Cartilage Bone & Fibrous Joint – Anatomy

Cartilage Bone & Fibrous Joint – Anatomy

This quiz is about cartilage bone and fibrous joint of anatomy.


Which is not correct regarding articulations?

All articulations contain some type of cartilage.


The term “diarthrosis” refers to a joint that is

freely mobile.


In fibrous joints, the articulating surfaces are held together by

dense regular connective tissue.


The sagittal suture is a(n)

fibrous joint.


An articular capsule is present in

synovial joints.


Gomphoses are found

only in tooth sockets


Functionally, a gomphosis is categorized as a

synarthrosis


The interosseous membrane between the radius and the ulna is an example of a

syndesmosis


Structurally, a syndesmosis is a _________ joint; functionally, it is a __________.

fibrous; amphiarthrosis


A synarthrosis is

immobile


The pubic symphysis is classified as a

cartilaginous joint and a synarthrosis.


A synarthrotic joint would have

low mobility and high stability.


Which is not true about synovial joints?

Blood circulates within the joint cavity to nourish the articular cartilage.


Which is not a function of synovial fluid?

Nourishes osteocytes


Which is not true regarding ligaments?

Intrinsic ligaments are thickenings of the articular cartilage.


Which are not considered to be features of a synovial joint?

Muscles


Fluid-filled sacs that cushion synovial joints are called

bursae


Synovial fluid is

an oily fluid produced by the synovial membrane.


Based on its range of motion, the elbow is classified as a(n) __________ joint.

uniaxial


Which joint is multiaxial?

Ball and socket


Which of these synovial joints does not have at least one rounded or convex surface?

Plane


Which is not a correct pairing of a joint with its common name?

Glenohumeral joint – elbow


Which ligament is not associated with the glenohumeral joint?

Humeral collateral ligament


The acromioclavicular joint is part of the

shoulder


The glenohumeral joint exhibits

a low level of stability but a wide range of motion.


The fibrocartilage rim that deepens the hip socket is the

acetabular labrum.


Strong reinforcement for the anterior aspect of the hip joint is provided by the Y-shaped

iliofemoral ligament.


When compared to the shoulder, the hip joint has

a deeper bony socket and stronger supporting ligaments.


Which knee ligament is most crucial for preventing hyperadduction?

Fibular collateral ligament


Which of the following describes a meniscus?

Fibrous cartilage pads


What is the function of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint?

Limit the movement of the femur on the tibia


Which is an alternate term for compact bone?

Cortical bone


What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plates?

site of bone elongation and growth


Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral discs?

Fibrocartilage


Which is not a function of bone?

Hormone synthesis


Where does hemopoiesis occur?

Red bone marrow


Bone is considered an important storage reservoir for:

calcium, phosphate, and lipids.


The bones of the fingers and toes (phalanges), carpals are categorized as _____ bones.

short


Which is a sesamoid bone?

Patella


An example of a flat bone would be the:

sternum (breast bone).


Flat bones:

protect underlying soft tissue and maybe sometimes resemble sesame seeds.


Consider the classifications of bone, and examples of each. Which classification comprises bones used primarily for movement rather than protection?

Long bones


Which region of a growing bone contains the epiphyseal plate?

Metaphysis


The knobby region of a long bone at the end that is farthest from the trunk is the:

distal epiphysis.


What is the thin layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?

Endosteum


Which is not true about periosteum?

It is composed of dense regular connective tissue.


The periosteum is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers called _____ fibers.

perforating


Bone is ________ and contains mainly ________ nerves.

highly vascularized, sensory


Severe anemia may trigger an adaptive conversion of:

yellow marrow to red marrow.


Which type of cell produces new bone tissue by secreting matrix?

Osteoblasts


Bone cells called __________ break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid and enzymes that dissolve the matrix.

osteoclasts


During appositional growth of cartilage, the cells that produce the matrix are the:

chondroblasts.


