Noun Adjective Speech & language terminology

Noun Adjective Speech language terminology

This chapter is about Noun Adjective Speech language terminology.


Abstract noun

A naming word for an idea, concept, state of being or belief


Accent

The manner of pronunciation in relation to geographical area


Acronym

Words created by the initials of other grouped words


Adjacency pair

Turn taking where one utterance restrains other eg question and answer


Adjective

A describing word that modifies a noun


Adverb

A describing word that modifies a verb


Affixiation

Applying prefixes or suffixes to a word to give new meaning


Alliteration

Repetition of consonant sounds throughout a text


Ambiguity

Where there can be more than one possible outcome- intrigue


Analogy

Explaining something in terms of something else


Anthropomorphism

When an animal takes on human characteristics


Archaism

A word that, over time, has fallen out of common usage


Assonance

Repetition of vowel sounds


Asyndetic list

a list with no conjunctions


Attributive adjective

Adjective placed before the noun it is describing


Audience

Who the text is aimed at


Auxiliary verb

Supporting verb of the lexical verb


back channeling

Supportive terms to show the listener is following


bald on record (politeness strategy)

when a person acts directly without concern for face needs


Articulation

The clear and precise physical production of words


Anaphora

the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses


bilingual

The ability to speak two languages


bound morpheme

A morpheme that does not make sense alone but must be added to a free morpheme


broadsheet

Formal, printed newspaper


Capitalisation

Deliberate use of capital letters to signify importance


Cataphora

Reference to something that comes later in a sentence or in a text.


Cataphoric reference

A word or expression in a text that refers forward to another part of the text.


Child directed speech

Simplified way of talking adults use to speak to young children


Cliché

an overused expression


Code switching

Varying formality/ register in contrast to one another


Collective noun

a word that names a group


Collocation

Words associated being used together eg Bright sunny


Colloquialism

An expression


Colloquial language

Informal, conversational tenor


Common noun

A naming word for something that is tangible


Comparative adjective

An adjective that relates one thing to another


complex sentence

Two clauses brought together by a sub-ordinating conjunction


Compound sentence

Two clauses brought together by a co-ordinating conjunction


compound-complex sentence

A sentence with a co-ordinating and sub-ordinating conjunction


Concrete noun

Things we can experience physically- touch


Conjunction

a word that joins two phrases or sentences


Connotation

the implied or associative meaning of a word


Contraction

Combining two or more words by removing a letter and replacing it with an apostrophe


Convergence

Adjusting your speech patterns to match those around you


Declarative sentence

A statement


Definite article

specific article “the”


Dependant clause

A phrase that can’t stand alone as a complete sentence


Dialogue

conversation between two or more people


Direct address

speaking directly to the audience “you”


Directive utterance

Speaker wants someone to do something


Divergence

Where a speaker deliberately distances themselves from the audience- footing


Double negative

Two negatives which cancel each other out


Dynamic verb

A verb that expresses an action


Elision

the omission of a sound or syllable when speaking


Ellipsis

the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from the context


Emoji

a graphical emoticon used to express emotion


Emoticon

Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message


Emotive language

words used deliberately to create an emotional impact


End focus

Emphasis at the end of a clause or sentence


endophoric reference

referring to another expression within the same text


Euphemism

an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive


Evaluative adjective

Describes something in terms of the speakers opinion/ evaluation


Exclamative

a sentence that has an expressive function and ends with an exclamation mark


Exophoric reference

Referencing something outside the text


Expressive utterance

expresses speaker’s feelings


Face threatening act

A communicative act that threatens someone’s positive or negative face needs


False start

When a speaker begins to speak, stops and then reformulates it


Field

Subject area


Field specific lexis

Vocabulary associated with a particular topic area


Figurative language

Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning but used to describe


Footing

The way people align themselves to what they are saying


Foregrounding

Putting emphasis at the beginning of a clause or sentence


Formulaic utterance

utterances that are used frequently in a particular context for a fixed purpose.


Free morpheme

A morpheme that can stand alone and still makes senses


Function

Intention of text


Future tense

shows action that will happen


Genre

a category of literary composition, characterised by similarities in form, style, or subject matter.


Gerund noun

A noun with the suffix -ing


Grammar

a set of rules to ensure meaning is fully understood and makes sense


Grapheme

A written letter


Graphology

Images to assist text


Hedging

Avoiding the point


Hesitation

Pausing


Hierachy

a ranking system


High frequency lexis

Commonly used words


Holophrase

single word that conveys a complete thought


Holophrastic stage

one word communication


Homophone

a word that has the same sound but a different meaning as another word


Humour

Trying to entertain the audience through making them laugh


Hyperbole

exaggeration


Hypernym

a semantic category that names a more general class that contains specific members


Hyphenation

A dash that is used to join words and separate syllables of a single word


Hyphen

dash used to break a word apart or in a compound adj.


