Communication Network Information Technology

chapter 4- 6 Communication Network Information Technology

This lesson is about Communication Network Information Technology.


Firmware

firmware is a term often used to denote the fixed, usually rather small, programs and/or data structures that internally control various electronic devices.


AGP

accelerated graphics port (bus (p. 219) Bus that transmits data at very high speeds; designed to support video and three dimensional (3-D) graphics. Why it’s important: An AGP bus is twice as fast as a PCI bus.


ALU

arithmetic/logic unit ((p. 208) Part of the CPU that performs arithmetic operations and logical operations and controls the speed of those operations. Why is it important: Arithmetic operations are the fundamental math operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Logical operations are comparisons such as “equal to,” “greater than,” or “less than.”


ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange ((p. 197) Binary code used with microcomputers. Besides having the more conventional characters, the Extended ASCII version includes such characters as math symbols and Greek letters. Why it’s important: ASCII is the binary code most widely used in microcomputers.)


bay

(p. 201) Shelf or opening in the computer case used for the installation of electronic equipment, (generally storage devices such as a hard drive or DVD drive. Why it’s important: Bays permit the expansion of system capabilities. A computer may come equipped with four or eight bays.)


binary system

(p. 195) A two-state system used for data representation in computers; has only two digits ⎯0 and 1 (Why it’s important: In the computer, 0 can be represented by electrical currents being off and 1 by the currents being on. All data and program instructions that go into the computer are represented in terms of these binary numbers)


bit

(p. 196) Short for “binary digit,” (which is either a 0 or a 1 in the binary system of data representation in computer systems. Why it’s important: The bit is the fundamental element of all data and information processed and stored in a computer system.)


Blu-ray

(p. 227) The Blu-ray optical format was developed to enable recording, rewriting, and playback of high-definition video, as well as storing of large amounts of data. (Why it’s important: It’s possible to fit more data on a Blu-ray disk even though it’s the same size as a CD/DVD.)


bus

(p. 209) Also called bus line; electrical data roadway through which bits are transmitted within the CPU and between the CPU and other components of the motherboard. (Why it’s important: A bus resembles a multilane highway: The more lanes it has, the faster the bits can be transferred.)


byte

(p. 196) Group of 8 bits. (Why it’s important: A byte represents one character, digit, or other value. It is the basic unit used to measure the storage capacity of main memory and secondary memory storage devices (kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, etc)).


cache

(p. 211) Special high-speed memory area on a chip that the CPU can access quickly. It temporarily stores instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently. (Why it’s important: Cache speeds up processing.)


CD-R

compact disc-recordable (p. 225) (Optical-disk form of secondary storage that can be written to only once but can be read many times. Why it’s important: This format allows consumers to make their own CD disks, though it’s a slow process. Once recorded, the information cannot be erased. CD-R is often used by companies for archiving-that is, to store vast amounts of information. A variant is the Photo CD, an optical disk developed by Kodak that can digitally store photographs taken with an ordinary 35-millimete camera.)


CD-ROM

compact disk read-only memory (p. 225) (Optical-disk form of secondary storage, that is used to hold prerecorded text, graphics, and sound. Why it’s important: Like music CD’s, a CD-ROM is a read-only disk. Read-only means the disk’s content is recorded at the time of manufacture and cannot be written on or erased by the user. A CD-ROM disk can hold up to 650-700 megabytes of data, equal to over 300,000 pages of text.)


CD-RW

compact disk-rewrittable (p. 226) (Also known as erasable optical disk; optical-disk form of secondary storage that allows users to record and erase data, so the disk can be used over and over again. Special CD-RW drives and software are required. Why it’s important: CD-RW drives are useful for archiving and backing up large amounts of data or work in multimedia production or desktop publishing; however, they are relatively slow.)


chip

(p. 192) Also called a microchip, or integrated circuit; (consists of millions of microminiature electronic circuits printed on a tiny piece of silicon. Silicon is an element widely found in sand that has desirable electrical (or “semiconducting”) properties. Why it’s important: Chips have made possible the development of small computers.


chipset

(p. 204) Groups of interconnected chips on the motherboard that control the flow of information between the microprocessor and other system components connected to the motherboard. Why it’s important: The chipset determines what types of processor, memory, and video-card ports will work on the same motherboard. It also establishes the types of multimedia, storage, network, and other hardware the motherboard supports.


CMOS

complimentary metal-oxcide semiconductor (chips (p. 211) Battery-powered chips that don’t lose their contents when the power is turned off. Why it’s important: CMOS chips contain flexible start-up instructions ⎯such as time, date, and calendar ⎯that must be kept current even when the computer us turned off. Unlike ROM chips, CMOS chips can be reprogrammed, as when you need to change the time for daylight savings time.)


control unit

(p. 208) Part of the CPU that deciphers each instruction stored in it and then carries out the instructions. (Why it’s important: The control units directs the movement of electronic signals between main memory and the arithmetic/logic unit. It also directs these electronic signals between main memory and the input and output devices.)


