Cell Specie & Organism Enzyme – Biology

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Cell Specie & Organism Enzyme – Biology

This biology chapter covers cell specie and organism enzyme.


coenzymes

 vitamins


cofactors

 minerals


islets of Langerhans

 cells in the pancreas that produce insulin


insulin

 allows glucose in the blood to enter the cells


viroid

 infectious agent that consists of a small strand of DNA that causes diseases in plants


bioremediation

 bacteria that can take toxic things and make them nontoxic


introns

 not coding


exons

 coding


   RNA

 nucleic acid made up of ribose


uracil 

a nitrogenous base found only in RNA


T 

thyamine


A

 adenine


C

 cytosine


G

 guanine


messenger RNA

 RNA that carries the instructions for making a protein from a gene and then delivers it to the site of translation


codons

 series of three bases that make an amino acid


transfer RNA

 RNA that temporarily carries a specific amino acid on one end


anticodon

 a three-nucleotide sequence on a tRNA that is complementary to a mRNA codon


age of Earth 

4.5 billion years


Primordial Soup

 1920s model by Oparin and Haldane that says the oceans were filled with organic molecules, fueled by lightening and sun


Bubble Model

 Louis Lehrman model, that bubbles come from underwater volcanoes and then release into atmosphere


microspheres

 droplet of a lipid, precursors to the first cells


coacervates

 droplets of amino acids and sugars


cyanobacteria

 photosynthetic prokaryotes


eubacteria

 prokaryotes that contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls


archaebacteria

 prokaryotes that do not contain peptidoglycan


endosymbiosis 

Lynn Margulis’s theory that says mitochondria are smaller aerobes eaten by larger anaerobes


mycorrhizae

 symbiotic relationship between fungus and the roots of a plant


vertebrate something with a backbone


agnathan

 jawless, finless fish


HMS Beagle

 name of ship that Darwin traveled on


Erasmus Darwin

 Charles Darwin’s grandfather who did selective breeding on his farm


Jean Baptiste Lamarck

 If someone cuts off their finger, their offspring wont have a finger; NOT TRUE


population

 the individuals of a species that live in a specific geographical area and can interbreed


natural selection

 Individuals more fit to survive will pass their good traits onto their offspring


vestigial structures

 structures considered to be evidence of an organism’s evolutionary past


homologous structures

 structures that share a common ancestry


speciation

 process by which new species form


taxonomy

 science of naming and classifying


genus 

category containing similar species


order of classification

 Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species


biological species 

a group of natural populations that are interbreeding or that could interbreed, and are reproductively isolated from other groups


cladogram

 diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships


population density 

number of individuals living in a given area


carrying capacity

 population size that an environment can sustain


Thomas Malthus 

suggested to Darwin that populations have carrying capacities


Charles Lyell

 wrote the Principles of Geology and taught Darwin about the changes of the Earth


K strategist

 have few offspring, but care for each one


R strategist

 have hundreds or thousands of offspring hoping that only a few will survive


ecology

 the study of the interactions of living organisms with their physical environment


habitat

 the place where a population of a species lives


community

 the different species that live together in a habitat


ecosystem

 a community and all the physical aspects of its habitat


abiotic factors

 physical aspects of a habitat


biotic factors 

organisms living in a habitat


succession

 regular progression of species replacement


primary productivity

 rate of the primary producers (plants)


producers

 organisms that first capture the energy


consumers 

organisms that consume the plants


detritivores 

organisms that eat organic wastes and dead bodies


biomass 

the dry weight of tissues and other organic matter found in an ecosystem


nitrogen fixation

 the process of combining nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia


secondary compounds 

defensive chemicals contained in most plants


symbiosis

 two or more species live together in a long-term association


mutualism

 a symbiotic relationship where both benefit


commensalism

 a symbiotic relationship where one species benefits and the other is unchanged


niche

 the job an organism performs in the ecosystem


biome 

a major biological community that occurs over a large area of land


Three Domains 

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya


methanogens

 archaea that like methane


extremophiles

 archaea that live in extreme conditions


thermophiles

 archaea that live in extreme temperatures


halophiles

 archaea that live in salt


Six Kingdoms

: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria


tissue 

a distinct group of cells with similar structure and function


organ

 a specialized structure


phagocytosis

 Protists that throw their cytoplasm against their cell membrane in order to move; cytoplasmic streaming