Place the following steps in the process of appositional growth of cartilage in correct order.
a: New matrix is produced and secreted.
b: Chondrocytes differentiate, each in its own lacuna.
c: Stem cells undergo mitosis.
d: Committed cells differentiate into chondroblasts.

Correct Answers
c: Stem cells undergo mitosis.
d: Committed cells differentiate into chondroblasts.
a: New matrix is produced and secreted.
b: Chondrocytes differentiate, each in its own lacuna


Interstitial growth of cartilage increases its ______ and occurs in the _______ region of the cartilage.

length, internal


Which affects osteoblast and osteoclast activity?

Gravity
Mechanical stress
Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone levels
Blood calcium level
All of the choices are correctcorrect


As the bone matrix calcifies and the secreting cells become walled in:

osteoblasts become osteocytes.


What gives bone its flexibility?

Collagen fibers


Osteoid is the:

organic part of the bone matrix that gives it tensile strength.


What would be the effect on bone growth of insufficient dietary calcium?

The matrix would be softer.


What are the matrix rings of compact bone that surround the central canal of each osteon?

Concentric lamellae


In compact bone, ___________ connect adjacent lacunae, thereby providing pathways for nutrients and other materials to pass between osteocytes.

canaliculi


Compact bone:

is composed of tubular units called osteons.


Which is not correct about spongy bone?

It is composed of tubular units called osteons.


Spongy bone:

forms diploe in the cranial bones.


Which is characteristic of cartilage connective tissue?

Gel-like ground substance
Matrix of protein fibers
Cells called chondrocytes
Avascular
All of the choices are correctcorrect


Hyaline cartilage contains a ______ percentage of water; cartilage cells reside in small spaces called ________.

high, lacunae


The formation of bone from a cartilaginous model is termed:

endochondral ossification.


When bone forms by intramembranous ossification, the ossification centers are within:

mesenchyme.


Endochondral ossification begins with a(n) _________ model.

hyaline cartilage


Which is not true about bone remodeling?

It occurs only at articular surfaces.


The type of bone tissue that is replaced more frequently is ________ bone; the part of the femur that is replaced more frequently is the __________.

spongy, distal epiphysis


Mechanical stress of bones, such as that caused by weight lifting, is detected by:

osteocytes, which then communicate to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid.


The epiphyseal plates in the _________ are the last ones in the body to ossify.

clavicle


Which hormone inhibits rather than stimulates bone growth?

Parathyroid hormone


Glucocorticoids increase bone ________; high levels of serotonin lead to _____ bone density.

loss, low


Which vitamin is required for the normal synthesis of collagen?

Vitamin C


Rickets, a disease characterized by overproduction and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue, is caused by a lack of sufficient:

Vitamin D.


Calcidiol circulates in the blood and is converted to calcitriol in the:

kidney.


In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone acts to ________ production of calcitriol and to ________ excretion of calcium in urine.

increase, decrease


Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol:

stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood.


Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by _______ levels of calcium in the blood.

low


High blood calcium and exercise cause calcitonin release to:

increase.


Calcitonin _________ osteoclast activity and _______ excretion of calcium from the kidney.

inhibits, increases


Which hormone normally has a more significant effect on blood calcium levels in adults?

Parathyroid hormone


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent.


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women


Which is an alternate term for compact bone?

Cancellous bone
Trabecular bone
Spongy bone
Diploe
Cortical bone – correct


What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plates?

site of bone elongation and growth – correct
Provides passageway for blood vessels
Forms articular surface
Supports soft tissues
Provides flexibility for bending


Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral discs?

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage – correct
Reticular cartilage
Articular cartilage
Elastic cartilage


Which is not a function of bone?

Protection
Mineral storage
Body movement
Hormone synthesis – correct
Hemopoiesis


Where does hemopoiesis occur?

