Bone Cell – Anatomy Test

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Bone Cell – Anatomy Test

The key terms of Anatomy Test include, Calcium, Bone, Cell, Figure, Number.


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. What bone feature does number 4 indicate?

Osteocyte in lacuna- correct
Trabeculae
Osteon
Canaliculus
Perforating canal


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which number indicates an osteocyte?

1
2
3
4- correct
5


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which type of cell secretes osteoid?

1
2- correct
3
4
None of the choices is correct


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. What type of cell does number 3 indicate?

Osteocyte
Osteoblast
Osteoprogenitor cell
Bone-lining cell
Osteoclast- correct


What explains the dramatic acceleration in lengthwise bone growth at puberty?

Increased activity of osteoclasts occurs in response to parathyroid hormone stimulation.
Increased rate of calcium deposition occurs due to high blood calcium levels.
Increased physical activity causes lengthwise growth in response to bone stress.
Increased secretion of sex hormones promotes epiphyseal plate growth. – correct
Increased absorption of dietary vitamins and minerals strengthens the matrix.


Rickets, a disease characterized by overproduction and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue, is caused by a lack of sufficient:

Vitamin D. – correct
Calcitonin.
Thyroid hormone.
Vitamin A.
Vitamin C.


Calcidiol circulates in the blood and is converted to calcitriol in the:

kidney. – correct
skin.
liver.
bone.


In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone acts to ________ production of calcitriol and to ________ excretion of calcium in urine.

increase, increase
increase, decrease – correct
decrease, decrease
decrease, increase


Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol:

stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood.
stimulate osteoblasts to deposit bone by producing calcified matrix.
stimulate osteoblasts to resorb bone and lower blood calcium levels.
stimulate osteoclasts to move calcium from the blood and into the bone.


Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by _______ levels of calcium in the blood.

high
low – correct


High blood calcium and exercise cause calcitonin release to:

increase. – correct
decrease.


Calcitonin _________ osteoclast activity and _______ excretion of calcium from the kidney.

stimulates, increases
stimulates, decreases
inhibits, increases – correct
inhibits, decreases


Which hormone normally has a more significant effect on blood calcium levels in adults?

Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone- correct


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

The bone is twisted as it fractures.
The fracture is at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
The bone is splintered into several fragments.
Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent. – correct
The fracture is at an oblique angle to the long axis of the bone.


A fracture parallel to the long axis of the bone is a(n) _________ fracture.

transverse
oblique
linear – correct
comminuted
medial


The break of a bone that has been weakened by disease is a ________fracture; when a broken end of the bone pierces the skin, the fracture is ________.

stress, greenstick.
epiphyseal, stress.
greenstick, simple.
pathologic, compound. – correct
pathologic, simple.


Which is not involved in the process of bone repair following a fracture?

Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to connect broken pieces of bone.
A fibrocartilaginous callus serves as a model for new bone growth.
Osteoclasts remove excess bone from the hard callus.
The fracture hematoma reorganizes to form a procallus.
No exceptions; all of the choices are involved in the process of bone repair. – correct


During bone repair, how long does the stage of the bony callus last?

12-24 hours
3-4 months – correct
1-2 years
8-10 days
1-2 weeks


The process of bone repair includes these steps:
a: Fracture hematoma forms
b: Bone is remodeled
c: Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
d: Bony callus forms
The correct chronological order for these steps is

a – c – d – b – correct
a – b – d – c
c – d – b – a
d – a – b – c
b – a – c – d


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women – correct
Men


Which is a change in bone architecture or mass related to aging?

Insufficient calcification
Demineralization
Reduction in the organic content of the matrix
Loss of flexibility and increase in brittleness
All of the choices are correct – correct


This figure shows the anatomy of compact bone. Which number indicates an osteon?

1
2- correct
3
4
5


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. Which number is referring to a perforating (or Volkmann’s) canal?

1
2
3
4
5- correct


This figure shows the gross anatomy of a long bone. What bone feature does number 4 indicate?

Osteocyte in lacuna- correct
Trabeculae
Osteon
Canaliculus
Perforating canal


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which number indicates an osteocyte?

1
2
3
4- correct
5


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. Which type of cell secretes osteoid?

1
2- correct
3
4
None of the choices is correct


This figure illustrates the cell types found in bone. What type of cell does number 3 indicate?

Osteocyte
Osteoblast
Osteoprogenitor cell
Bone-lining cell
Osteoclast- correct