Genes & Environment Development Theory – Psychology

Genes & Environment Development Theory

These Psychology chapters discuss genes, genetic traits & their Environment and cognitive and evolutionary developmental theory, and Erikson lifespan theory of development.


As presented in the podcast, another term for gene-environment interaction is ___________.

multifactorial interaction  – correct

epitypical diversity

polygenic interaction

phenotypic diversity


______ development can be described as slow and gradual change, whereas ______ development can be described as sudden change.

Continuous; discontinuous  – correct

Discontinuous; continuous

Multidimensional; multidirectional

Multidirectional; multidimensional


A theory focused on how likely we are to repeat or stop behaviors after we receive consequences is  ______.

cognitive-developmental theory

classical conditioning

operant conditioning  – correct

social learning theory


Who is considered to be the originator of the first lifespan theory of development?

Freud

Erikson   – correct

Bronfenbrenner

Vygotsky


Jane is conducting a study where infants will be observed as they interact with caregivers in a carefully designed playroom. Jane is using which research method?

questionnaire

naturalistic observation

structured observation   – correct

clinical interview


In Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Systems Theory, the interactions and connections between microsystems are referred to as the _____________.

macrosystem

exosystem

chronosystem

mesosystem  – correct


To say that an influence on development is “non-normative” means that it ______

is unique to the person – correct

is expected to occur over several decades

happens to most people at a particular time in life

caused by cohorts


Which theory is the best match for this statement? “To understand the mind, consider how it operates in many ways similar to a computer.” 

information processing theory   – correct

sociocultural theory

bioecological theory

psychoanalytic theory


The transmission of culture from one generation to the next through social interaction is the focus of which theory?

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory

Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory   – correct


As discussed in the podcast, one of the main reasons why birth is a challenging physical experience for humans is because, compared to other species, ________.

most human fetuses are in breech position

most human fetuses are more physically active during the birth process

we have over-medicalized the birthing process

we have large fetal brains and narrow maternal hips  – correct


Baby Riju is a very happy baby. Everyone smiles when they see Baby Riju and most people talk baby talk to Baby Riju. What form of gene–environment correlation does this example illustrate?

active

evocative  – correct

passive

reactive


The process called ______ refers to the creation of gametes.

fertilization

mitosis

meiosis  – correct

heritability


A woman has released two ova, and each ovum was fertilized by a different sperm. What has been created?

monozygotic twins

twins with X-linked disorders

twins with chromosomal abnormalities

dizygotic twins  – correct


In the human genome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes determines _______.

physical strength

biological sex  – correct

intelligence

personality


Three-year-old Juan’s parents were star athletes in high school and college. They are both coaches and manage a gym during the summer months. Juan has been exposed to sports since he was a baby. In addition to throwing and kicking balls with his parents, Juan recently started soccer and T-ball. He has also been enrolled in swimming lessons since he was 9 months old. Juan is already demonstrating strong athletic skills, despite being very young. This example demonstrates what type of gene–environment correlation?

active

passive  – correct

positive

evocative


Fragile X syndrome ______.

occurs in about 1 in every 3,000 U.S. births

occurs in about 1 in every 6,000 U.S. births

only affects females

affects both males and females  – correct


Erlinda’s baby has been delivered, and now Erlinda is expelling the placenta. What stage of labor is she in?

Third  – correct

second

first

fourth


Once a sperm penetrates an ovum, the _________.

sperm dies

ovum collapses

embryo is formed

sperm’s tail falls off   – correct


Violet, pregnant for the first time, is curious about how the developing organism receives nutrients and oxygen and rids itself of waste. Her obstetrician tells her that this exchange will occur through the ______.

mesoderm

placenta  – correct

umbilicus

amnion


Newborn Andrea received an Apgar score of 3, which means that she ______.

has a pulse over 100 and has active and strong reflexes

is in serious condition and needs immediate medical attention – correct

is in good health

may need medical assistance


Consuela’s research suggests that including a _________ in her birthing plan may result in reduced neonatal mortality, reduced preterm birth, fewer interventions, and more efficient use of medical resources.

spiritual advisor

midwife  – correct

obstetrician

nutritionist


At one month of age, Nicolaus struggles to regulate his arousal states, shows poor movement skills, poor reflexes, and greater excitability than most infants his age. Nicolaus was likely exposed to which substance during his mother’s pregnancy?