Epiphyseal line
Endosteum
Red bone marrow – correct
Yellow bone marrow
Nutrient foramina


Bone is considered an important storage reservoir for:

calcium, phosphate, and lipids. – correct
steroids, proteins, and complex carbohydrates.
glycogen, nitrogenous bases, and calcium.
phosphate, glycogen, and nonpolar amino acids.
calcium, complex carbohydrates, and polar amino acids


The bones of the fingers and toes (phalanges) are categorized as _____ bones.

long – correct
irregular
short
flat
sesamoid


The bones of the wrist are classified as _____ bones.

long
regular
short – correct
irregular
flat


Which is a sesamoid bone?

Patella – correct
Cuboid
Talus
Sphenoid
Scaphoid


An example of a flat bone would be the:

femur (of thigh).
radius (of forearm).
trapezoid (of wrist).
sternum (breast bone). – correct
calcaneus (heel).


Flat bones:

protect underlying soft tissue and may be slightly curved. – correct
have elaborate shapes, and sometimes resemble sesame seeds.
include the bones of the wrist that glide across each other.
are, by definition, not at all curved.
have a diaphysis and an epiphysis.


Consider the classifications of bone, and examples of each. Which classification comprises bones used primarily for movement rather than protection?

Short bones
Long bones – correct
Flat bones
Irregular bones
Regular bones


Which region of a growing bone contains the epiphyseal plate?

Distal epiphysis
Proximal epiphysis
Metaphysis – correct
Diaphysis
Periphysis


The knobby region of a long bone at the end that is farthest from the trunk is the:

distal diaphysis.
proximal epiphysis.
distal epiphysis. – correct
superior diaphysis


What is the thin layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
Endosteum – correct
Periosteum
Trabeculae


Which is not true about periosteum?

It includes two layers: outer fibrous and inner cellular.
It is composed of dense regular connective tissue. – correct
It provides stem cells for bone growth and repair.
It is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers.
It covers the entire bone surface, with the exception of articular areas.


The periosteum is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers called _____ fibers.

transverse
perforating – correct
penetrating
connecting
cementing


Bone is ________ and contains mainly ________ nerves.

avascular, sensory
avascular, motor
highly vascularized, sensory – correct
highly vascularized, motor


Severe anemia may trigger an adaptive conversion of:

yellow marrow to red marrow. – correct
red marrow to yellow marrow.
spongy bone to compact bone.
bone marrow to spongy bone.


If a clinician were looking to harvest bone marrow that made blood cells, which bone of a donor would be sampled?

Distal head of femur
Os coxa – correct
phalanges
Distal humerus


Which type of cell produces new bone tissue by secreting matrix?

Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts – correct
Osteoprogenitor cells
Bone-lining cells


Bone cells called __________ break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid and enzymes that dissolve the matrix.

osteoprogenitor cells
osteoid cells
osteocytes
osteoclasts – correct
osteoblasts


During appositional growth of cartilage, the cells that produce the matrix are the:

chondrocytes.
osteocytes.
fibroblasts.
chondroblasts. – correct
osteoblasts.


Place the following steps in the process of appositional growth of cartilage in correct order.
a: New matrix is produced and secreted.
b: Chondrocytes differentiate, each in its own lacuna.
c: Stem cells undergo mitosis.
d: Committed cells differentiate into chondroblasts.

c. – d. – a. – b. – correct
d. – c. – b. – a.
c. – d. – b. – a.
a. – c. – b. – d.
a. – c. – d. – b.


Interstitial growth of cartilage increases its ______ and occurs in the _______ region of the cartilage.

length, internal – correct
length, peripheral
width, internal
width, peripheral


Which affects osteoblast and osteoclast activity?

Gravity
Mechanical stress
Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone levels
Blood calcium level
All of the choices are correct – correct


As the bone matrix calcifies and the secreting cells become walled in:

osteoblasts become osteocytes. – correct
osteogenic progenitors become osteoclasts.
osteoblasts become osteoclasts.
osteoclasts become osteocytes


What gives bone its flexibility?

Inorganic salts
Yellow bone marrow
Collagen fibers- correct
Trabeculae
Elastic fibers


Osteoid is the:

organic part of the bone matrix that gives it rigidity.
organic part of the bone matrix that gives it tensile strength. – correct
inorganic part of the bone matrix that gives it rigidity.
inorganic part of the bone matrix that gives it tensile strength.