CPU

central processing unit ((p. 208) The processor; it follows the instructions of the software (program) to manipulate data into information. The CPU consists of two parts ⎯(1) the control unit and (2) the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), both of which contain registers, or high-speed storage areas. All are linked by a kind of electronic “roadway” called a bus. Why it’s important: The CPU is the “brain” of the computer.)


DVD-R

DVD-recordable disks ((p. 226) DVD disks that allow one-time recording by users. Why it’s important: Recordable DVDs offer the user yet another option for storing large amounts of data.)


DVD-ROM

digital versatile disk or digital video disk, with read-only memory ((p. 226) CD-type disk with extremely high capacity, able to store 4.7 or more gigabytes. Why it’s important: It is a powerful and versatile secondary storage medium.)


EBCDIC

extended binary coded decimal interchange code ((p. 197) Binary code used with large computers. Why it’s important: EBCDIC is commonly used in mainframes.)


EB

exabyte ((p. 197) Approximately 1 quintillion bytes ⎯1 billion billion bytes (1,024 petabytes ⎯or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes). Why it’s important: Although this number is seldom used, it is estimated that all the printed material in the world represents about 5 exabytes.)


expansion

(p. 202) Way of increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware to perform tasks that are beyond the scope of the basic system. Why it’s important: Expansion allows users to customize and/or upgrade their computer systems.


expansion card

(p. 217) Also known as expansion board, adapter card, interface card, plug-in board, controller card, add-in, or add-on; (circuit board that provides more memory or that controls peripheral devices. Why it’s important: Common expansion cards connect to the monitor (graphics card), and speakers and microphones (sound card), and network (network card). Most computers have four to eight expansion slots, some of which may already contain expansion cards included in your initial PC purchase.)


expansion slot

(p. 217) Socket on the motherboard into which the user can plug an expansion card. Why it’s important: See expansion card.


FireWire

(p. 216) A specialized serial-bus port intended to connect devices working with lots of data, such as digital video recorders, DVD players, gaming consoles, and digital audio equipment. Why it’s important: Whereas the USB port handles only 12 megabits per second, FireWire handles up to 400 megabits per second.


flash memory card

(p. 231) Also known as flash RAM cards; (form of secondary storage consisting of circuitry on credit-card-size cards that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard on notebook computers. Why it’s important: Flash memory is nonvolatile, so it retains data even when the power is turned off.


flash memory chip

(p. 211) Chip that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once (unlike PROM chips, which can be reprogrammed only once). Why it’s important: Flash memory, which can range from 32 to 128 megabytes in capacity, is used to store programs not only in personal computers, but also in pagers, cellphones, printers, and digital cameras. Unlike standard RAM chips, flash memory is nonvolatile ⎯data is retained when the power is turned off.


flash memory drive

Also called a USB flash drive, keychain drive, or key drive; a finger-size module of flash memory that plugs into the USB ports of nearly any PC or Macintosh.


flash memory stick

Smaller than a stick of chewing gum, a form of flash memory media that plugs into a memory stick port in a digital camera, camcorder, notebook PC, photo printer, and other devices.


flops

floating-point operations per second


integrated circuit

an entire electronic circuit, including wires, formed on a single chip or piece of special material, usually silicon.


machine cycle

series of operations performed by the control unit to execute a single program instruction. (It 1. fetches an instruction, 2. decodes the instruction, 3. executes the instruction, and 4. stores the result.)


MIDI port

Musical Instrument Digital Interface


MIPS

millions of instructions per second


optical memory cards

Plastic, laser-recordable, wallet-type card used with an optical-card reader.


parity bit

also called a check bit; an extra bit attached to the end of a byte.


Unicode

Binary coding scheme that uses 2 bytes (16 bits) for each character, rather than 1 byte (8 bits). Why it’s important: Instead of the 256 character combinations of ASCII, Unicode can handle 65,536 character combinations. Thus, it allows almost all the written languages of the world to be represented using a single character set.


word size

Number of bits that the processor may process at any one time. Why it’s important: The more bits in a word, the faster the computer. A 32-bit computer ⎯that is, one with a 32-bit-word processor ⎯will transfer data within each microprocessor chip in 32-bit chunks, or 4 bytes at a time. A 64-bit computer transfers data in 64-bit chunks, or 8 bytes at at time.


