Earth Surface & Energy Force – Physics

Earth Surface & Energy Force – Physics

This Physics chapter covers earth surface and energy force.


displacement

distance and direction of a body’s position


velocity

speed of an object and direction of motion (vector)


acceleration

change in speed or direction per unit time


inertia

tendency of a body to resist changes in motion


force

push or pull between bodies


balanced forces

forces on one body have equal size but opposite direction


instantaneous speed

speed at a single point in time


friction

force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces


gravity

force of attraction between any two bodies


momentum

product of mass and velocity


static friction

force keeping two unmoving objects from moving past each other


weight

the gravitational force exerted on a body


chemical potential energy

energy stored in bonds between atoms


gravitational potential energy

energy of position (height)


joule

SI unit of energy


kinetic energy

energy of motion


mechanical energy

sum of PE and KE in a system


elastic potential energy

potential energy stored in an object that stretches or compresses


heat

thermal energy that moves from hot areas to cold areas


convection

heat transfer by movement of particles in a fluid


conduction

heat transfer by touch


heat engine

device that converts heat energy to mechanical energy


temperature

average kinetic energy of particles in a material


heat mover

device that removes thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location at a different temperature (ex. air conditioner)


Joule

the unit for work is the:


Newton

the unit for force is the:


power

the rate at which work is done ( work/ time )


machine

a device that allows you to do work in a way that is easier


mechanical advantage

the number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it ( output force/ input force )


1st class lever

What class lever is this? effort———-load

^Ex: see saw, scissors, oar


2nd class lever

What class lever is this? effort—-load——
^
Ex: bottle opener, wheelbarrow


3rd class lever

What class lever is this? load—-effort—–
e ^
Ex: rake, fishing rod, tweezers


inclined plane

a flat, sloped surface that acts as a simple machine


wedge

a device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end


screw

an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder


lever

a rigid bar that is free to pivot or rotate on a fixed point


fulcrum

the fixed point on which a lever is free to pivot or rotate


wheel and axle

a simple machine made of two cylindrical objects fastened together that rotate around a common axis


pulley

a simple machine made of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable around it


fixed pulley

the type of pulley that requires more effort than the load to lift the load from the ground, does not need to be pushed or pulled up or down


movable pulley

a type of pulley that moves with the load and allows the effort to be less than the weight of the load


compound machine

a machine that utilizes two or more simple machines


doppler effect

the change in frequenct of a wave as its source moves in relation to an observer


dry cell

an electrochemical cell in which the electrolyte is a paste


wet cell

an electrochemical cell in which the electrolyte is a liquid


potential energy

stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object


parallel circuit

an electric circuit with multiple paths


kinetic energy

energy that an object has due to its motion


temperature

speed of sound depends on the type of medium as well as its _______________.


light

which is faster, light or sound?


reflects

the color of an opaque object is the color of the light it _________.


magenta

red light + blue light =


cyan

blue light + green light =


yellow

red light + green light =


red

magenta pigment + yellow pigment =


green

yellow pigment + cyan pigment =


blue

magenta pigment + cyan pigment =


light

when the electron calls back a photon is given off, creating this:


solar energy

energy from the sun


specific heat

measure of energy needed to raise the temperature of an object (water: 4.184 J/(kg K))


radiation

transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves


thermal energy

total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance


interference

combination of two overlapping waves


refraction

the bending of a wave as it changes speed between mediums


wavelength

distance between crests on a transverse wave


medium

the matter a wave travels through


transverse wave

a wave in which matter moves at right angles to the wave direction


What are the earliest forms of life on Earth

Single Cell Organisms (bacteria) that evolved from the “Primordial Soup” in the depths of the oceans


When did the cyanobacteria form?

3.5 billion years ago


Cyanobacteria group together to form major structures called what

Stromatolites


Cyanobacteria use the sun’s energy to do what

Photosynthesize (make there own food)


evolution

The gradual change of characteristics within a population, producing a change in species over time


natural selection

process that drives evolution by charles darwin who wrote the origin of species


Modern synthesis

concept that evolution was a process of gradual adaptive change in traits among populations


Gene pool

the entire collection of genes within a given population


mutation

a change of the DNA sequence of a gene


genetic drift

recognized to influence the evolution of new traits. a small change in frequency of particular genes simply due to chance influence.


gene migration

the introduction of new genes from the immigrant results in a change of the gene pool


Hardy-Weinber Law of Equilibrium

study of genetics shows that in a situation where random mating is ocurring within a population: formula is p2+2pq+q2=1


When was our sun formed

4.6 billion years ago


Where did the dust and rock come from that formed our Earth

Formation of the sun


How old is our Earth

4.5 billion years old


There was air on Earth at its beginning

False


What elements/compounds were present on Earth at this time

Iron, nickel, and carbon


What was Earth like at its birth

It was a hot ball of magma on the surface and had an iron and nickel core in the center


What planet collided with Earth

Thea


Both planets turned into

Magma (rocks)


How was the moon formed

From left over debris from the Earth’s collision with Thea


How close was the Earth was the Moon when it was formed? How far is it from Earth today?

It was very close and has moved farther away


At this point how long does a day on the Earth last

6 hours


How did water end up on Earth

In crystals that were in meteors from space


At this point in time the Earth has cooled down enough to allow what to form on its surface

Crust


What affect did the young moon have on Earth

It created violent storms in the ocean because of its gravitational force


What formed on the surface of Earth

Volcanos


What did the Volcanos allow to emerge from the oceans

Volcanic islands


What gas mostly made up the atmosphere of the young Earth

Carbon Dioxide


Meteors again bombarded the Earth, dissolve and bring what from outer space

Minerals and heavy elements


Stromatolites release what gas into the ocean?

Oxygen


How did oxygen get into our atmosphere?

Dissolved oxygen in the ocean rose to the surface and dissipated (spread out) into Earth’s atmosphere


What was the name of the super continent?

Rowdinia


What is the driving force that splits the super continent?

Heat from inside the Earth


Why isn’t the sun’s heat trapped inside the planet’s atmosphere?

There is no carbon dioxide to trap the sun’s radiation (heat)


What is the nickname of Earth during this ice age?

Snow Ball Earth – the longest and coldest ice age of Earth’s history


What releases the Earth from this very long frozen period?

Volcanic activity


What oxygen-rich chemical does the chemical reaction between ultraviolet light and ice make?

Hydrogen Peroxide – released large amounts of oxygen


What did primitive bacteria evolve into?

Multicellular Bacteria (trilobites)


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