What gives bone its compressional strength?

Yellow bone marrow
Reticular fibers
Inorganic salts – correct
Red bone marrow
Endosteum


If a bone is immersed in a weak acid such as vinegar for several days, its inorganic components will dissolve. What will be the result of such an experiment?

The bone will dissolve completely.
The compact bone will dissolve, leaving only the inner spongy bone.
The bone will become extremely brittle.
The bone will become soft and bendable. – correct
The spongy bone will dissolve, leaving only the outer compact bone.


What would be the effect on bone growth of insufficient dietary calcium?

There would be no effect, since the body is able to synthesize calcium.
The matrix would be softer. – correct
The bone would be less flexible.
The epiphyseal plates would ossify earlier in development.
There would be increased formation of spongy bone.


What are the matrix rings of compact bone that surround the central canal of each osteon?

Canaliculi
Concentric lamellae – correct
Circumferential lamellae
Perforating canals
Interstitial lamellae


In compact bone, ___________ connect adjacent lacunae, thereby providing pathways for nutrients and other materials to pass between osteocytes.

osteonic canals
blood vessels
lamellae
canaliculi – correct
perforating canals


Compact bone:

is located deep to spongy bone in the diaphysis.
is composed of tubular units called osteons. – correct
has a brace-like arrangement of trabeculae.
is avascular.
All of the choices are correct.


Which is not correct about spongy bone?

Its spaces hold red bone marrow.
It is located deep to compact bone.
It forms diploe in the cranial bones.
It is composed of tubular units called osteons. – correct
It is located in the epiphyses of long bones.


Spongy bone:

contains no osteocytes.
has spaces filled with yellow marrow.
is composed of tubular units called osteons.
forms diploe in the cranial bones. – correct
All of the choices are correct.


Which is characteristic of cartilage connective tissue?

Gel-like ground substance
Matrix of protein fibers
Cells called chondrocytes
Avascular
All of the choices are correct – correct


Hyaline cartilage contains a ______ percentage of water; cartilage cells reside in small spaces called ________.

low, lacunae
low, canaliculi
high, lacunae – correct
high, canaliculi


Before beginning orthodontic treatment, a patient may have her wrist and hand x-rayed to determine her stage of growth. What long bone feature will the orthodontist use to assess this?

Osteon
Periosteum
Spongy bone
Epiphyseal plate – correct
Compact bone


The formation of bone from a cartilaginous model is termed:

mesenchymal ossification.
intramembranous ossification.
bone remodeling.
orthodontia.
endochondral ossification. – correct


When bone forms by intramembranous ossification, the ossification centers are within:

hyaline cartilage.
compact bone.
mesenchyme. – correct
elastic cartilage.
spongy bone.


Which bone forms by intramembranous ossification?

Zygomatic – correct
Radius
Axis
Hamate
First metatarsal


Which choice places the steps of intramembranous ossification in correct chronological order?
a: Formation of lamellar bone
b: Osteoid undergoes calcification
c: Ossification centers form
d: Formation of woven bone and its periosteum

b – a – c – d
c – b – d – a – correct
c – b – a – d
a – c – d – b
b – c – d – a


Endochondral ossification begins with a(n) _________ model.

mesenchyme
dense connective tissue
hyaline cartilage – correct
membranous
osteoid


When during human development does the process of ossification begin?

12 weeks after birth
12th-13th week of embryonic development – correct
8th-9th month of fetal development
3-4 months of age
10-25 years of age


The steps in the process of endochondral ossification are
a: Ossification center forms in the diaphysis.
b: Cartilage calcifies and a bone collar forms.
c: Ossification centers form in the epiphyses.
d: Bone replaces cartilage.
e: Epiphyseal plates ossify.
f: Cartilage model develops.
The correct chronological order for these steps is:

f. – b. – c. – d. – a. – e.
b. – c. – f. – a. – e. – d.
a. – c. – b. – d. – e. – f.
f. – b. – a. – c. – d. – e. – correct
a. – e. – c. – d. – b. – f.