Cocaine  – correct

aspirin

caffeine

marijuana


As discussed in the podcast, some developments most readily occur during a period of time. Negative influences during this period of time could cause harm, but there is still the chance for future plasticity and positive change in the development. This period of time is referred to as ___________.

a sensitive period  – correct

discontinuity

a cricial period

plasticity


An important strength of naturalistic observation is that it allows researchers to ______.

exercise control over the environment

implement their own coding system

observe behaviors in real-world settings  – correct

draw conclusions about behavior without analyzing data


The dual responsibilities to do good and not do harm when conducting research are beneficence and ______.

justice

nonmaleficence  – correct

integrity

responsibility


Tara is a four-year-old girl who is very polite. Ever since she was able to talk, her mother expected her to say please and thank you. When Tara would behave politely, her mother would praise her. Tara’s behavior was shaped through ______.

operant conditioning  – correct

classical conditioning

modeling

nature


Bailey is a graduate student in clinical psychology. As part of her training, Bailey works with children and families affected by autism. Each week, Bailey participates in a team meeting that consists of a school psychologist, social worker, speech and language therapist, and nursing students. This example illustrates what type of approach to understanding how people grow, think, and interact with their world?

multidirectional

cultural

multidisciplinary  – correct

contextual


Which factor is manipulated systematically in experimental research?

experimental group

dependent variable

independent variable  – correct

control group


Catherine’s baby is crowning. What stage of labor is she in?

first

fourth

third

second   – correct


Low birth weight infants can be described as ______.

having Apgar scores of 7 or higher

having hospital stays of 6 months or longer

experiencing difficulty breathing and being likely to suffer from respiratory distress syndrome  – correct

being generally healthy overcoming developmental obstacles within the first year of life


Research on the effects of caffeine use during pregnancy indicate that ______.

moderate doses of caffeine cause low birth weight and prematurity

caffeine supports cardiovascular development

even one cup of caffeinated coffee can cause permanent damage

caffeine appears to be safe in a low amount  – correct


Approximately how long can sperm live if they complete their journey up the fallopian tube?

6 hours

2 days

6 days  – correct

10 hours


Genes & Environment Development Theory

Which baby is at greatest risk for serious health problems?

Vinnie, who was born small for date

Flynn, who was born at 35 weeks gestation

Morgan, who was born preterm

Troy, who weighed 5.5 pounds at birth


Which statement describes children with fetal alcohol syndrome?

have a distinct pattern of facial characteristics and deficits in intellectual development   – correct

have a distinct pattern of facial characteristics but generally have average to above-average intelligence

score slightly lower on cognitive assessments than their unexposed age-mates

generally recover with intense home-based early intervention


Which condition is dominant-recessive but non-sex chromosome linked?

Jacob’s syndrome

Turner syndrome

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Huntington’s disease  – correct


The most widespread and routine method of prenatal diagnosis is ______.

noninvasive prenatal testing

chorionic villus sampling

ultrasound  – correct

amniocentesis


Which procedure can repair defects of the heart, lung, urinary tract and other areas?

chorionic villus sampling

noninvasive prenatal testing

fetoscopy  – correct

ultrasound


Which test is the least intrusive for detecting chromosomal abnormalities?

amniocentesis

noninvasive prenatal testing

ultrasound

chorionic villus sampling


Prenatal screening likely to be recommended when ______.

genetic counseling has determined a risk for abnormalities  – correct

history of twins is determined to run in the family

the mother has gained more than the recommended weight in the first trimester

the mother is under age 20 or over age 30


The term for a fertilized egg is ______.

