Cell Transport – Biology Exam

Cell Transport – Biology Exam

The key terms of Biology Exam include, Cell, Transport, Bonds, Thymine, Pairs, Base.


Chargaff’s Rule

equal amounts of adenine bonds with thymine and equal amount of guanine bonds with cytosine


RNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. At this point the base Uracil is put in place of Thymine (so A now bonds only with U).


Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

aids in protein formation.


Transfer RNA (tRNA)

reads the sequence of mRNA and structs the ribosome to assemble new proteins from amino acids that match. tRNA moves the amino acids and proteins around into the right places.


DNA vs RNA

DNA, sugar is deoxyribose, two strands, base – thymine

RNA, sugar is ribose, one strand, base – uracil, only molecule to enter or leave the nucleus


Genotype vs Phenotype

Genotype is the genetic makeup; what can be passed on to your children

Phenotype is the physical appearance; what is seen in you right now; how you look


Passive Transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion


Active Transport

transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient


Light Reaction

the first stage of photosynthesis during which energy from light is used for the production of ATP


Dark Reaction

the second stage of photosynthesis that starts with ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide and produces glucose


Diffusion

the act of dispersing or diffusing something


Osomosis

the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.


Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane


ATP

a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue


Aerobic Respiration

When oxygen is present, the two pyrubates made during glycosis will enter the mitochondria to be further broken down in the Kreb’s Cycle and Electron Transport Chain.


Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen


Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms;
One cell makes two gamete cells
2n -> n


Haploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes;
n – where n is the number of chromosomes


DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics;
Base pair matching is:
Adenine bonds ONLY with Thymine,
Thymine bonds ONLY with Adenine,
Cytosine bond ONLY with Guanine
Guanine bond ONLY with Cytosine


DNA Replication

The DNA double helix strand separates and becomes a template for a new and identical strand. As the strand separates each A pairs with a T and T pairs with an A while each C pairs with a G and each G pairs with a C. If the original was ACTCAG then the new strand would be TGAGTC.


Chargaff’s Rule

equal amounts of adenine bonds with thymine and equal amount of guanine bonds with cytosine


RNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. At this point the base Uracil is put in place of Thymine (so A now bonds only with U).


Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

aids in protein formation.


Transfer RNA (tRNA)

reads the sequence of mRNA and structs the ribosome to assemble new proteins from amino acids that match. tRNA moves the amino acids and proteins around into the right places.


DNA vs RNA

DNA, sugar is deoxyribose, two strands, base – thymine

RNA, sugar is ribose, one strand, base – uracil, only molecule to enter or leave the nucleus


Genotype vs Phenotype

Genotype is the genetic makeup; what can be passed on to your children

Phenotype is the physical appearance; what is seen in you right now; how you look


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