During the process of endochondral ossification, chondrocytes in the cartilage model die. Why does this occur?

Blood supply to the cartilage is cut off by the developing periosteum.
Canaliculi connecting adjacent chondrocyte lacunae fuse.
Nutrients cannot diffuse to the chondrocytes through the calcified matrix. – correct
The developing bone collar secretes enzymes that destroy the chondrocytes.
Phagocytic osteoclasts in the new bone engulf and destroy the chondrocytes.


The zones found in an epiphyseal plate are
a: Calcified cartilage
b: Hypertrophic cartilage
c: Ossification
d: Resting cartilage
e: Proliferating cartilage
The correct order for these zones, beginning with the edge closest to the epiphysis and proceeding toward the diaphysis, is:

c – a – b – e – d
d – b – e – a – c
e – d – a – c – b
c – d – e – a – b
d – e – b – a – c – correct


Within which zone of the epiphyseal plate do cartilage cells undergo mitosis?

The zone closest to the medullary cavity
The zone closest to the epiphysis
The second closest bone to the medullary cavity
The second closest zone to the epiphysis – correct


Which is an accurate description of appositional bone growth?

Osteoblasts build bone at the circumferential lamellae while osteoclasts widen the medullary cavity. – correct
Osteoclasts build bone at the concentric lamellae while osteoblasts build bone at the interstitial lamellae.
Osteoblasts build bone at the concentric lamellae while osteoclasts build bone at the epiphyses.
Osteocytes build bone at the interstitial lamellae while osteoclasts expand the length of the medullary cavity.
Osteocytes and osteoclasts expand the bone at its epiphyses, chondrocytes construct cartilage.


Bone growth in which the bone increases in diameter is called:

interstitial growth.
epiphyseal growth.
appositional growth. – correct
endosteal growth.
cancellous bone growth.


Which is not true about bone remodeling?

It occurs throughout life.
It assists in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate levels in the body.
It occurs at both the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of the bone.
It occurs only at articular surfaces. – correct
It can occur in response to stress on a bone.


The type of bone tissue that is replaced more frequently is ________ bone; the part of the femur that is replaced more frequently is the __________.

compact, distal epiphysis
compact, diaphysis
spongy, distal epiphysis – correct
spongy, diaphysis


Mechanical stress of bones, such as that caused by weight lifting, is detected by:

osteocytes, which then communicate to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid. – correct
osteoclasts, which then communicate to osteocytes to increase the size of lacunae.
chondrocytes, which then trigger osteoblasts to increase bone in a lengthwise fashion.
osteoblasts, which then communicate to osteocytes and osteoclasts to deposit more hydroxyapatite.


The epiphyseal plates in the _________ are the last ones in the body to ossify.

femur
humerus
clavicle- correct
radius
tibia


Which hormone inhibits rather than stimulates bone growth?

Calcitonin
Estrogen and testosterone
Thyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone- correct
Growth hormone


Glucocorticoids increase bone ________; high levels of serotonin lead to _____ bone density.

formation, high
formation, low
loss, high
loss, low – correct


Which vitamin is required for the normal synthesis of collagen?

Vitamin D
Vitamin B
Vitamin A
Vitamin C – correct
Vitamin K


To trigger bone growth, growth hormone stimulates the:

liver to produce somatomedin. – correct
liver to produce calcitonin.
brain to produce serotonin.
parathyroid to produce parathyroid hormone.
thyroid to produce calcitriol.


What explains the dramatic acceleration in lengthwise bone growth at puberty?

Increased activity of osteoclasts occurs in response to parathyroid hormone stimulation.
Increased rate of calcium deposition occurs due to high blood calcium levels.
Increased physical activity causes lengthwise growth in response to bone stress.
Increased secretion of sex hormones promotes epiphyseal plate growth. – correct
Increased absorption of dietary vitamins and minerals strengthens the matrix.


