the s orbital
C) one electron in the p orbital
D) two electrons in the p orbital


In nature, the alkali metals are found only in compounds because they…

A) have small atoms
B) are very reactive elements – correct
C) are rare elements
D) each have a stable octet


To which group does hydrogen belong?

A) Group 1  – correct
B) Group 2
C) Group 18
D) None of the above


An element found in groups 3-12 of the periodic table is classified as a(n)…

A) alkali metal
B) alloy
C) transition metal  – correct
D) actinide


In which group is an element that has an outer-level electron configuration consisting of one electron in the d orbital and two electrons in the ns orbital?

A) Group 1
B) Group 2
C) Group 3  – correct
D) Group 5


An electron that is in the highest energy level of an atom and determines the atom’s chemical properties is called a(n)…

A) valence electron   – correct
B) paired electron
C) extra electron
D) opposite-spin electron


What can be removed from an atom if ionization energy is supplied?

A) a proton
B) a neutron
C) an electron  – correct 
D) an ion


Across a period in the periodic table, ionization energy generally…

A) decreases
B) decreases, then increases
C) increases  – correct
D) remains constant


Down a group in the periodic table, the change in ionization energy is due to…

A) increasing electron shielding  – correct
B) decreasing charge of the nucleus
C) increasing charge of the nucleus
D) decreasing atomic radii


The atomic radius of an atom that is chemically bonded to an identical atom is equal to…

A) the distance between the nuclei
B) half the distance between the nuclei   – correct
C) twice the distance between the nuclei
D) one-fourth the distance between the nuclei


Across a period in the periodic table, atomic radii generally…

A) decrease  – correct
B) decrease, then increase
C) increase
D) increase, then decrease


Down a group in the periodic table, atomic radii generally…

A) decrease
B) remain constant
C) increase  – correct
D) vary unpredictable


One of the least electronegative elements would be found on the periodic table in…

A) Group 1, Period 7  – correct
B) Group 3, Period 4
C) Group 5, Period 3
D) Group 17, Period 2


As the atomic numbers of the metals of Group 1 increase, the ionic radii…

A) increase
B) decrease
C) remain the same
D) cannot be determined


An element with the smallest anionic radius would be found on the periodic table in…

A) Group 1, Period 7
B) Group 3, Period 4
C) Group 5, Period 3
D) Group 17, Period 2  – correct


Ioni bonds form as a result of the electrostatic attraction between…

A) dipoles
B) electrons
C) ions  – correct
D) nuclei


A single covalent bond involves the sharing of…

A) only one electron
B) two electrons  – correct
C) three electrons
D) a variable number of electrons, which depends on the bonding atoms


Choose the pair of elements (Na-0.9, Cl-3.0, O-3.5, H-2.1) that will have the least ionic character.

A) Na and Cl
B) O and Cl  – correct
C) H and O
D) Na and O


Choose the pair of elements (K-0.8, Br-2.8, N-3.0, S-2.5) that will have the greatest ionic character

A) K and N – correct
B) K and S
C) N and Br
D) S and Br


The measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons is its…

A) electronegativity  – correct
B) polarization
C) ionization
D) electron affinity


Atoms that are bonded with an electronegativity difference of 0 to 0.3 are generally considered to be…

A) negatively charged compounds
B) nonpolar-covalent compounds  – correct
C) polar-covalent compounds
D) ionic compounds


What is the apparent charge on the chlorine atom in the molecule HCl?

A) +1
B) -1
C) ∂+
D) ∂-  – correct


Atoms seldom exist as independent particles in nature because…

A) as single particles, most atoms have low potential energy
B) their electronegativity is much lower when they combine with other atoms
C) atoms are more stable when they combine with other atoms   – correct
D) neutral particles are rare


When an atom completely gives up its valence electrons to another atom, they form a bond that is considered to be…

A) purely ionic   – correct
B) partially ionic
C) polar-covalent
D) nonpolar-covalent


You can estimate the degree to which a bond between two atoms is ionic or covalent by calculating the…

A) distance between the atoms’ nuclei
B) difference in the atom’s electronegativities  – correct
C) atom’s atomic radii
D) number of atoms in the compound


If two covalently bonded atoms move closer than a distance of the bond length, the potential energy of the atoms…

A) becomes negative
B) decreases
C) increases  – correct
D) remains constant


The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond are…

A) transferred from one atom to another
B) found only in the s orbitals
C) valence electrons  – correct
D) in filled orbitals


Bond energy is the energy…

A) absorbed as a molecule forms
B) change as atoms get closer together
C) required to break a chemical bond and form separate, neutral atoms  – correct
D) of two covalently bonded atoms


Bond length between two bonded atoms is…

A) twice the diameter of the molecular
B) the separation at which their potential energy is minimum  – correct
C) the separation at which the motion of each atom stops
D) the sum of the diameters of each of the two overlapping electron clouds


Which size of compounds has the greatest bond energy?