Hyponym

a more specific word within a category or under a hypernym


Hypophora

raising a question then proceeding to answer it


Hypothetical

based on an assumption or guess


Identity

Personality


Idiolect

The way of speaking individual to one person


Idiom

A common, often used expression that doesn’t make sense if you take it literally.


Imaginative function

use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively


Imperative sentence

gives a command


Indefinite article

Unspecific article eg “an” or “a”


independant clause

expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a senctence


Influential power

The power of influence- social media, celeb culture


Informal

Casual, speech like


Instrumental power

The power of the law- legal, politics


Intensifier

an adverb that emphasises an adjective or adverb


Interpersonal exchange

Socialising


Jargon

Subject specific lexis


Joke

something said or done to cause laughter


Journalese

a type of jargon used by journalists that wouldn’t be used in everyday speech


Juxtaposition

Placing two contrasting concepts beside one another


Labelling

To match the name of an object to the object.


language acquisition device

Chomsky’s concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally


Language acquisition support system

factors in the social environment that facilitates the learning of language


Lexical set

A group of words or phrases that are about the same content topic or subject, e.g. weather – storm, to rain, wind, cloudy.


Lexis

Word


Linguistic variable

a feature of language use that distinguishes one group of speakers from another


Low frequency lexis

Uncommonly used words


Maxim of manner

avoid ambiguity and obscurity; be brief and orderly


Maxim of quality

to be truthful


Maxim of quantity

don’t say too much or too little


Maxim of relevance

Stick to to the point


Metaphor

a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.


Minor sentence

Incomplete sentence which can be fully understood and doesn’t have a ver


Modal verb

An auxiliary verb that expresses necessity or possibility


Mode

What form is used


Modelling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior


Modifier

a word, phrase, or clause that qualifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause


More Knowledgeable Other

A person who has a better understanding or a higher skill level than the learner. (Vygotsky)


Morpheme

in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning


Morphology

units of meaning involved in word formation


Motherese

child-directed speech


Multimodal

Uses more than one form


Negation

Using no or not to make a positive statement negative


Negative face

The desire to be free from imposition or intrusion


Negative face needs

Desire to be autonomous


Negative politeness

politeness strategy based on the speaker’s minimizing imposition on the addressee


negative reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli.


Neologism

New words


Network building

Making connections between words, understanding similarities and opposites in meanings.


Non-count noun

a noun that only has a single form does not need to be changed to make it plural


Noun phrase

A noun and an adjective phrase


object permanence

the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight


occupation

a job or profession


Occupational dialect

Words specific to an occupation/job area


Occupational register

A technical vocabulary associated with a particular occupation or activity


Off-record (indirect) strategy

Insinuating


Onamatopoeia

words that imitate sounds


Orthodoxy

authorized or generally accepted theory


Oxymoron

conjoining contradictory terms


Pace

Speed of speech delivery


Parallelism

Phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other


Parentheses

Added information added but not interrupting the main sentence


Paraphrase

to restate in other words


Paralinguistic features

Body language – shrugging, facial expressions


Particle

Word that has grammatical function but does not add meaning


pathetic fallacy

The attribution of human emotions or characteristics to inanimate objects or to nature; for example angry clouds; a cruel wind.


Perlocutionary act

the effect on the listener


Personification

the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman


Phoneme

smallest unit of sound


Phonemic contraction

the sounds a child can make are reduced so that they can only make the sounds of their own language


Phonemic expansion

An increase in the variety of sounds a child can produce


Phonology

the study of speech sounds in language


Phrasal verb

A verb made up of a main verb and a preposition, adverb, or both. The phrasal verb usually has a meaning completely different to its main verb, which can confuse


Plural

more than one


Politically correct

conforming to socially acceptable boundaries


positive politeness

Social behavior which expresses positive attitudes to other people


positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviours by presenting positive stimuli, such as food.


Postmodified noun phrase

Adjective comes after noun it is describing


Post telegraphic stage

period of time when a child’s language will include both content and grammatical words and more closely resemble adult speech


Prepostition

shows the relationship between a noun and another word in the sentence.


Prestige form

the form of English which is socially prestigious i.e. held as being higher than others.