UPS

uninterrupted power supply


buses (or) bus lines

electrical data roadways through which bits are transmitted within the CPU and between the CPU and other components of the motherboard.


registers

special high speed storage areas that temporarily store data during transfer processing


astable

of or relating to a system or electric circuit that oscillates spontaneously between unstable states.


monostable

(of an electronic circuit) having only one stable state but able to pass into a second state in response to an input pulse


bistable

(of a system) having two stable states.


input hardware

devices that translate data into a form the computer can process.


output hardware

devices that translate information processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand.


hardware: 3 Types

keyboards, pointing devices, and source data entry devices.


dumb terminal

video display terminal or VDT has a display sceen and a keyboard and can input and output but cannot process data.


intelligent terminal

has its own memory and processor, as well as a display screen and keyboard


internet terminal

provides access to the internet


pointing devices

control the postion of the cursor or pointer on the screen and allow the user to select options displayed on the screen.


dpi

dots per inch


analog

continuously varying in strength and/or quality-fluctuating, evolving, or continually changing.


modem

short for “modulate/demodulate.” a sending modem modulates digital signals into analog signals for transmission over phone lines. A recieving modem demodulates the analog signals back into digital signals.


network

a system of interconnected computers, telephones, or other communications devices that can communicate with one another and share applications and data.


WAN

a wide area network is a communications network that covers a wide geographic area, such as a country or the world.


MAN

a metropolitan area network is a communications network covering a city or suburb.


LAN

a local area network, or local net, connects computers and devices in a limited geographic area, such as one office, one building, or a group of buildings.


HAN

a home area network uses wired, cable, or wireless connections to link a household’s digital devices.


PAN

a personal area network uses short-range wireless technology to connect an individual’s personal electronics.


home automations network

this network relies on very inexpensive, very short-range, low-power wireless technology in the under-200-Kpbs range to link switches and sensors around the house.


client/server network

a network that consists of clients, which are microcomputers that request data, and servers, which are computers used to supply data.


peer-to-peer network

a network in which all microcomputers on the network communicate directly with one another without relying on a server.


intranet

an organization’s internal private network that uses the infrastructure and standards of the internet and the web.


extranet

a private intranet that connects not only internal personnal but also selected suppliers and other stategic parties.


VPN (or) virtual private network

a private network that uses a public network, (usually the internet) to connect remote sites.


host computer

a mainframe or midsize central computer that controls the network.


node

any device that is attached to a network-for example, a microcomputer, terminal, storage device, or printer.


packet

a fixed length block of data for transmission.


protocol (or) communications protocol

a set of conventions governing the exchange of data between hardware and/or software components in a communications network.


hub

a common connection point for devices in a network- a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded out in one or more other directions.


switch

a device that connects computers to a network


bridge

an interface used to connect the same types of networks.


gateway

an interface permitting communication between dissimilar networks.


router

a special computer that directs communicating messages when several networks are connected together.


backbone

consists of the main highway – including gateways, routers, and other communications equipment – that connects all computer networks in an organization.


topology

the logical layout, or shape, of a network.


bus network

a network in which all nodes are connected to a single wire or cable, the bus, which has two endpoints. Each communications device on the network transmits electronic messages to other devices.


ring network

a network in which all microcomputers and other communications devices are connected in a continuous loop.


star network

a network in which all microcomputers and other communications devices are directly connected to a central server.


Ethernet

a LAN technology that can be used with almost any kind of computer and that describes how data can be sent in packets in between computers and other networked devices usually in close proximity.


twisted pair wire

consists of two strands of insulated copper wire, twisted around each other. This twisted-pair configuration (compared to straight wire) somewhat reduces interference (called “crosstalk”) from electrical fields.


coaxial cable (commonly called) co-ax

a high-frequency transmission cable that consists of insulated copper wire wrapped in a solid or braided metal sheild and then in an external plastic cover.


fiber-optic cable

consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that transmit pulsating beams of light rather than electricity.


HomePNA technology

an alliance of leading technology companies working to ensure the adoption of a single, unified existing wire (telephone and cable) home-networking standard that transmits data at about 320 megabits per second.


HomePlug technology

a standard that allows users to send data over a home’s existing electrical (AC) power lines.


electromagnetic spectrum of radiation

the basis for all telecommunications signals, carried by both wire and wireless media.


radio-frequency (or) RF spectrum

fields of electrical energy and magnetic energy that carry most communications signals.


bandwidth

the range, or band, of frequencies that a transmission medium can carry in a given period of time.


narrowband

also known as voiceband, is used for regular telephone communications


broadband

the bandwidth used to transmit high-speed data and high-quality audio and video.