A) HF; H-F bond length = 92 p,  – correct
B) I₂; I-I bond length = 266 pm
C) Cl₂; Cl-Cl bond length = 199 pm
D) HCl; H-Cl bond length = 127 pm


The lewis structure of which of the following compounds (NH₃, BF₃, CCl₄, H₂O) does not follow the octet rule?

A) NH₃
B) BF₃  – correct
C) CCl₄
D) H₂O


In a double covalent bond,…

A) one atom has more than eight valence electrons
B) one atom loses a pair of electrons
C) two atoms share
D) two atoms share two pairs of electrons  – correct


Which of the following is not a resonance structure of SO₃?

The one that doesn’t have a full oxygen atom and an incorrect central oxygen atom

How many double bonds are in the Lewis structure for hydrogen fluoride, HF?

A) none  – correct

B) one
C) two
D) three


To draw a Lewis structure, it is not necessary to know…

A) the length of the bonds  – correct
B) the types of atoms in the molecules
C) the numbers of valence electrons for each atom
D) the number of atoms in molecule


An ionic compound is not represented by a molecular formula because an ionic compound…

A) does not contain bonds
B) can form crystalline solids
C) has no net charge
D) lacks molecules  – correct


Compared with the energies of neutral atoms that form the ions, a crystal lattice has…

A) zero potential energy
B) higher potential energy
C) lower potential energy  – correct
D) equal potential energy


The salts NaCl and CaCl₂ are…

A) are good conductors of electricity
B) are positively charged
C) are held together by ionic bonds  – correct
D) Both A and B


Compared with solid ionic compounds, solid molecular compounds generally…

A) have lower melting points  – correct
B) are more brittle
C) are harder
D) conduct electricity as liquids


Because strong attractive forces hold the layers in an ionic crystal in relatively fixed positions, ionic compounds

A) are hard
B) are brittle
C) are not electrical conductors as solids
D) All of the above   – correct


In a crystal of sodium chloride, how many oppositely-charged ions does each Na⁺ and Cl⁻ ion have clustered around it?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) 6  – correct


The arrangement of ions within a crystal structure and the strengths of the attractions between them vary with the…

A) sizes of the ions
B) charges of the ions
C) numbers of ions of different charges
D) All of the above  – correct


The energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline solid is formed from ions in the gas state is known as…

A) thermal energy
B) lattice energy  – correct
C) ionization energy
D) radiant energy


Some ionic compounds do not dissolve in water because…

A) the attractions between the water molecules and the ions are not as strong as the attractions between the ions  – correct
B) they are less dense than water and float on the surface
C) water is a covalent compound and covalent compound cannot dissolve ionic water
D) water molecules cannot fit in the spaces between the ions in the crystal lattice


A charged group of covalently bonded atoms is known as a(n)

A) anion
B) polyatomic ion  – correct
C) formula unit
D) cation


Chemical bonding in metals is…

A) the same as ionic bonding
B) the same as covalent bonding
C) a combination of ionic and covalent bonding
D) different from ionic or covalent bonding – correct


The valence electrons in a metallic bond…

A) move freely throughout the network of metal atoms  – correct
B) are held tightly by the most positively charged atoms
C) are shared equally between two metal atoms
D) continuously move from one energy level to another


Within a metal, the vacant orbitals in the atoms’ outer energy levels…

A) repel valence electrons
B) attract other metal atoms
C) overlap  – correct
D) diffract light


Which of the following properties (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, brittleness, ductility) is not explained by metallic bonding?

A) electrical conductivity
B) thermal conductivity
C) brittleness  – correct
D) ductility


Which of the following is the result of visible light absorbed by a metal?

A) Electrons move to higher energy levels and remain there
B) Light at a frequency similar to the absorbed frequency is emitted  – correct
C) Electrons fill the vacant orbitals
D) Light is given off as a line spectrum


Metals are malleable because when struck, one plane of metal atoms…

A) can slide past another plane without breaking bonds  – correct
B) cannot easily move out of the way
C) moves in a way that maximizes the repulsive forces within the metal
D) bonds to the plane directly beneath it


Which is a measure of metallic bond strength?