Active voice

The subject of the sentence performs the action


Cooperative feedback

A verbal/ non-verbal response that shows you are listening


Deictic reference

Words such as “this”, “that”, “there”- context dependant- refer forwards, backwards or outside the text


Discourse marker

/ topic shift when an individual moves the discussion in a different direction


Monolingual

Speaking only one language


Monologue

One person speaking either to themselves of to an audience


Monosyllabic lexis

Words with one syllable


Smooth latch

Utterances by different speakers which follow directly on


Vague language

Statements that sound imprecis


Prestige form

The form of English which is socially prestigious


lingua franca

a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce


Forensic Rhetoric

a type of rhetoric that pertains to speakers prompting feelings of guilt or innocence from an audience- speech or writing that considers the justice or injustice of a certain change or an accusation


epideictic rhetoric

the type of rhetoric that reaffirms cultural values through praising and blaming


deliberative rhetoric

the type of rhetoric used to argue what a society/ the audience should do in the future


Nominalisation

The term used when you transform the verb to an abstract noun


Instrumental power

Used by people or groups to exert hierarchical authority over others.


Influential power

Influencing or persuading others, rather than using an kind of actual authority.


Wareing

1999 types of power


Wareing types of power:

Political, legal, personal, social group


Political power

Power held by people or groups conferred on them by the law (eg politicians)


Legal power

Specific subdivision of political power


Personal power

Power that is held because of an individual’s occupation or role


Social group power

The power someone has because of the social group they belong to, often owing to social class


Knowledge power

Where a participant clearly has knowledge that other participants do not, and so takes control of the conversation


Normal Fairclough power

2001 Asymmetrical power


Asymmetrical power

The normal rules of turn taking and topic management do not apply. Power/ status is not equal.


Unequal encounter

A discussion in which there is power asymmetry with some participants more or less powerful than others.


Powerful/ less powerful participants

In asymmetrical conversation one/ some participants have more power than others. More powerful participants place constraints on what the rest can say and when, often through interruptions.


Hierachy

Pecking order


Status

The level of authority or significance someone has within a conversation, group or organisation.


Role

The function of a person within a conversation, group or organisation.


Authority

The level of power a person has either because of their role or other factors (eg expert knowledge)


Power in discourse

Norman Fairclough


Fairclough Power in discourse:

The ways in which the language is used in a text exerts/ enforces/ exercises power


Fairclough Power behind discourse

The context that enables the text to exert/ enforce/exercise power


Accomodation theorist

Howard Giles


Accomodation

The tendency of speech patterns to converse, to reduce social differences or diverge, increase social differences


Speech community

A group of people sharing a common language


Age grading

A form of social organisation based on age


Age set

Individuals remain permanently to their age set as the set itself becomes progressively more senior


Age specific language

Changing language used during the lifespan of an individual. There are some age exclusive features (consider child language acquisition stage) Jenny Cheshire


Generation specific language

The language if different cohorts of individual living within the same speech community. Jenny Cheshire


Chronological age

number of years since birth


Biological age

Physical maturity


Social age

Linked to life events and experiences


Sociolinguistic maturation

Paul Kerswill. It states that as you grow older you become less susceptible to the influences of slang on your spoken language.


Traditionalists or silent generation

-1945


Baby boomers

1946-1964


Generation X

1965-1976


Generation Y (Millennials)

1977-1995


Generation Z, iGen, centennials

1995-


Age specific

The changing language used within the lifespan of an individual


Generation specific

The language of a different cohorts of individuals living within a speech community


Labov 1994

Individuals tend to preserve speech patterns as they move through their lifespan


Eckert 1997

Chronological age, biological age, social age


Chronological age

Years since birth


Biological age

Physical maturity


Social age

Tied to life events and family status


Ota, Harwood, Williams, Takai 2000

Age more meaningful in different cultures- 18-19 year olds stronger identity for Americans than Japanese


Giles 2000

Middle aged people have greater ethnolinguistic vitality than younger/ older people


Middle aged

31-52


Hockett 1950

Language repeated with generations


Age exclusive

Used only by one generation at a certain age


Helfrich 1979

Some age exclusive features may be due to maturational factors reflecting age


Holmes 1995

Address terms aimed at children show their inferior status, many non-reciprocal forms used such as “dear”


Downes 1998

Less Prestigious variants used more frequently by younger and older speakers. Prestige variants used more frequently by middle- aged speakers


Wolfram and Fasold

Detroit study


Detroit study Wolfram and Fasold

Multiple negation more common in young people. More influenced by social pressures


Cheshire and Milroy

Young people will be more influenced by their friends than anyone else


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