Cell Membrane & Active Transport – Biology

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Cell Membrane & Active Transport – Biology

In this biology chapter we discuss cell membrane and active transport.


Passive Transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion


Active Transport

transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient


Light Reaction

the first stage of photosynthesis during which energy from light is used for the production of ATP


Dark Reaction

the second stage of photosynthesis that starts with ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide and produces glucose


Diffusion

the act of dispersing or diffusing something


Osomosis

the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.


Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane


ATP

a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue


Aerobic Respiration

When oxygen is present, the two pyrubates made during glycosis will enter the mitochondria to be further broken down in the Kreb’s Cycle and Electron Transport Chain.


Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen


Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms;
One cell makes two gamete cells
2n -> n


Haploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes;
n – where n is the number of chromosomes


DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics;
Base pair matching is:
Adenine bonds ONLY with Thymine,
Thymine bonds ONLY with Adenine,
Cytosine bond ONLY with Guanine
Guanine bond ONLY with Cytosine


DNA Replication

The DNA double helix strand separates and becomes a template for a new and identical strand. As the strand separates each A pairs with a T and T pairs with an A while each C pairs with a G and each G pairs with a C. If the original was ACTCAG then the new strand would be TGAGTC.


Chargaff’s Rule

equal amounts of adenine bonds with thymine and equal amount of guanine bonds with cytosine


RNA

(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. At this point the base Uracil is put in place of Thymine (so A now bonds only with U).


Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

aids in protein formation.


Transfer RNA (tRNA)

reads the sequence of mRNA and structs the ribosome to assemble new proteins from amino acids that match. tRNA moves the amino acids and proteins around into the right places.


DNA vs RNA

DNA, sugar is deoxyribose, two strands, base – thymine

RNA, sugar is ribose, one strand, base – uracil, only molecule to enter or leave the nucleus


Genotype vs Phenotype

Genotype is the genetic makeup; what can be passed on to your children

Phenotype is the physical appearance; what is seen in you right now; how you look


Homozygous

Both alleles are the same (TT) for homozygous dominant or (tt) for homozygous recessive (I used the letter T for an example only. This could be any letter)


Heterozygous

Alleles are different (Tt)


Alleles

different forms of a gene


Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes


Genes

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait


Dominance

an organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb —The big B would be dominant;
Allele which masks the presence of a recessive
Ex: AA or Aa


Recessive

of genes;
Two recessive alleles in order for genotype to be expressed.
Ex: aa


Punnett Squares

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Punnett Squares 2

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Order of Organism Complexity

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism


Evolution

Is change in organisms over time


Natural Selection

Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest


Survival of the Fittest

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection;
One who has most surviving off spring most fit.


Pathogens

Cause infectious diseases


Parasites

Live off of a host and will eventually cause the death of the host


Primary producers

Are plants and they provide most of the food and oxygen;

the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms


Linnaeus

scientist who came up with method of naming organisms with a 2 part scientific name called binomial nomenclature


Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

1. More offspring are born into a population that can survive.
2. These offspring all contain variations
3. These offspring must compete for natural resources
4. The organisms with the best variations will survive and reproduce. (Survival of the fittest)
5. Over time, descent (the ancestors will be different from offspring) with modification will occur.-


Mutations

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information;
can passed on to offspring if they occur in the gametes


Gametes

reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells;
in humans, the egg or sperm


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