WAP

wireless application protocol is designed to link nearly all mobile devices to your telecommunications carrier’s wireless network and content providers.


infrared wireless transmission

sends data signals using infrared-light waves at a frequency to low (1-16 megabits per second) for human eyes to recieve and interpret.


broadcast radio

a wireless transmission medium that sends data over long distances at up to 2 megabits per second – between regions, states, or countries.


cellular radio

a medium of transmission that is widely used for cellphones and wireless modems, using high-frequency radio waves to transmit voice and digital messages.


microwave radio

a medium of transmission that transmits voice and data at 45 megabits per second through the atmosphere as super-high frequency radio waves called microwaves, which vibrate at 2.4 gigahertz (2.4 billion hertz) per second or higher.


communications satellites

microwave relay stations in orbit around the earth.


GEO

geostationary earth orbit satellites. 22,300 miles above the earth at the equator.


MEO

medium-earth orbit satellites. 5,000 to 10,000 miles above the earth’s surface.


LEO

low-earth orbit satellites. 200 to 1,000 miles up. LEO satellites have no signal delay.


GPS (global positioning system)

GPS consists of 24 to 32 MEO earth-orbiting satellites continuously transmitting timed radio signals that can be used to identify earth locations.


pagers

simple radio recievers that receive data sent from a special radio transmitter.


analog cellphones

devices designed primarily for communicating by voice through a system of ground-area cells. Each cell is hexagonal in shape, usually 8 miles or less in diameter, and is served by a transmitter receiving tower.


digital wireless services

a network which supports digital cell-phones and personal assistants – and uses a network of cell towers to send voice communications and data over the airwaves in digital form.


Wi-Fi (short for wireless fidelity)

a short-range wireless digital standard aimed at helping portable computers and handheld wireless devices to communicate at high speeds and share internet connections at distances of 100 to 280 feet.


Wi-Fi a

The 802.11a standard uses the same data link layer protocol and frame format as the original standard, but an OFDM based air interface (physical layer). It operates in the 5 GHz band with a maximum net data rate of 54 Mbit/s, plus error correction code, which yields realistic net achievable throughput in the mid-20 Mbit/s


Wi-Fi b

802.11b has a maximum raw data rate of 11 Mbit/s and uses the same media access method defined in the original standard. 802.11b products appeared on the market in early 2000, since 802.11b is a direct extension of the modulation technique defined in the original standard. The dramatic increase in throughput of 802.11b (compared to the original standard) along with simultaneous substantial price reductions led to the rapid acceptance of 802.11b as the definitive wireless LAN technology.


Wi-Fi g

In June 2003, a third modulation standard was ratified: 802.11g. This works in the 2.4 GHz band (like 802.11b), but uses the same OFDM based transmission scheme as 802.11a. It operates at a maximum physical layer bit rate of 54 Mbit/s exclusive of forward error correction codes, or about 22 Mbit/s average throughput. 802.11g hardware is fully backwards compatible with 802.11b hardware and therefore is encumbered with legacy issues that reduce throughput when compared to 802.11a by ~21%


Wi-Fi n

802.11n is an amendment which improves upon the previous 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output antennas (MIMO). 802.11n operates on both the 2.4GHz and the lesser used 5 GHz bands. The IEEE has approved the amendment and it was published in October 2009. Prior to the final ratification, enterprises were already migrating to 802.11n networks based on the Wi-Fi Alliance’s certification of products conforming to a 2007 draft of the 802.11n proposal.


Bluetooth

a short-range wireless digital standard aimed at linking cellphones, PDAs, computers, and peripherals up to distances of about 30 feet.


ultra wideband

a promising technology operating in the range of 480 megabits per second up to about 30 feet that uses a low power source to send out millions of bursts of radio energy every second over many different frequencies, which are then reassembled by a UWB receiver.


wireless USB (WUSB)

has a typical range of 32 feet and a maximum data rate of 480 megabits per second.


denial-of-service (DoS) attacks

consists of making repeated requests of a computer system or network, thereby overloading it and denying legitimate users access to it.


worm

a program that copies itself repeatedly into a computer’s memory or into a disk drive.


virus

a “deviant” program, stored on a computer floppy disk, hard drive, or CD, that can cause unexpected and often undesirable effects, such as destroying or corrupting data.


trojan horse

a program that pretends to be a useful program, and usually free, such as a game or screen saver, but carries viruses, or destructive instructions, that perpetrate mischief without your knowledge.


hackers

1. computer enthusiasts, people who enjoy learning programming languages and computer systems, but also 2. people who gain unauthorized access to computers or networks, often just for the challenge of it.


crackers

malicious hackers, people who break into computers for malicious purposes.


antivirus software

software that scans a computer’s hard disk, CDs, and main memory to detect viruses and, sometimes, to destroy them.


firewall

a system of hardware and/or software that protects a computer or a network from intruders.


encryption

the process of altering readable data into unreadable form to prevent unauthorized access.


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


With​ E-commerce and the​ Internet, which of the following depicts a trend in​ advertising?

E-commerce and Internet advertising have grown while traditional advertising and commerce have remained flat.


