Cell Membrane & Active Transport – Biology
In this biology chapter we discuss cell membrane and active transport.
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
the first stage of photosynthesis during which energy from light is used for the production of ATP
the second stage of photosynthesis that starts with ATP, NADPH, and Carbon dioxide and produces glucose
the act of dispersing or diffusing something
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
When oxygen is present, the two pyrubates made during glycosis will enter the mitochondria to be further broken down in the Kreb’s Cycle and Electron Transport Chain.
Respiration that does not require oxygen
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms;
One cell makes two gamete cells
2n -> n
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes;
n – where n is the number of chromosomes
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics;
Base pair matching is:
Adenine bonds ONLY with Thymine,
Thymine bonds ONLY with Adenine,
Cytosine bond ONLY with Guanine
Guanine bond ONLY with Cytosine
The DNA double helix strand separates and becomes a template for a new and identical strand. As the strand separates each A pairs with a T and T pairs with an A while each C pairs with a G and each G pairs with a C. If the original was ACTCAG then the new strand would be TGAGTC.
equal amounts of adenine bonds with thymine and equal amount of guanine bonds with cytosine
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
In RNA, A pairs with U and C pairs with G. At this point the base Uracil is put in place of Thymine (so A now bonds only with U).
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
aids in protein formation.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
reads the sequence of mRNA and structs the ribosome to assemble new proteins from amino acids that match. tRNA moves the amino acids and proteins around into the right places.
DNA vs RNA
DNA, sugar is deoxyribose, two strands, base – thymine
RNA, sugar is ribose, one strand, base – uracil, only molecule to enter or leave the nucleus
Genotype vs Phenotype
Genotype is the genetic makeup; what can be passed on to your children
Phenotype is the physical appearance; what is seen in you right now; how you look
Both alleles are the same (TT) for homozygous dominant or (tt) for homozygous recessive (I used the letter T for an example only. This could be any letter)
Alleles are different (Tt)
different forms of a gene
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
an organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb —The big B would be dominant;
Allele which masks the presence of a recessive
Ex: AA or Aa
Two recessive alleles in order for genotype to be expressed.
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Punnett Squares 2
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Order of Organism Complexity
Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Is change in organisms over time
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Survival of the Fittest
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection;
One who has most surviving off spring most fit.
Cause infectious diseases
Live off of a host and will eventually cause the death of the host
Are plants and they provide most of the food and oxygen;
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
scientist who came up with method of naming organisms with a 2 part scientific name called binomial nomenclature
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
1. More offspring are born into a population that can survive.
2. These offspring all contain variations
3. These offspring must compete for natural resources
4. The organisms with the best variations will survive and reproduce. (Survival of the fittest)
5. Over time, descent (the ancestors will be different from offspring) with modification will occur.-
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information;
can passed on to offspring if they occur in the gametes
reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells;
in humans, the egg or sperm