A) electron affinity
B) electronegativity
C) specific heat capacity
D) enthalpy of vaporization   – correct


In general, as you move from right to left across any row of the periodic table, the strength of a metallic bond…

A) increases
B) decreases   – correct
C) stays the same
D) shows no trend


What is responsible for the good electrical conductivity of metals?

A) the arrangement of metal atoms in separate layers
B) the high density of metal atoms in the crystal lattice
C) the ability of electrons to move freely about the crystal structure  – correct
D) the fact that metal atoms contain many orbitals separated by very small energy


The arrangement of valence electrons in a metallic is best described as…

A) fixed postions in a lattice
B) a sea of free-moving electrons  – correct
C) concentrated electron density around specific atoms
D) electron pairs existing in multiple bonds


VSEPR theory…

A) predicts the shape of some molecules
B) is limited to polar molecules
C) assumes that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
D) Both A and C  – correct


The shape of molecules that contain only two atoms is…

A) linear   – correct
B) bent
C) trigonal planar
D) Either A or B


According to VSEPR theory, which molecule (CO₂, H₂O, CS₂, HF) has a bent shape?

A) CO₂
B) HO   – correct
C) CS₂
D) HF


VSEPR theory predicts that the shape of carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄, is…

A) linear
B) bent
C) trigonal planar
D) tetrahedral   – correct


Which of the following molecules is polar?

A) C₂H₂
B) HO  – correct
C) BF₃
D) CO₂


The structure of which of the following compounds (CH₄, CO₂, NaCl, O₂) suggests that it has the highest boiling point?

A) CH₄
B) CO₂
C) NaCl – correct
D) O₂


The VSEPR formula for a molecule of type AB₂E₂ tells you that the molecule is made up of…

A) a central atom A, with two B atoms and two E atoms bonded to it
B) a central atom A, with two B atoms bonded to it, and two unshared electron pairs  – correct
C) a central atom A, with two B atoms bonded to it by two bonding electron pairs
D) two central atoms B, with an atom A and two atoms E bonded to it


Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom are called…

A) bonding orbitals
B) valence orbitals
C) hybrid orbitals  – correct
D) high-energy orbitals


The effects of hydrogen bonding will cause which compound to have the highest boiling point?

A) HO   – correct
B) PH₃
C) H₂S
D) HCl


Which are the intermolecular forces that can act between non-polar molecules?

A) covalent bonds
B) hybridization
C) hydrogen bonds
D) London dispersion forces  – correct


According to the Bohr model of the atom, which particles are allowed to exist in any one of a number of energy levels…

A) Electrons  – correct
B) Protons
C) Neutrons
D) B and C


The line-emission spectrum of an atom is caused by the energies released when electrons…

A) “jump” from a lower energy level to a higher energy level
B) “jump” from a higher energy level to a lower energy level  – correct
C) “jump” from the ground state to an excited state
D) None of the above


Because excited hydrogen atoms always produced the same line-emission spectrum, scientists concluded that hydrogen…

A) has no electrons
B) does not release energy
C) releases energy of only certain values  – correct
D) can exist only in the ground state


Which color of light in the visible spectrum has the longest wavelength?

A) Yellow
B) Red  – correct
C) Green
D) Blue


A quantum of energy is the…

A) frequency of electromagnetic energy given off by an atom
B) wavelength of electromagnetic energy gained by an atom
C) minimum quantity that can be lost or gained by an atom- correct
D) continuous spectrum of energy given off by an atom


Bohr’s model correctly explains the spectra of atoms with how many electron(s)?

A) one  – correct
B) two
C) three
D) four or more


A form of energy that exhibits wave behavior as it travels through space is

A) microwave energy
B) ultraviolet energy
C) infrared energy
D) All of the above  – correct


In the equation c = (lambda)v, c represents…

A) the wavelength
B) the frequency
C) the speed of light- correct
D) Planck’s constant


The process of an atom releasing energy when it moves to a lower energy state is called…

A) absorption
B) emission
C) translation
D) regression- correct


In the Bohr model of the atom, in which orbit is an electron in its lowest energy state?

A) in the orbit closes to the nucleus- correct

B) in the orbit farthest from the nucleus
C) in the electron cloud
D) midway between two orbits


Quantum numbers are sets of numbers that…

A) are characteristic only of the hydrogen atom
B) consist of multiples of two
C) specify properties of electrons – correct
D) relate the energies of protons in the atomic nucleus


Which mathematically describes the wave properties of electrons?

