Chemical Change – Biochemistry Final Exam

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Chemical Change – Biochemistry Final Exam

The key terms of Biochemistry Chapter 1 Quiz include, Cell Function, DNA, RNA, Energy, Organism, Carbon, Chemical, Change.


Prokaryotic

An organism whose cells do not have an enclosed nucleus, such as bacteria.


Eukaryote

organism whose cells contain a nucleus


Four major types of building blocks

Amino acids, Nucleic acids, lipids, sugar


activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started


ATP/NADH

The carriers for energy and high energy electrons during glycolysis


Chemoautotrophs

organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions


Photoautotrophs

Organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances and that use carbon dioxide as their carbon source


Is a living organism an isolated, closed or open thermodynamic system?

open system


Organisms obtain energy from their surroundings in two ways:

1. they take up chemical fuels (such as glucose) from their environment and extract energy by oxidizing them
2. They absorb energy from sunlight


What elements are essential elements for life?

P,C,O,N,S,H, Na, K, Ca, Cl


Conformation

no bond breaking between changes. This is achieved through rotating


Configuration

need to break a bond between changes
Ex. changing from cis to trans


Anyhydride

without water


chiral

a molecule that is not superimposable on its mirror image


achiral

A molecule that is superimposable on its mirror image


isomers

Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula


Are Amino acids L or D conformation?

L


Are sugars L or D conformation

D


racemic mixture

A mixture that contains equal amounts of the (+) and (-) enantiomers. Racemic mixtures are not optically active.


steady state

a state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time


Law of Conservation of Energy

In any physical or chemical change, the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant although form of the energy may change


Law of Increasing Entropy

the total entropy of the universe is continually increasing.


Is the human body an open or closed system?

open


oxidation

loss of electrons


reduction

gain of electrons


Dehydrogenation

The removal of hydrogen from a molecule


If change in G is less than 0 what does that indicate?

-exergonic reaction
-it is favorable
-reaction is spontaneous


If change in G is more than 0 what does that indicate?

-Endergonic
-unfavorable
-not spontaneous


energy coupling

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.


Enzymes

proteins (sometimes RNA) that increase the rate (kinetic) of a chemical reaction


Do enzymes alter free energy? (thermodynamic)

No


Do enzymes affect the kinetic or thermodynamic process of a reaction?

Kinetic. They speed up the reaction by lowering activation energy


Are enzymes consumed during a reaction?

No


Catabolism

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.


Anabolism

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.


Central Dogma of Biology

DNA -> RNA -> Protein


Homologs

Matching Chromosomes that are similar but not identical


Paralogs

homologous genes within a single species


orthologs

homologous genes separated by a speciation event


Autotroph

An organism that makes its own food


Phototroph

an organism that gets its energy from sunlight


Chemotrophs

Organisms that get energy from chemicals taken from the environment


Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction


Nucleoid

A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.


Prokaryotic

An organism whose cells do not have an enclosed nucleus, such as bacteria.


Eukaryote

organism whose cells contain a nucleus


Four major types of building blocks

Amino acids, Nucleic acids, lipids, sugar


activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started


ATP/NADH

The carriers for energy and high energy electrons during glycolysis


Chemoautotrophs

organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions


Photoautotrophs

Organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances and that use carbon dioxide as their carbon source