Film And Arts Entertainment – Humanities

Film And Arts Entertainment – Humanities

This chapter is about Film And Arts Entertainment – Humanities.


Movies

– popular entertainment with a mass circulation
– the audience being largely passive
– made to entertain


Film

– is not aimed for profit but has an artist message


Examples of Film

– Blue Velvet
– Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind


Types of Shots

What the camera records over a particular period

– Master Shot
– Establishing Shot
– Tracking Shot
– Long Shot
– Mid Shot
– Close-Up
– Extreme Close-Up
– Two Shot
– Over the Shoulder Shot
– Direct Address


Master Shot

Shot with whole scene of action, to facilitate editing


Establishing Shot

Long shot that establishes details like time, place, relationships, etc.


Tracking Shot

Follows actors or action without stopping or cutting away


Long Shot

Considerable distance


Mid Shot

Shorter distance, close, from the waist up


Close-Up

Very Close, face only


Extreme Close-Up

Super close, not whole face, just one feature


Two Shot

Two people in frame


Over the Shoulder Shot

Close up taken over the should of another actor, shoulder in frame


Direct Address

Technique whereby an actor appears to address the audience directly


High Camera Angle

A camera angle which looks down on its subject making it look small, weak or unimportant


Low Camera Angle

A camera angle which looks up at its subject, it makes the subject seem important and powerful


Point of View Angle

A camera angle which looks up at its subject, it makes the subject seem important and powerful


Reaction Angle

– A shot of someone looking off screen
– A shot of someone in a conversation who is just listening to the other person speak


Types of Editing

– Cut
– Cut within the Frame
– Crosscutting
– Dissolves
– Wipes


Cut

Change from one shot to another


Cut within the Frame

Use movement of actors or focus pull to avoid editing process


Crosscutting

Determination between 2 separate actions that are related by theme, mood, plot, and occur at the same time


Dissolves

Means of ending a scene


Focus

What is clear in the shot

– Depth of Focus
– Rack/Differential Focus
– Pull Focus


Depth of Focus

Everything in the scene is in focus


Rack/Differential Focus

Main object/person of interest is in focus, rest of scene blurred


Pull Focus

Change focus in the scene to move scene


Types of Movements

– Track
– Pan
– Tilt
– Dolly
– Zoom


Depth of Focus

Everything in the scene is in focus


Pan

Camera rotates horizontally on a fixed axis


Tilt

Camera moves vertically or diagonally on a fixed point


Dolly

Move the camera to and from subject


Zoom

Change focal length instead of moving the camera


Types of Audio

– Music
– Score
– Soundtrack
– Sound Effects
– Voice Over Narration
– Dubbing


Music

Enhance theme, mood, rhythm, etc.


Score

Original composition for a film, often instrumental


Soundtrack

Songs chosen for a film


Sound effects

Sounds of actions happening


Voice Over Narration

A recorded voice narrating a story played over the action


Dubbing

When an actor says lines that are played over the scene, done to censor language, when recorded dialogue is unclear ,outdoors shots, etc.


What are the four factors that are involved in the changes in film processing?

– Current events & achievements (political climate)
– The creativity of the film-makers
– The technical developments that could be exploited
– The capacity of a sufficient audience to appreciate the results


George Melies

Realizing the potential of a good story (1861-1938)

Utilized film to create fantastic stories that took his characters and audiences to the moon and beyond


The Expressionist Films

Sought to convey the inner, subjective experience of its subjects

Initially born out of Germany 1910s


Track

Camera moves with action


What was expressionist film based on?

the premise that film becomes art only to the extent that the film image differs from reality


What type of film would go on to influence some of the most important filmmakers of the 20th century?

Expressionist Films

(Alfred Hitchcock, Werner Herzog, and Tim Burton)


What are the two most influential films of the Expressionist era?

– Metropolis (1927)
– The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)


Who are some American comedians?

Charlie Chaplin & Buster Keaton


When did many European filmmakers begin experimenting with the absurd and wild aesthetics of German cinema?

Early 1920s


Charlie Chaplin

– Among the first to write, star and direct his own films

– Chaplin’s mix of slapstick and sentimentality effectively invented the “dramedy”


Citizen Kane

Written, Directed and Starred Orson Welles in 1941

– Ground-Breaking movie


Which movie has been considered the greatest movie of all time?

Citizen Kane


Before Citizen Kane, how were movies organized?

Most films were organized chronologically: they began at the beginning and ended at the end

– Citizen Kane begins at the end


How does Welles illustrate the passage of time?

Using editing to show the breakdown of Kane’s first marriage with a montage of scenes of Kane and his wife at the breakfast table


What type of camera technique did Citizen Kane use?

Used “deep-focus” camera techniques

Including special film, lenses, and lighting developed especially for Citizen Kane

Made everything on screen appear in focus at the same time, an unheard-of practice in Hollywood


French New Wave

Early 1950s by film critics and ‘nerds’ who turned filmmakers

Belief that film should be treated as highly intellectual art

Originating from the philosophy of ‘auteur theory’; a film is the director’s absolute imaginative and inspired aesthetic vision

Inspired the cult of the director as artistic icon on a par with writers and painters


What did the French New Wave reject?

traditional linear tropes of storytelling and created a new language of film


What did movies during the French Wave feature?

– Unprecedented methods of expression, such as long tracking shots

– Existential themes, such as the acceptance of the absurdity of human existence


To save on the cost of film during the French New Wave, what stylistic innovations occurred?

Jump cuts, improvised dialogue, rapid changes of scenes

Camera was used to play with audience expectations


What 70s American filmmakers were inspired by the French New Wave?

Steven Spielberg, Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola


Akira Kurasawa

1910-1998 Japanese filmmaker

Regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema

His style was ground-breaking at the time and truly defined the way many modern film-makers present their work


How many films did Kurosawa direct?

30 films in a career spanning 57 years


Rashomon

– Directed by Akira Kurosawa
– Released in 1950
– Marked the entrance of Japanese film onto the world stage
– Known for a plot device that involves various characters providing alternative, self-serving and contradictory versions of the same incident


Buster Keaton

– Physical comedy
– Using Camera and editing to help with the joke
– The Art of the Gag


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