A) quantum theory – correct
B) atomic theory
C) the Bohr model of the atom
D) the Rutherford model of the atom


How many different orientations are there for d orbitals

A) 1
B) 3
C) 5- correct
D) 7


Which orbitals can be modeled as dumbbell shaped?

A) s
B) p orbitals- correct
C) d
D) f


What is the correct notation for a sublevel within the first energy level

A) 1s- correct
B) 1p
C) 1d
D) 1f


What is the maximum number of electrons that a single orbital can hold?

A) 1
B) 2- correct
C) 3
D) 4


What is the total number of orbitals in the fourth main energy level?

A) 1
B) 4
C) 9
D) 16- correct


Which is a wave property that electrons possess?

A) emission
B) radiation
C) diffraction- correct
D) absorption


Which is not a quantum number?

A) angular momentum quantum number
B) orbital quantum number- correct
C) magnetic quantum number
D) spin quantum number


How many electrons can a d sublevel contain?

A) 2
B) 6
C) 10- correct
D) 16


The statement that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers is a restatement of…

A) Bohr’s law
B) Hund’s rule
C) the Aufbau principle
D) the Pauli exclusion principle- correct


According to the Aufbau principle, which of the following sub-levels is lowest in energy

A) 3d
B) 4s 
C) 4p
D) 5s


In a ground-state hydrogen atom in which orbital is the electron?

A) 1s- correct
B) 2s
C) 2p
D) 3s


How many electrons are present in an atom of calcium that has the electron configuration 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁶4s²?

A) 6
B) 16
C) 20- correct
D) 36


The ground-state electron configuration of neon is 1s²2s²2p⁶. In this arrangement, how many of neon’s p orbitals are completely filled?

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3- correct
D) 6


Oxygen has an electron configuration of 1s²2s²2p⁴. In this arrangement, how many inner-shell electrons does oxygen have?

A) 1
B) 2- correct
C) 4
D) 8


Which of the following (carbon, oxygen, sodium, neon) is a noble gas?

A) Carbon
B) Oxygen
C) Sodium
D) Neon- correct


The noble-gas notation for the electron configuration of bromine is [Ar] 3d¹⁰4s²4p⁵. How many unpaired electrons are there in an atom of bromine in the ground state?

A) 0
B) 1- correct
C) 3
D) 5


A ground-state atom of which element (K, Na, B, Ga) has one electron in its fourth and and outermost main energy level?

A) K- correct
B) Na
C) B
D) Ga


Separating unpaired electrons into as many orbitals as possible…

A) places the electrons farther from the nucleus
B) results in more valence electrons
C) minimizes the repulsion between electrons- correct
D) produces a greater spin quantum number


In developing his periodic table, Mendeleev listed on cards each element’s name, atomic mass, and…

A) atomic number
B) electronic configuration
C) isotopes
D) properties- correct


Mendeleev’s periodic table did not list all elements in order of increasing atomic mass because he grouped together elements with similar…

A) properties – correct
B) atomic numbers
C) names
D) isotopes


Mendeleev predicted that the gaps in his periodic table represented…

A) ions
B) radioactive elements
C) unstable elements
D) undiscovered elements- correct


The person whose work led to a periodic table based on increasing atomic number was…

A) Moseley- correct
B) Mendeleev
C) Rutherford
D) Cannizzaro


The periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic…

A) masses
B) numbers- correct
C) radii
D) structures


Which group of elements was discovered by Strutt and Ramsay?

A) Lanthanides
B) Halogens
C) Noble gases- correct
D) Actinides


A repeating pattern is referred to as…

A) unpredictable
B) irregular
C) periodic- correct
D) a group


On most periodic tables, the lanthanides and actinides appear…

A) on a separate page
B) below the main portion- correct
C) on the back
D) at the top


What is the difference in atomic number between Helium and Neon?

A) 2
B) 8- correct
C) 18
D) 32


Which noble gas has the greatest atomic number?

A) Ar
B) Xe
C) Kr
D) Rn- correct


An element that has the electron configuration [Ne] 3s²3p⁴ is in Period…

A) 2
B) 3- correct
C) 5
D) 7


An element that has the electron configuration [Ne] 3s²3p⁵ is in Group…

A) 2
B) 5
C) 7
D) 17 – correct


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