Rickets, a disease characterized by overproduction and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue, is caused by a lack of sufficient:

Vitamin D. – correct
Calcitonin.
Thyroid hormone.
Vitamin A.
Vitamin C.


Calcidiol circulates in the blood and is converted to calcitriol in the:

kidney. – correct
skin.
liver.
bone.


In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone acts to ________ production of calcitriol and to ________ excretion of calcium in urine.

increase, increase
increase, decrease – correct
decrease, decrease
decrease, increase


Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol:

stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood.
stimulate osteoblasts to deposit bone by producing calcified matrix.
stimulate osteoblasts to resorb bone and lower blood calcium levels.
stimulate osteoclasts to move calcium from the blood and into the bone.


Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by _______ levels of calcium in the blood.

high
low – correct


High blood calcium and exercise cause calcitonin release to:

increase. – correct
decrease.


Calcitonin _________ osteoclast activity and _______ excretion of calcium from the kidney.

stimulates, increases
stimulates, decreases
inhibits, increases – correct
inhibits, decreases


Which hormone normally has a more significant effect on blood calcium levels in adults?

Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone- correct


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

The bone is twisted as it fractures.
The fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
The bone is splintered into several fragments.
Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent. – correct
The fracture is at an oblique angle to the long axis of the bone.


A fracture parallel to the long axis of the bone is a(n) _________ fracture.

transverse
oblique
linear – correct
comminuted
medial


The break of a bone that has been weakened by disease is a ________fracture; when a broken end of the bone pierces the skin, the fracture is ________.

stress, greenstick.
epiphyseal, stress.
greenstick, simple.
pathologic, compound. – correct
pathologic, simple.


Which is not involved in the process of bone repair following a fracture?

Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to connect broken pieces of bone.
A fibrocartilaginous callus serves as a model for new bone growth.
Osteoclasts remove excess bone from the hard callus.
The fracture hematoma reorganizes to form a procallus.
No exceptions; all of the choices are involved in the process of bone repair. – correct


During bone repair, how long does the stage of the bony callus last?

12-24 hours
3-4 months – correct
1-2 years
8-10 days
1-2 weeks


The process of bone repair includes these steps:
a: Fracture hematoma forms
b: Bone is remodeled
c: Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
d: Bony callus forms
The correct chronological order for these steps is

a – c – d – b – correct
a – b – d – c
c – d – b – a
d – a – b – c
b – a – c – d


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women – correct
Men


Which is a change in bone architecture or mass related to aging?

Insufficient calcification
Demineralization
Reduction in the organic content of the matrix
Loss of flexibility and increase in brittleness
All of the choices are correct – correct


This figure shows the anatomy of compact bone. Which number indicates an osteon?

1
2- correct
3
4
5


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. Which number is referring to a perforating (or Volkmann’s) canal?

1
2
3
4
5- correct


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. What bone feature does number 4 indicate?

Osteocyte in lacuna- correct
Trabeculae
Osteon
Canaliculus
Perforating canal


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which number indicates an osteocyte?

1
2
3
4- correct
5


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which type of cell secretes osteoid?

1
2- correct
3
4
None of the choices is correct


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. What type of cell does number 3 indicate?

Osteocyte
Osteoblast
Osteoprogenitor cell
Bone-lining cell
Osteoclast- correct


This figure illustrates the components of compact bone. Which number indicates an osteon?

1
2- correct
3
4
5


This figure illustrates the components of compact bone. Number 5 indicates passageways called

Central canals
Perforating canals- correct
Penetrating canals
Canaliculi
Interstitial canals


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. Which is the zone of proliferating cartilage?

1
2- correct
3
4
5


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. Which zones are considered to be bone tissue?

3, 4, 5
4, 5
5- correct
1
1, 2, 3


This figure illustrates epiphyseal plate morphology. In which zone are minerals deposited in the matrix?

1
2
3
4- correct
5


Which is an alternate term for compact bone?