What is emerging as a major business area of innovation that offers a flexible collection of computers on the Internet that can perform tasks previously performed on corporate​ computers?

Cloud Computing


Which of the following most accurately describes an information​ system?

A set of components that​ gather, analyze,​ store, and utilize information for making better decisions for a firm


What are the dimensions of information​ systems?

Organizations, People, and Information Technology


What are the steps of the problem solving​ process?

Problem​ Identification, Solution​ Design, Solution Evaluation and​ Choice, and Implementation


As Julie explains to​ Trey, she needs sales data in order to plan future cookie production. Based on her​ explanation, data is defined as​ _____.

recorded facts or figures


When Julie describes calculating the average number of cookies sold in​ February, she is describing an example of obtaining​ _____ from​ _____.

​information; data


Based on the information in this​ video, which of the following describes high quality​ data?

It is​ correct, current, and complete.


In this video​ dramatization, Julie and Trey discuss the need to document any changes they make to a cookie recipe. If they change the recipe for red velvet cookies and​ don’t change the list of ingredients they use for the procurement of​ inputs, this is an example of failure of data to be​ _____.

correct


As Julie explains to​ Trey, she needs information obtained from high quality data to help her make good decisions. Which of the following four documents would not be a good source of information for​ Julie?

a social media report that shows the total number of​ “likes” for each cookie


What primary goal does the San Francisco​ Giants’ “dynamic ticket​ pricing” help​ accomplish?

It allows ticket prices to fluctuate according to demand


Businesses in America will spend approximately​ $600 ____________ on​ hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment in 2015.

Billion


With new laws requiring the storage of emails and other important​ documents, estimates of information systems storage now exceeds​ 1.8:

Zettabytes


When talking about changes related to information​ technology, the text identifies three interrelated changes that are responsible for the bulk of innovations. These include the mobile digital​ platform, ________________________, and the growth of cloud computing.

the growing use of big data


___________________ is a business driver which focuses on ways to achieve better efficiencies to increase profits.

Operational Excellence


If a competitor to your business introduces an effective product or service​ (i.e., when Citibank first introduced the​ ATM), your need to follow is considered an example of the business​ driver:

Survival


A manager upset that he or she is not receiving​ forecasts, sales​ projections, or appropriate dashboards is expressing frustration for having a poor​ ______________ business​ driver:

Improved Decision Making


An automobile rental company interested in learning and adapting to the needs of its customers is focusing on the business​ driver:

Customer and Supplier Intimacy


Which is an example of a business using information systems for customer​ intimacy?

Mandarin Oriental​ Hotel’s customer-preference tracking system


In its simplest​ form, ___________ represents streams of raw facts with limited usefulness until organized.

Data


An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect​ (or retrieve),​ process, store, and distribute information to support which of the​ following?

Decision making and control in an organization


What is the name for the process of converting raw data into a more meaningful​ form?

Processing


What is the name for the field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the​ development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the​ firm?

Management Information Systems


Information​ systems, management information​ systems, information​ technology, information​ management, and computer information systems are often confused with one another. Which of these focuses primarily on hardware and​ software?

Information Technology


Which of the following is NOT an element of critical​ thinking?

Providing iterative feedback


Which of the following business problems is NOT a problem in the technology​ dimension?

Complexity of task


Which of the following is NOT a step in the​ problem-solving process?

Solution analysis


Which of the following is NOT considered to be a typical people​ problem?

Political Conflict


The problem solving model consists of problem​ identification, solution​ design, ________________, and implementation.

Solution evaluation and choice


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


If you are solving a problem using the problem solving​ model, the phase where you identify as many possible solutions as possible would represent the​ ___________ phase.

Solution Design


The final phase of the problem solving model is the​ ___________ phase.

Implementation


Accountants rely heavily on information systems to do all of the following EXCEPT​ ________.

Manage financial investments


Which of the following is FALSE about the information systems occupations through​ 2022?

Offshore outsourcing will decrease demand in the US for managerial IS positions


​_____________ is the largest single group in the U.S. business labor force and this group dramatically benefits from information to help with the decision making process.

Management


Among fields such as​ accounting, finance,​ marketing, and​ others, which has undergone the most change because of technology in the past 5​ years?

Marketing


Checking for quality and paying creditors would fall within which two functional​ areas?

Manufacturing and​ production, and finance and accounting


Enterprise Systems are also known as​ ________________.

Enterprise Resource Planning​ (ERP) Systems


​ESS, DSS, and MIS systems all fall under the generic term of​ _______ systems as they help with the decision making process.

Business Intelligence


What solution would a corporation use if they had a collection of mostly older systems which they wanted to connect to one​ another?

Enterprise applications


​_____ refers to the use of social networking to extend a​ business’ collaboration efforts in order to engage and connect better with their​ employees, suppliers,​ and/or their customers.