Zygote  – correct

allele

gamete

chromosome


In the podcast, you were asked to think about genes and environment in terms of a “cake analogy.” In this analogy, the temperature of the oven would be analogous to  ___________.

the genotype

the phenotype

polygenic inheritance

the environment


When there is an observer present, this can lead people to act in ways that are atypical or unnatural for them. In scientific research, this is known as ______.

reciprocal determinism

participant reactivity  – correct

the cohort effect

observation bias


Let’s say someone stated the following: “We are influenced by the environment, but we do not influence the environment ourselves.” Their statement represents which  of the following notions of development?

Passive  – correct

nature

active

nurture


To say that an influence on development is “non-normative” means that it ______

is caused by cohorts

expected to occur over several decades

is unique to the person  – correct

happens to most people at a particular time in life


When behavior is reinforced, it is more likely to recur. When behavior is punished, it is less likely to recur. This pattern of behavior following consequences is the focus of ______________.

psychoanalytic theory

ecological systems theory

classical conditioning

operant conditioning   – correct


If we are approaching a study by measuring variables, and then calculating the strength of the relationship between two variables, we are using a _____________ approach to research.

Correlational  – correct

sequential

experimental

longitudinal


A theory focused on how likely we are to repeat or stop behaviors after we receive consequences is  ______.

classical conditioning

cognitive-developmental theory

operant conditioning  – correct

social learning theory


Jane is conducting a study where infants will be observed as they interact with caregivers in a carefully designed playroom. Jane is using which research method?

structured observation   – correct

naturalistic observation

clinical interview

questionnaire


Some research is based on surveys, which usually include a set of multiple choice questions and are designed to collect data from large samples of people. This research is based on which method?

open-ended interviews

rating scales

questionnaires   – correct

structured interviews


As discussed in the podcast, one of the main reasons why birth is a challenging physical experience for humans is because, compared to other species, ________.

most human fetuses are in breech position

we have large fetal brains and narrow maternal hips  – correct

we have over-medicalized the birthing process

most human fetuses are more physically active during the birth process


The process called ______ refers to the creation of gametes.

mitosis

fertilization

meiosis  – correct

heritability


Which of the following is the best description of incomplete dominance?

Many genes are recessive and unexpressed.

Both paired genes influence the characteristic.  – correct

Many genes interact to influence a trait.

Some genes are always expressed.


Esmerelda has blue eyes and straight red hair. These are _______ traits.

polygenic

dominant

codominant

recessive


Identical twins share what percentage of their genes?

50%

75%

100%  – correct

25%


A woman has released two ova, and each ovum was fertilized by a different sperm. What has been created?

dizygotic twins  – correct

monozygotic twins

twins with X-linked disorders

twins with chromosomal abnormalities


Sometimes a given gene is always expressed, no matter what other genes it is paired with. Other times, a gene is expressed only if it is paired with another similar gene. This describes _______.

dominant-recessive inheritance  – correct

polygenic inheritance

genomic imprinting

incomplete dominance


Before a woman can be prescribed _____________, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration requires a physician-administered pregnancy test.

cold medicine

thalidomide

diet pills

isotretinoin


Most of the women over the age of 35 who are pregnant  ______.

have infants with developmental disabilities

give birth to healthy babies

experience pregnancy complications

fail to seek out prenatal health care


Baby Matteo was born at 38 weeks gestation, but he weighed 3.5 pounds at birth. The most accurate way to classify Baby Matteo is as ______.

preterm

small for date

extremely low birth weight

low birth weight


In the 1950s and early 1960s, the drug thalidomide was prescribed to many women in order to prevent morning sickness. This drug, often taken in early pregnancy, was associated with ______.

arm and leg deformities

stomach cancer

juvenile diabetes

high birth weight


Sara and Jose’s first child, Lula, is preterm. Which method is Lula’s physician likely to recommend to help with her development?

electrolyte supplements

physical therapy

kangaroo care  – correct

anti-seizure medication


Keisha has worked as a neonatal nurse for over 20 years. She is often asked questions about the age of viability. Her response is that the period begins at about how many weeks after conception?