slime molds

 eat decaying matter


contractile vacuole

 water pumps located in euglenas


eye spot

 senses sunlight in euglenas


oral groove

 eating mechanism of a paramecium


toxoplasmosis 

cats and pregant people disease


diatoms protists with shells made of silica


brown algae

 kelp


green algae

plankton, seaweed


red algae

 asian jello


capsid

 a protein coat over a virus that has spikes


bacteriophage 

a kind of virus that affects bacteria


envelope

 a sugar cloud that disguises the virus


rhinovirus 

virus that causes colds


lysis

 cell explosion


lytic virus

 a virus that causes cells to explode


lysogenic virus

 a virus that lies dormant in the cell until triggered, then it becomes lytic


prions

 infectious proteins that have no nucleic acid; cause mad cow disease


anthrax 

respiratory disease once found in cattle


bubonic plague

 flease that lived on rats caused people’s skin to get bubose and turn black


cholera

 found in mussels and clams, multiplies in human feces


pathogens

 agents that cause disease


bacillus 

rod-shaped bacteria


coccus 

sphere-shaped bacteria


spirillum 

spiral-shaped bacteria


capsule

 gel-like layer outside of the bacteria


conjugation

 process where two organisms exchange genetic material


blastula

 a hollow ball of cells


ectoderm

 outer layer of skin; nervous system; eyes


endoderm

 lining of digestive tract; respiratory system; urinary bladder; glands


mesoderm

 skeleton; muscles; circulatory system; reproductive and excretory organs


gastrovascular cavity

 a digestive cavity with only one opening


hermaphrodite

 organisms that have both testes and ovaries


ostia 

pores in sponges


oscula

 larger openings in sponges through which water exits


choanocytes

 lining of sponge’s internal cavity


cnidocytes

 stinging cells on cnidarians


basal disk

 secretes sticky fluid to help invertebrates move (like snails)


fluke

 a flatworm parasite that lives inside its host


tegument

 covering of cells on a flatworm that prevents them from being digested by the host


trochophore

 larval stage of annelids and mollusks


visceral mass 

central section of a mollusk that contains the organs


mantle

 heavy fold of tissue that forms the outer layer of the body in mollusks


foot

 muscular region of locomotion in mollusks


radula

 tongue-like organ located in mollusk’s mouth


cerebral ganglion

 primitive brain in annelids


annelid evolutionary milestone

 segmentation


sponge e.m.

 multicellularity


cnidarian e.m. 

tissues


flatworm e.m.

 bilateral symmetry


roundworm e.m. 

body cavity


mollusk e.m.

 coelom


arthropod e.m. 

jointed appendages


thorax

 midbody region of the arthropod


echinoderm e.m.

 deuterostomes


blastophore

 an opening in the early stages of echinoderm development


protostome

 animals that develop a mouth from the blastophore


deuterostone

 animals that develop an anus from the blastophore


chordates e.m

. notochord


notochord 

a stiff rod in chordates


pharyngeal pouches

 gill structure’s in a chordate’s development


chordate characteristics

 notochord, nerve chord, postanal tail, pharyngeal pouches, endoskeleton


tunicate

 invertebrate chordate that is covered by a tunic


lancelet

 invertebrate chordate that has a bladelike shape


conus arteriosus

 chamber of a fish heart that smooths the pumps


sinus venosus

 collection chamber in the fish heart


septum

 dividing wall that separates the atrium into left and right


epithelial tissue

 outer lining of skin and protects from damage


stem cell

 undifferentiated stem cells from the blastula in an embryo


integumentary

 skin, hair, nails


axial skeleton

 bones of the skull, ribs, spine, and sternum


appendicular skeleton

 bones related to arms and legs


periosteum

 outer layer of the bone


bone marrow

 soft tissue that creates blood cells and fat


Haversian canals

 hollow channels that contain blood vessels


osteocytes 

bone cells


ligament

 connects bone to bone


ball and socket joints

all types of movement; shoulder, hip


pivot joint 

rotation; top of spine


hinge joint

 bend and straighten; elbow, knees


gliding joint

 sliding motion; wrist


saddle joint

 base of thumbs


tendon

 connects muscle to bone


actin

 protein filament; responsible for contracting and relaxing the muscles


myosin

 protein filament


z-line

 anchor of the filaments


sarcomere

 area between two z-lines


epidermis

 outermost layer of the skin


keratin

 protein that makes skin waterproof


dermis 

inner layer of skin


melanin

 skin color


hair follicles

 root of hair shaft


subcutaneous tissue

 layer of connective tissue made mostly of fat


artery

 blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart


capillaries

 tiny blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, etc.