Social Business


Based on the information in this​ video, which of the following is the most accurate description of a business intelligence​ system?

an information system that processes data into information containing​ patterns, relationships, and trends


In this​ video, Samir describes how business executives use a BI application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


According to​ Samir’s explanation to​ Ryan, all of the following statements about data marts are true except​ _____.

They are larger than data warehouses.


In this​ video, Samir describes the role of the business intelligence team in three primary activities that include data​ acquisition, data​ analysis, and​ _____.

Publishing results


Based on the information in this​ video, modern business intelligence reporting tools use​ _____ interfaces that display the results of data analysis.

Graphical Dashboard


ABB implemented a​ __________ system to help staff more effectively locate information about company projects and initiatives.

dynamic knowledge sharing


An antique dealer buying items and hoping to sell them for more than he or she paid for them is the very definition of​ a:

business


The four major functions of a business include​ manufacturing/production, sales/marketing,​ finance/accounting, and​ _________________.

human resources


Which of the following statements represents a responsibility of the sales and marketing functional​ area?

Identifying customers


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


The order fulfillment process involves which of the following functional areas of the​ business?

​Sales, accounting,​ manufacturing, and production


Which of the following is FALSE about the needs for information by different groups in an​ organization?

Knowledge workers need access to financial performance information.


A secretary assisting management is considered a​ _________ worker.

Data


Which of the following entities is NOT a part of the​ firm’s environment?

Employees


​____________ focus on​ day-to-day operations of a business including managing​ sales, payroll, and receipts.

Transaction processing systems


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.


Granular

_______________ is an emerging area where data is organized in a meaningful way to help managers make​ data-driven business decisions.

Business Intelligence


Examining a map that depicts different colors based on flu outbreaks is an example of a digital​ ____________.

Dashboard


​__________________ are designed to capture critical​ processes, procedures, and experience to ensure this critical content​ isn’t lost when someone leaves the organization.

Knowledge management systems


eBay is an example of​ a/n ___________ because it sells products over the Internet.

Electronic Commerce


Someone visiting a government website to purchase a fishing license is specifically an example​ of:

E-government


​________________ commonly involves sites like Twitter and Facebook to collaborate with customers.

Social Business


Which of the following is NOT a reason that collaboration and teamwork are more important today than​ ever?

Growth of outsourcing


A​ ______________ is a social website that allows groups to meet together and share knowledge about a specific area like​ coins, space, or stamps.

community


Which of the following is NOT an application used in social​ business?

Email


​___________ commerce is a way for individuals to provide feedback and reviews about products and services.

Social


Which of the following is a file storage and synchronization service for cloud​ storage, file​ sharing, and collaborative​ editing?

Google Drive


A key benefit of collaboration is​ _______________, which focuses on deriving better and more unique ideas for products and services.

Innovation


Which capability of social software allows users to use​ real-time information​ streams, status​ updates, and​ announcements?

Feeds and Notifications


​_________________ are information systems professionals who help bridge the relationships between programmers and end users to identify requirements for improved systems.

Systems Analysts


What is the advantage of having a centralized information services​ department, which operates as a separate department similar to other​ departments?

This is more likely to produce more compatible systems and more coherent​ long-term systems development plans.


A​ ________ is a senior manager who oversees the use of IT in the firm.

CIO


For the sale of online used textbooks with many suppliers and low cost to switch to a different​ supplier, is an example​ of:

Customers having a lot of power


What are the four generic information system strategies for dealing with competitive​ forces?

​Low-cost leadership, product​ differentiation, focus on market​ niche, and strengthening customer and supplier intimacy


What is the domestic exporter strategy characterized​ by?

Heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


Transnational firms have no single national headquarters but instead have many regional headquarters and perhaps a world headquarters. What is the transnational strategy characterized​ by?

Nearly all the​ value-adding activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders.


Six sigma is a specific measure of​ _________, representing​ ____________________.

​quality; 3.4 defects per million opportunities


Based on the information provided in this​ video, Porter’s Five Forces Model is useful to analyze a business and identify its​ _____.

strategic position within its industry


As David explains to​ Lauren, which of the following can force a business and its competitors to compete on​ price?

bargaining power of buyers


In this video​ dramatization, David diagrams Michael​ Porter’s Five Forces Model. The force at the center of this model that is affected by the other forces is the​ _____.

intensity of rivalry within the industry


According to​ David, Walmart negotiates with manufacturers and wholesalers to keep their profit margins low so that Walmart can offer lower prices to its customers. This is an example of​ _____.

strong bargaining power of buyers​ [Walmart is the​ buyer]


Walmart’s decision to build fulfillment centers illustrates which force in​ Porter’s Five Forces​ Model?

