Infection Disease & Covid-19 – Epidemiology

Infection Disease & Covid-19 – Epidemiology

This chapter is about Infection Disease & Covid-19 – Epidemiology


Select all the symptoms that may be caused by COVID-19

Sneezing

Fatigue

Runny or Stuffy Nos

Aches and Pains

Shortness of Breath

Headaches

Fever

Diarrhea

Sore Throat

Cough


Evidence shows that COVID-19 spreads through close personal contact – within about 6 feet or 2 meters.

True


Students that have COVID-19 symptoms should contact Holzer Health Center right away.

True


Where should you wear a facemask?

In public or shared spaces


Students will have to show up in a classroom in order to receive course materials.

False


Secondary infections

Caused by an opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection


Subclinical (inapparent) infection

No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)


Predisposing Factor

Anything that makes the body more susceptible to disease


Incubation period

Time interval between the actual infection and first appearance of any signs or symptoms of disease


Prodromal period

The time following the incubation period when the first symptoms of illness appear


Period of Illness

Disease is more severe


Period of decline

Signs and symptoms decrease


Period of Convalescence

The recovery period


Reservoir of infection

A continual source of infection


Carriers

People that harbor pathogens and transmit them to other


Zoonoses

A disease that occurs primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans


Contact transmission

Is the spread of an agent of disease by direct contact, indirect contact or droplet transmission


Direct contact transmission

Requires close association between infected and susceptible host


Indirect contact transmission

Spread by fomites. Occurs when the agent if disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host by means of a nonliving object


Fomite

A nonliving objects that can spread infections


Droplet transmission

Transmission via airborne droplets


Vehicle transmission

Transmission by a medium


Vectors

An arthropods that carries disease causing organisms from one host to another


Mechanical transmission

Is the passive transport of the pathogens on the insect’s feet or other body parts


Biological transmission

Is an active process and is more complex that pathogens reproduces in vector


Composed host

A host whose resistance to infection is impaired


Emerging infectious disease (EIDs)

A new or changing disease that is in the past, present, and future


Epidemiology

The study of where and when diseases occur


Descriptive epidemiology

Collection and analysis of data


Analytical epidemiology

A disease is analyzed to determine its cause


Experimental epidemelogy

The study of disease using controlled experiments


Case reporting

Health care workers are required to report specified disease to local, state, and national offices


Nationally notifiable disease

Physicians are required to report occurrence


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

A branch of the U.S. Public Health Services


Morbidity

Incidence of a specific notifiable disease


Mortality

Deaths from notifiable diseases


Morbidity rate

Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period


Mortality rate

Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time


Notifiable infectious diseases

Are diseases that the U.S. physicians are required by law to report to the Public Health Services


Pathogens

disease-causing microorganism


Pathology

Is the scientific study of disease


Etiology

The study of cause of a disease


Pathogenesis

The development of a disease


Infection

Colonization of the body by pathogens


Disease

An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally


Pathogen

A disease causing microorganism


Normal Microbiota

Permanently colonize the host but do not cause disease


Transient Microbiota

May be prevented for days, weeks, or months than disappear


Symbiosis

The living together of two different organisms or population


Commensalism

One of the organisms benefits, and the other is unaffected is the symbolic relationship


Microbial antagonism

The growth of some microbes prevents the growth of other


Competitive exclusion

Growth of some microbes prevents the growth of other microbes


Mutualism

Is a type of symbiosis that benefits both organisms


Probiotics

Are live microbial cultures applied to or ingested that are intended to exit a beneficial effect


Parasitism

One organism benefits by deriving nutrients at the expensive of the other


Prebiotics

Chemicals to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria


Opportunistic Pathogens

A microorganism that does not ordinarily cause a disease but can become pathogens under certain circumstances


Koch’s postulates

Criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious disease


Etiology

The study of the cause of a disease


Symptoms

A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease


Signs

A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease


Syndrome

A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a particular disease


Communicable disease

A disease that is spread from one host to another


Contagious disease

A disease that is easily spread from one host to another


Noncommunicable disease

A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another


Incidence

Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time period


Prevalence

Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time


Sporadic disease

Disease that occurs only occasionally in a population


Endemic disease

Disease constantly present in a population


Epidemic disease

Disease acquired by many people in a given area in a short time


Pandemic disease

Worldwide epidemic


Chronic disease

Disease develops slowly


Subacute disease

Disease with symptoms between acute and chronic


Latent disease

Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive


Herd immunity

The presence of immunity in most of a population


Local infection

Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body


Systemic (generalized) infection

An infection throughout the body


Focal infection

Systematic infection that began as an infection in one place


Sepsis

Toxic inflammatory conditions arising from the spread of microbes (pathogens), especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection


Septicemia

(blood poising) growth of pathogens in the blood


Bacterium

Bacteria in the blood


Toxemia

Toxins in the blood


Viremia

Viruses in the blood


Primary Infections

Acute infections that causes the initial illness


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