Fatty Acid Tail & Glucose Levels – Biochemistry Exam

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Muscle, Glucose Levels, Fatty Acid Tail, Protein, Membrane. Final Exam – Biochemistry

The key terms in this Bio-chemistry course include Muscle, Glucose Levels, Protein, Membrane, Hydrophobic, Fatty Acid Tail, Glucose, Molecules, Osmosis, Diffusion, Solute Concentration, Concentration Gradient, Electrochemical Gradient, ATP, Endergonic, Exergonic, Phagocytosis,


Olivia is a sixteen year old track star at a local school nearby. She arrived in the ER at 5:03 p.m. with complaints of extreme muscle weakness and loss of muscle coordination, particularly in her arms and legs! She told the attending physician that for the past few days, she had been pretty exhausted with little energy to do anything. Blood taken did show one particular abnormality. Her glucose levels were rather high although she was an athlete and did mention she ate carbohydrates the night before a race. However, this notion could be dismissed since she did not have a race in the past week. The doctors concurred that something else must be going on to render such high glucose levels (i.e. something was not breaking down these sugar molecules).

In addition, the doctors ordered for a muscle biopsy to be performed. After viewing the tissue sample under the microscope, the doctors saw that the muscle fibers were ragged red which contained mild accumulations of glycogen and decreased activity for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase.

Which organelle’s function is likely disrupted?

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Peroxisomes

Mitochondria– correct

Nucleus

Lysosomes

Cytoskeleton


For a protein to be an integral membrane protein, it would have to be ________.

hydrophillic

hydrophobic

amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region- correct

exposed on only one surface of the membrane


Which characteristic of a phospholipid contributes to the fluidity of the membrane?

its head

cholesterol

saturated fatty acid tail

A double bond in the fatty acid tail- correct

What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?

large and hydrophobic

small and hydrophobic- correct

large polar

small and ionic


In which situation would passive transport not use a transport protein for entry into a cell?

water flowing into a hypertonic environment

glucose being absorbed from the blood

an ion flowing into a nerve cell to create an electrical potential

oxygen moving into a cell after oxygen deprivation- correct

Which of the following statements correctly describes osmosis?

Osmosis only takes place in red blood cells.

Osmosis is an energy-demanding or “active” process.

In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration. – correct

In osmosis, solutes move across a membrane from areas of lower water concentration to areas of higher water concentration.


The force driving simple diffusion is ________, while the energy source for active transport is ________.

a concentration gradient; ADP

a concentration gradient; ATP hydrolysis- correct

transmembrane pumps; an electrochemical gradient

phosphorylated carrier proteins; ATP


What is the combination of an electrical gradient and a concentration gradient called?

potential gradient

electrical gradient

concentration potential

Electrochemical gradient- correct

In what important way does receptor-mediated endocytosis differ from phagocytosis?

It transports only small amounts of fluid.

Does not involve the pinching off of membrane.

It brings in only a specifically targeted substance. – correct

It brings substances into the cell, while phagocytosis removes substances.


Which of the following molecules is likely to have the most potential energy?

Sucrose– correct

ATP

glucose

ADP


Olivia is a sixteen year old track star at a local school nearby. She arrived in the ER at 5:03 p.m. with complaints of extreme muscle weakness and loss of muscle coordination, particularly in her arms and legs! She told the attending physician that for the past few days, she had been pretty exhausted with little energy to do anything. Blood taken did show one particular abnormality. Her glucose levels were rather high although she was an athlete and did mention she ate carbohydrates the night before a race. However, this notion could be dismissed since she did not have a race in the past week. The doctors concurred that something else must be going on to render such high glucose levels (i.e. something was not breaking down these sugar molecules).

In addition, the doctors ordered for a muscle biopsy to be performed. After viewing the tissue sample under the microscope, the doctors saw that the muscle fibers were ragged red which contained mild accumulations of glycogen and decreased activity for the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase.

Which organelle’s function is likely disrupted?

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Peroxisomes

Mitochondria– correct

Nucleus

Lysosomes

Cytoskeleton


For a protein to be an integral membrane protein, it would have to be ________.

hydrophillic

hydrophobic

amphipathic, with at least one hydrophobic region- correct

exposed on only one surface of the membrane


Which characteristic of a phospholipid contributes to the fluidity of the membrane?

its head

cholesterol

saturated fatty acid tail

A double bond in the fatty acid tail- correct

What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?

large and hydrophobic

small and hydrophobic- correct

large polar

small and ionic


In which situation would passive transport not use a transport protein for entry into a cell?

water flowing into a hypertonic environment

glucose being absorbed from the blood

an ion flowing into a nerve cell to create an electrical potential

oxygen moving into a cell after oxygen deprivation- correct


Which of the following statements correctly describes osmosis?

Osmosis only takes place in red blood cells.

Osmosis is an energy-demanding or “active” process.

In osmosis, water moves across a membrane from areas of lower solute concentration to areas of higher solute concentration. – correct

In osmosis, solutes move across a membrane from areas of lower water concentration to areas of higher water concentration.


Determine if each of the following is endergonic or exergonic.

Hydrolysis of ATP

              exergonic– correct

A reaction causes an increase in disorder (entropy)

              exergonic– correct

Dehydration reaction to build a triglyceride

              endergonic– correct

A decrease in the disorder (entropy) of the cell

              endergonic– correct

Catabolism of carbohydrates in muscle cells

              exergonic– correct

Anabolism of peptide chains

              endergonic– correct

Diffusion of glucose across the plasma membrane through a channel protein

              exergonic– correct

Products have a higher free energy than the reactants

              endergonic – correct

Reactants have a higher free energy than the products

              exergonic – correct


The figure illustrates the energy states associated with the reaction A + B ↔ C + D. Which of the following represents the activation energy required for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in the figure?

Fatty Acid Tail & Glucose Levels - Biochemistry Exam

a

b– correct

c

d


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