Threat of new entrants


Which of​ Porter’s competitive forces model would describe an organization that loses customers due to its product prices being too​ high?

Substitute products and services


Which of the following is NOT an impact of the Internet on competitive forces and industry​ structure?

Reduces the price of products and services


Which type of activity within the value chain model is directly related to the production and distribution for a​ firm’s products and​ services?

Primary activities


Which of the following is NOT an example of a primary activity in the value​ chain?

Human resources management


Which of the following is NOT a way that information systems provide a competitive​ advantage?

Collecting and storing large amounts of data


​Porter’s Five Forces Model states that the intensity of the competitive forces determines all of the following EXCEPT industry​ ________.

segmentation


Which of the following is NOT part of the description of a value​ web?

They promote communication among units.


When a firm does something in which they are a​ world-class leader, that activity would be considered to be a​ _____________ for the company.

core competency


If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a highly centralized operation with all corporate operations taking place in its home​ country, it is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.

Domestic Exporter


A networked system configuration supports which of the following international business​ strategies?

Multinational and transnational


If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a highly centralized operation with financial​ management, but decentralizes production and marketing to other​ countries, is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.

Multinational


If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a strategy to take advantage of local competitive advantages and avoids the notion of national​ boarders, it is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.

Transnational


Companies often use information systems to improve quality by​ ______________ as a way to set standards for products and services against predefined standards.

Benchmarking


To help improve​ quality, Delta Airlines installed customer care systems at some of its airport gates. The goal of this information system is to improve​ ______________________.

customer service and the quality of the product


Automobiles have the opportunity to use​ computer-aided design​ (CAD) to create virtual models of parts and even prototype vehicles. This use of information systems to improve quality is related to​ ______________________.

improving design quality and precision


The acronym related to organizational​ improvements, TQM, stands for​ ____________________.

Total quality management


The popular quality management technique that specifically calls for 3.4 defects per million opportunities is called​

six sigma


​______________ is a​ term, when described from a customer​ perspective, that involves demanding​ durability, safety, ease of​ use, as well as service effectiveness and responsiveness.

Quality


​______________ is the total time it takes a child to purchase lemonade​ ingredients, create the​ lemonade, and set up operations for a neighborhood lemonade stand.

Cycle Time



​______ is the acronym related to a leading model for improving business processes to enhance competitiveness.

BPM


​____________ is the final and ongoing step of the business process management model.

Continuous Measurement


Which of the following is FALSE regarding the description of business process management​ (BPM)?

It works on increasing process throughput and quality.


In the Datacard​ Case, the company decided on a complete business process transformation. An example of a successful business process redesign described in the case included​ ________________.

the distribution of pricing to​ Datacard’s partners


​____________ is a business process improvement model which is most know———-

n and used when dramatic change is needed to gain improvements in productivity and efficiency.

Business process reengineering


With​ E-commerce and the​ Internet, which of the following depicts a trend in​ advertising?

​E-commerce and Internet advertising have grown while traditional advertising and commerce have remained flat.


What is emerging as a major business area of innovation that offers a flexible collection of computers on the Internet that can perform tasks previously performed on corporate​ computers?

Cloud computing


If you include​ hardware, software,​ networking, and necessary management​ consulting, this amounts to over​ ________ in 2015 in the United States

​$1 trillion


A collection of computers on the Internet that allow for innovations such as software as a service​ (SaaS) is simply called​ (the):

Cloud.


IoT stands for​ the:

Internet of Things


For​ technology, which are the three interrelated advances that make MIS so exciting now and into the​ future?

Big​ data, cloud​ computing, and the mobile digital platform


Which of the following most accurately describes an information​ system?

A set of components that​ gather, analyze,​ store, and utilize information for making better decisions for a firm


What are the dimensions of information​ systems?

​Organizations, People, and Information Technology


​Apple’s ITunes and a traditional music store have very different business​ ___________ with regards to how they produce and deliver products to customers.

Models


An online store asking you to complete a customer satisfaction survey to better understand its customers after making a purchase is primarily addressing which business​ objective?

customer and supplier intimacy


An example of the business objective​ ___________ would include one online coin shop offering a free app that can detect fake​ coins, and all other online stores following this strategy or potentially going out of business.

Survival


​_____ is output from an information system that is returned to key people who analyze it​ to, evaluate​ it, and refine inputs for the system.

Feedback


What are the steps of the problem solving​ process?

Problem​ Identification, Solution​ Design, Solution Evaluation and​ Choice, and Implementation


What are the four elements of critical​ thinking?