vein 

blood vessel that carries blood to the heart


lymphatic system

 collects and recycles fluids leaked from the cardiovascular system


plasma

 liquid portion of blood that contains water, wastes, salts, and proteins


red blood cells 

cells that carry oxygen


white blood cells 

cells that defend the body against disease


platelets

 clot blood


atria

 chambers that receive incoming blood


ventricles 

chambers that pump blood away from the heart


superior vena cava

 sends blood from upper body to the right atrium


inferior vena cava

 sends blood from lower body to the right atrium


aorta

 sends blood to the coronary arteries, brain, and body


pulmonary arteries 

sends blood to the lungs


pulmonary veins 

sends blood from the lungs to the heart


blood pressure

 the force exerted by blood as it moves through the blood vessels


sphygmomanometer

 blood pressure machine


systolic pressure

 pressure exerted when the heart contracts


diastolic pressure 

pressure exerted when the heart relaxes


pharynx 

muscular tube in the upper throat


larynx

 voice box, or passageway for air


trachea

 a long strait air tube into the chest cavity


bronchi

 branching tubes of the trachea


alveoli 

clusters of air sacs at the end of the branching tubes


diaphragm

 powerful muscle spanning the rib cage under the lungs


amylases

 enzymes that begin to breakdown carbohydrates in the saliva


uvula

 fleshy sac that hangs in the back of the mouth that prevents food from going out of the nose


esophagus

 long tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach


peristalsis

 wavelike movement of the esophagus


sphincter

 muscular valve


epiglottis 

covers the trachea


pepsin

 digestive enzyme secreted by the stomach to break down proteins


duodenum

 first section of the small intestine


lipases

 pancreatic enzymes that dissolve fats in the small intestine


bile 

a greenish fluid produced by the liver that breaks up fat globules


gallbladder

 green muscular sac attached to the liver that concentrates and stores bile


villi

 fingerlike projections in the small intestine


colon 

large intestine


large intestine

 removes fluids from the food, absorbs minerals and vitamins, compacts into feces


urea

 ammonia is converted into this in the liver


nephrons

 tiny tubes in the kidneys


ureters

 tubes that carry the urine from the kidney to the bladder


urethra

 urine leaves the body throug this


neutrophil

 a white blood cell that engulfs and destroys pathogens


macrophages

 white blood cell in the tissue


monocyte

 white blood cell in the blood


antigens

 debris or viruses that need to be cleaned up


granulocytes

 the cells that macrophages are presenting their antigens to


eosinophils

 kill parasites


basophils 

deal with allegeries


natural killer cells 

look for anything out of the ordinary


lymphocytes

 B or T cells


B cell

 make antibodies


TH cell

 helps the B cells and the cytotoxic cells


TC cell

 punches holes in the viruses


antibody 

defensive protein produced upon exposure to a specific antigen


AIDS

 kills the helper T cellls


neurons 

nerve cells


dendrites 

antennae of the neuron, and receive info from other cells


axon

 long membrane-covered extension of the cytoplasm the conducts nerve impulses


nerves

 bundles of axons


action potential

 electric charge through neurons


nodes of Ranvier

 connects the myelin sheats


myelin sheaths

 coverings of the axons


synapse

 junction at which a neuron meets another neuron


neurotransmitter 

signal molecules that fill the synaptic cleft


cerebrum 

largest part of the brain


cerebellum 

posterior base of the brain


brain stem

 collection of structures leading to the spinal cord


brain parts

 occipital, frontal, parietal, temporal, cerebellum


proprioception

 knowing where you are in space and time


testes

 gamete-producing organs of the male


scrotum 

external skin sac


seminiferous tubules

 tightly coiled tubes inside the testes


epididymis 

storage area of the sperm


vas deferens

 tube leading from the epididymis to the urethra


semen

 sperm and seminal fluid


ovaries

 gamete-producing organs in females


fallopian tube

 tube where the egg travels


cervix 

sphincter between vagina and uterus


uterus

 hollow muscular organ


vagina

 muscular tube that leads from the outside of the body to the uterus


ovulation

 release of an ovum from the ovaries


follicle

 cluster of cells that surrounds an immature egg cell and provides it with nutrients


FSH

 follicle-stimulating hormone


corpus luteus

 the broken-down follicle after the egg is released from the ovary


labia

 folds of skin around the vagina


strept- 

cells are lined up in a row


staph-

 cells are in a cluster


gram positive

 means the cell does not have an extra peptidoglycan wall, stains purple


gram negative 

means the cell has an extra cell wall, stains pink


    double helix

 two strands of DNA twisted around each other


nucleotide

 the subunits of nucleic acids


deoxyribose

 The five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides


complementary base pairs

 G-C, and A-T


DNA helicases

 enzymes that break the hydrogen bonds between the GCATs


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