Cancellous bone
Trabecular bone
Spongy bone
Diploe
Cortical bone- correct


What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plates?

site of bone elongation and growth- correct
Provides passageway for blood vessels
Forms articular surface
Supports soft tissues
Provides flexibility for bending


Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral discs?

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage- correct
Reticular cartilage
Articular cartilage
Elastic cartilage


Which is not a function of bone?

Protection
Mineral storage
Body movement
Hormone synthesis- correct
Hemopoiesis


Where does hemopoiesis occur?

Epiphyseal line
Endosteum
Red bone marrow- correct
Yellow bone marrow
Nutrient foramina


Bone is considered an important storage reservoir for:

calcium, phosphate, and lipids. – correct
steroids, proteins, and complex carbohydrates.
glycogen, nitrogenous bases, and calcium.
phosphate, glycogen, and nonpolar amino acids.
calcium, complex carbohydrates, and polar amino acids


The bones of the fingers and toes (phalanges) are categorized as _____ bones.

long- correct
irregular
short
flat
sesamoid


The bones of the wrist are classified as _____ bones.

long
regular
short- correct
irregular
flat


Which is a sesamoid bone?

Patella- correct
Cuboid
Talus
Sphenoid
Scaphoid


An example of a flat bone would be the:

femur (of thigh).
radius (of forearm).
trapezoid (of wrist).
sternum (breast bone). – correct
calcaneus (heel).


Flat bones:

protect underlying soft tissue and may be slightly curved. – correct
have elaborate shapes, and sometimes resemble sesame seeds.
include the bones of the wrist that glide across each other.
are, by definition, not at all curved.
have a diaphysis and an epiphysis.


Consider the classifications of bone, and examples of each. Which classification comprises bones used primarily for movement rather than protection?

Short bones
Long bones- correct
Flat bones
Irregular bones
Regular bones


Which region of a growing bone contains the epiphyseal plate?

Distal epiphysis
Proximal epiphysis
Metaphysis – correct
Diaphysis
Periphysis


The knobby region of a long bone at the end that is farthest from the trunk is the:

distal diaphysis.
proximal epiphysis.
distal epiphysis. – correct
superior diaphysis


What is the thin layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
Endosteum – correct
Periosteum
Trabeculae


Which is not true about periosteum?

It includes two layers: outer fibrous and inner cellular.
It is composed of dense regular connective tissue. – correct
It provides stem cells for bone growth and repair.
It is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers.
It covers the entire bone surface, with the exception of articular areas.


The periosteum is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers called _____ fibers.

transverse
perforating – correct
penetrating
connecting
cementing


Bone is ________ and contains mainly ________ nerves.

avascular, sensory
avascular, motor
highly vascularized, sensory – correct
highly vascularized, motor


Severe anemia may trigger an adaptive conversion of:

yellow marrow to red marrow. – correct
red marrow to yellow marrow.
spongy bone to compact bone.
bone marrow to spongy bone.


If a clinician were looking to harvest bone marrow that made blood cells, which bone of a donor would be sampled?

Distal head of femur
Os coxa – correct
phalanges
Distal humerus


Which type of cell produces new bone tissue by secreting matrix?

Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts – correct
Osteoprogenitor cells
Bone-lining cells


Bone cells called __________ break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid and enzymes that dissolve the matrix.

osteoprogenitor cells
osteoid cells
osteocytes
osteoclasts – correct
osteoblasts


During appositional growth of cartilage, the cells that produce the matrix are the:

chondrocytes.
osteocytes.
fibroblasts.
chondroblasts. – correct
osteoblasts.


Place the following steps in the process of appositional growth of cartilage in correct order.
a: New matrix is produced and secreted.
b: Chondrocytes differentiate, each in its own lacuna.
c: Stem cells undergo mitosis.
d: Committed cells differentiate into chondroblasts.

c. – d. – a. – b. – correct
d. – c. – b. – a.
c. – d. – b. – a.
a. – c. – b. – d.
a. – c. – d. – b.