Maintaining doubt and suspending​ judgment, Being aware of different​ perspectives, Testing alternatives and letting experience​ guide, and Being aware of organizational and personal limitations


The​ Problem-Solving Model consists of​ __________________, solution​ design, solution evaluation and​ choice, and implementation.

problem identification


The​ Problem-Solving Model phase where you determine a performance discrepancy that might be caused by an outdated system is the​ ________ phase.

problem identification


Regarding dimensions of business​ problems, a lack of properly trained employees is considered a​ ______________ dimension.

People


Which of the following is false about information​ systems?

Customers and suppliers are considered important elements of the information system as they provide key data.


​_________ is when a company transfers tasks of the firm to other firms that operate in​ low-wage countries, possibly reducing job opportunities within the U.S.

Offshoring


What are the major objectives that businesses use information systems to​ achieve?

Operational​ excellence, new​ products, services, and business​ models; customer/supplier​ intimacy; improved decision​ making; competitive​ advantage; and​ day-to-day survival


Because important financial documents are required to be submitted via the Internet in formats such as​ XBRL, ______________ has been impacted by information systems.

Accounting


​_________________ has been impacted by information systems as things like traditional guest comment cards are transformed into online guest comment cards.

Marketing


Outsourcing to domestic U.S. firms and​ _____________ outsourcing are both considered ways to reduce costs by US organizations.

Offshore


Expansion to global markets requires more coordination of resources for a firm to create their goods. This has transformed the need for information systems for the field of​ ________________.

Operations management


Checking for quality and paying creditors would fall within which two functional​ areas?

Manufacturing and​ production, and finance and accounting


Enterprise Systems are also known as​ ________________.

Enterprise Resource Planning​ (ERP) Systems


Business​ ______________ are the strategized steps and activities that are coordinated within an organization.

processes


​_______________________ are the functional business processes responsible for quality assurance.

manufacturing and production


​_______________________ is the functional business process responsible for managing cash accounts.

finance and accounting


​Technology, economy,​ politics, and global changes are typically classified best by which of the​ following?

​Broad, general, external environment groups that influence an​ organization’s strategy


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


ESS, DSS, and MIS systems all fall under the generic term of​ _______ systems as they help with the decision making process.

business intelligence


What solution would a corporation use if they had a collection of mostly older systems which they wanted to connect to one​ another?

Enterprise Applications


​________________ focus(es) on providing decision making data available for middle managers to make sound business decisions.

Management information systems


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


Creating a new system that provides charts and graphs to assist senior management make​ non-routine decisions is called​ (a):

Executive support systems.


Systems designed to help maintain and improve customer data and its relationship with customers are called​ __________________ systems.

customer relationship management


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


A single screen of graphs or charts of key performance indicators is known as​ a(n) ________________________.

digital dashbaord


​_____ refers to the use of social networking to extend a​ business’ collaboration efforts in order to engage and connect better with their​ employees, suppliers,​ and/or their customers.

Social Business


What is social​ business?

Use of social networking platforms to engage​ employees, customers, and suppliers


An important word associated with social business is​ ___________ which includes​ customers, suppliers,​ employees, managers, and oversight committees.

conversations


​___________________ is/are an application of social business that allows for the opportunity to share documents.

File Sharing


Virtually anyone can set up​ a(n) ________________, an application of social business which allows for publishing opinions and experiences about a variety of topics.

Blog


Which of the following is an interorganizational system that provides a seamless flow of information to both suppliers of raw materials as well as to​ customers?

supply chain management system


​_____ is responsible for​ enterprise-wide governance and usage of information to maximize the value of the​ organization’s data.

Chief data officer


Many companies have social networks that gather and use information from customers and employees thus creating an important role for the​ _____ to coordinate the protection of all data.

chief privacy officer


When a leading discount​ store’s database was​ breached, a lot of attention was on the​ company’s ____________________, who is specifically responsible for training employees about security.

chief security officer


The senior leadership position responsible for the​ organization’s data is called the​ ____________ officer.

chief data


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


The senior leadership position responsible for the​ organization’s internal knowledge​ (i.e. tacit​ knowledge) is called the​ ____________.

chief knowledge officer


​_____ are the people or​ groups, both internal and external to the​ organization, for whom applications are developed.

end users


For the sale of online used textbooks with many suppliers and low cost to switch to a different​ supplier, is an example​ of:

customers having a lot of power.


What are the four generic information system strategies for dealing with competitive​ forces?

​Low-cost leadership, product​ differentiation, focus on market​ niche, and strengthening customer and supplier intimacy


Michael Porter developed the​ ________________ model, which emerged as a leading model for better understanding the important concept of competitive advantage.

competitive forces


​Porter’s competitive forces model includes​ _________ forces that impact every organization.

5


​Porter’s competitive force concerned about barriers to entry​ is/are _______________.

new market entrants


in this​ video, samir describes how business executives use a bi application to drill down and see​ _____ data, the detail in the data such as data on a particular store or data on a particular item.

Granular


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