12

22   – correct

27

18


As discussed in the podcast, some developments most readily occur during a period of time. Negative influences during this period of time could cause harm, but there is still the chance for future plasticity and positive change in the development. This period of time is referred to as ___________.

a cricial period

plasticity

discontinuity

a sensitive period   – correct


Which question is most important regarding development according to evolutionary development?

How do genes and context interact to influence behavior?  – correct

Which influences behavior more, genes or context?

How does behavior make changes in genes over time?

How do changes in genes over time change behavior?


Dr. Yang studies cross-cultural differences in body maturation and growth, including differences in body size, proportion, appearance, health, and perceptual abilities. What type of development is Dr. Yang is interested in?

interdisciplinary

physical  – correct

psychosocial

cognitive


According to evolutionary developmental theory, genetic programs and biological predispositions influence development by interacting with which environments?

physical and emotional

contextual and social

physical and social   – correct

educational and emotional


Critics have argued that Vygotsky’s theory places too little emphasis on ______.

cultural factors

early socialization

biological factors  – correct

contextual influences


A criticism of cross-cultural research is that it emphasizes ______.

how culture itself can influence growth and change   – correct

comparing differences across various cultures

how culture changes throughout lifespan

how species interact


Maecy was prenatally exposed to marijuana and cocaine. Both of her parents continue to struggle with substance abuse. At age 5, Maecy is at risk for which potentially harmful situation?

bullying from obesity

nonmaternal child care

overly harsh discipline

overly controlling parenting


When serious defects occur during the embryonic period, they often result in ______.

spontaneous abortion  – correct

effects on the developing sex organs

life-threatening illness in the mother

the need for fetal surgery


Which statement describes children with fetal alcohol syndrome?

have a distinct pattern of facial characteristics but generally have average to above-average intelligence

score slightly lower on cognitive assessments than their unexposed age-mates

generally recover with intense home-based early intervention

have a distinct pattern of facial characteristics and deficits in intellectual development  – correct


In the United States, the typical setting for childbirth is ______.

with friends and family

a birthing center

while at home

a hospital


Which woman is most vulnerable to pregnancy-related illnesses, such as hypertension and diabetes, as well as an increased risk for miscarriage or stillbirth?

Mai, who is 19

Jaycee, who is 30

London, who is 41   – correct

Gia, who is 35


Which child spends the greatest amount of time in REM sleep?

Lara, who just turned 2 months old

Stacey, who is a full-term newborn

Braxton, who is 3 years old

Nev, who was born premature


Harris was has a degenerative brain disorder that affects his coordination and cognition. Which condition was he born with?

sickle cell anemia

Huntington’s disease   – correct

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

cystic fibrosis


Genes are composed of a complex molecule shaped like a twisted ladder or staircase called ______.

deoxyribonucleic acid  – correct

zygotes

nuclei

chorionic villi


Ultrasound and fetal MRI showed that Janna’s baby has mild incomplete closure over his spinal cord, a condition called spina bifida. Which procedure would most likely be used to perform surgery to correct this condition before he is born?

noninvasive prenatal testing   – correct

ultrasound

chorionic villus sampling

fetoscopy


The set of instructions to create a living organism is the ______.

nucleus

gamete

zygote

genome  – correct


Marcus and J.J. grew up in the same neighborhood, which has a reputation for poverty and gang violence. Both of their fathers were violent alcoholics, and they experienced periodic homelessness. Marcus carries the low-MAOA gene, while J.J. carries the high-MAOA gene. Which statement about Marcus and J.J. is true?

Marcus is at greater risk for aggression and criminal behavior in adulthood than J.J. – correct

Both boys are at equal risk for aggression and criminal behavior in adulthood.

J.J. is at greater risk for aggression and criminal behavior in adulthood that Marcus.

Neither boy is at-risk for aggression and criminal behavior in adulthood.


A wide variety of potential expressions of a genetic trait, depending on environmental opportunities and constraints, is called ______.

canalization

range of reaction – correct

behavioral genetics

gene–environment correlation


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