Cell Function & Reaction – Biochemistry

Cell Function & Reaction – Biochemistry

The key terms of Biochemistry Exam include, Cell, Function, Reaction.


reactions in which biological fuels reacting with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water are called:

combustion reactions


biological fuels that undergo combustion provide energy to power the:

cell


the four classes of biomolecules

proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates


proteins are constructed of _____ building blocks called:

20, amino acids


amino acids are linked by__________ ___________

peptide bonds


proteins serve as:

signal molecules, receptors for signal molecules, structural roles, allow mobility, provide defenses against environmental dangers, and are catalysts


G<0

Exergonic, thermodynamically favorable, spontaneously move forward


G>0

Endergonic, thermodynamically unfavorable, will not move forward spontaneously (move backward)


What is the sign of G? Will this reaction be spontaneous or not spontaneous:
H= –
S= +

G= –


spontaneous


What is the sign of G? Will this reaction be spontaneous or not spontaneous:
H= +
S= –

G= +

not spontaneous


What is the sign of G? Will this reaction be spontaneous or not spontaneous:
H= +
S= +

G= +/-

Favorable at high temperature (G=-)
unfavorable at low temperature (G=+)


can entropically unfavorable reactions still be spontaneous? How? give an example

yes. Soap forms micelles, which are ordered structures due to hydrophobic interactions


A kinetic or nonspontaneous reaction is one in which the most stable state is that of the…

reactants


A thermodynamic reaction favors the [products/reactants], resulting in a spontaneous reaction that occurs without the need to constantly supply energy

products


What are the most stable states of a kinetic reaction

Those of reactants, in which an input of energy is required to move the reaction from a state of stability, to that of reacting and converting itself into products


What are the most stable states of a thermodynamic reaction

Those of products, because the reaction occurs spontaneously, without the need for energy to be added


An endergonic reaction is kinetically [stable/unstable] and thermodyncamically [favorable/unfavorable]

stable/ unfavorable


An exergonic reaction is kinetically [stable/unstable] and thermodyncamically [favorable/unfavorable]

unstable/ favorable


If all the concentrations of products and reactants are 1, what would G be? why?

0

G=-RTlnK




If all concentrations of reactants and products are 1 then k=[products]/[reactants]= 1


ln(1)=0
G=-RT*0=0


If k>1 then G is[pos/neg] and the reaction proceeds [forwards/backwards]

negative/ forward


If k<1 then G is[pos/neg] and the reaction proceeds [forwards/backwards]

positive/ backwards


Two reactions can be coupled if they share..

a common intermediate


What do DNA, RNA and Protein do?

DNA: stores information
RNA:transmits information
Proteins:; function manifests information


The 3D structure of a protein is determined by

DNa sequence (that determines the amino acid sequence)


key goal of biochemistry

understand what it means to be alive at the molecular level


2nd key goal of biochemistry

understand the effects of the molecular manipulations on the life that an organism leads


unity of biochemistry

organisms are remarkably uniform at the molecular level


Jacques Monod

“anything found to be true of the bacterium e.coli must also be true of elephants”

—————-



This uniformity reveals that all organisms on earth came from a common ancestor

a core of essential biochemical processes, common to all organisms, appeared ________ in the evolution of life.

early,


the diversity of life in the modern world has been generated by:

evolutionary processes acting on these biochemical processes common to all organisms


which three elements make up 98% of atoms in an organism?

oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon


all life requires

water


fuel molecules are made entirely of:

carbon hydrogen and oxygen


biological fuels, like the fuels that power machinery, react with __________ to produce ________________ ______________ and _________________

oxygen, carbon dioxide, water


reactions in which biological fuels reacting with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water are called:

combustion reactions


biological fuels that undergo combustion provide energy to power the:

cell


the four classes of biomolecules

proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates


proteins are constructed of _____ building blocks called:

20, amino acids


amino acids are linked by__________ ___________

peptide bonds


proteins serve as:

signal molecules, receptors for signal molecules, structural roles, allow mobility, provide defenses against environmental dangers, and are catalysts


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