Interstitial growth of cartilage increases its ______ and occurs in the _______ region of the cartilage.

length, internal- correct
length, peripheral
width, internal
width, peripheral


Which affects osteoblast and osteoclast activity?

Gravity
Mechanical stress
Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone levels
Blood calcium level
All of the choices are correct – correct


As the bone matrix calcifies and the secreting cells become walled in:

osteoblasts become osteocytes.  – correct
osteogenic progenitors become osteoclasts.
osteoblasts become osteoclasts.
osteoclasts become osteocytes


What gives bone its flexibility?

Inorganic salts
Yellow bone marrow
Collagen fibers- correct
Trabeculae
Elastic fibers


Osteoid is the:

organic part of the bone matrix that gives it rigidity.
organic part of the bone matrix that gives it tensile strength. – correct
inorganic part of the bone matrix that gives it rigidity.
inorganic part of the bone matrix that gives it tensile strength.


What gives bone its compressional strength?

Yellow bone marrow
Reticular fibers
Inorganic salts- correct
Red bone marrow
Endosteum


If a bone is immersed in a weak acid such as vinegar for several days, its inorganic components will dissolve. What will be the result of such an experiment?

The bone will dissolve completely.
The compact bone will dissolve, leaving only the inner spongy bone.
The bone will become extremely brittle.
The bone will become soft and bendable. – correct
The spongy bone will dissolve, leaving only the outer compact bone.


What would be the effect on bone growth of insufficient dietary calcium?

There would be no effect, since the body is able to synthesize calcium.
The matrix would be softer. – correct
The bone would be less flexible.
The epiphyseal plates would ossify earlier in development.
There would be increased formation of spongy bone.


What are the matrix rings of compact bone that surround the central canal of each osteon?

Canaliculi
Concentric lamellae- correct
Circumferential lamellae
Perforating canals
Interstitial lamellae


In compact bone, ___________ connect adjacent lacunae, thereby providing pathways for nutrients and other materials to pass between osteocytes.

osteonic canals
blood vessels
lamellae
canaliculi- correct
perforating canals


Compact bone:

is located deep to spongy bone in the diaphysis.
is composed of tubular units called osteons. – correct
has a brace-like arrangement of trabeculae.
is avascular.
All of the choices are correct.


Which is not correct about spongy bone?

Its spaces hold red bone marrow.
It is located deep to compact bone.
It forms diploe in the cranial bones.
It is composed of tubular units called osteons. – correct
It is located in the epiphyses of long bones.


Spongy bone:

contains no osteocytes.
has spaces filled with yellow marrow.
is composed of tubular units called osteons.
forms diploe in the cranial bones. – correct
All of the choices are correct.


Which is characteristic of cartilage connective tissue?

Gel-like ground substance
Matrix of protein fibers
Cells called chondrocytes
Avascular
All of the choices are correct- correct


Hyaline cartilage contains a ______ percentage of water; cartilage cells reside in small spaces called ________.

low, lacunae
low, canaliculi
high, lacunae- correct
high, canaliculi


Before beginning orthodontic treatment, a patient may have her wrist and hand x-rayed to determine her stage of growth. What long bone feature will the orthodontist use to assess this?

Osteon
Periosteum
Spongy bone
Epiphyseal plate- correct
Compact bone


The formation of bone from a cartilaginous model is termed:

mesenchymal ossification.
intramembranous ossification.
bone remodeling.
orthodontia.
endochondral ossification. – correct


When bone forms by intramembranous ossification, the ossification centers are within:

hyaline cartilage.
compact bone.
mesenchyme. – correct
elastic cartilage.
spongy bone.


Which bone forms by intramembranous ossification?

Zygomatic- correct
Radius
Axis
Hamate
First metatarsal


Which choice places the steps of intramembranous ossification in correct chronological order?
a: Formation of lamellar bone
b: Osteoid undergoes calcification
c: Ossification centers form
d: Formation of woven bone and its periosteum

b – a – c – d
c – b – d – a- correct
c – b – a – d
a – c – d – b
b – c – d – a


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