Blood & Hormone – Anatomy Exam

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Blood & Hormone – Anatomy Exam

The key terms of Anatomy Exam include, Bone, Cartilage, Hormone, Fibrous, Joint, Calcium, Blood.


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent.


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women


Which is an alternate term for compact bone?

Cancellous bone
Trabecular bone
Spongy bone
Diploe
Cortical bone – correct


What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plates?

site of bone elongation and growth – correct
Provides passageway for blood vessels
Forms articular surface
Supports soft tissues
Provides flexibility for bending


Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral discs?

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage – correct
Reticular cartilage
Articular cartilage
Elastic cartilage


Which is characteristic of cartilage connective tissue?

Gel-like ground substance
Matrix of protein fibers
Cells called chondrocytes
Avascular
All of the choices are correctcorrect


Hyaline cartilage contains a ______ percentage of water; cartilage cells reside in small spaces called ________.

high, lacunae


The formation of bone from a cartilaginous model is termed:

endochondral ossification.


When bone forms by intramembranous ossification, the ossification centers are within:

mesenchyme.


Endochondral ossification begins with a(n) _________ model.

hyaline cartilage


Which is not true about bone remodeling?

It occurs only at articular surfaces.


The type of bone tissue that is replaced more frequently is ________ bone; the part of the femur that is replaced more frequently is the __________.

spongy, distal epiphysis


Mechanical stress of bones, such as that caused by weight lifting, is detected by:

osteocytes, which then communicate to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid.


The epiphyseal plates in the _________ are the last ones in the body to ossify.

clavicle


Which hormone inhibits rather than stimulates bone growth?

Parathyroid hormone


Glucocorticoids increase bone ________; high levels of serotonin lead to _____ bone density.

loss, low


Which vitamin is required for the normal synthesis of collagen?

Vitamin C


Rickets, a disease characterized by overproduction and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue, is caused by a lack of sufficient:

Vitamin D.


Calcidiol circulates in the blood and is converted to calcitriol in the:

kidney.


In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone acts to ________ production of calcitriol and to ________ excretion of calcium in urine.

increase, decrease


Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol:

stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood.


Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by _______ levels of calcium in the blood.

low


High blood calcium and exercise cause calcitonin release to:

increase.


Calcitonin _________ osteoclast activity and _______ excretion of calcium from the kidney.

inhibits, increases


Which hormone normally has a more significant effect on blood calcium levels in adults?

Parathyroid hormone


Which is the definition for a greenstick fracture?

Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent.


Which sex tends to lose more bone mass with aging?

Women


Which is an alternate term for compact bone?

Cancellous bone
Trabecular bone
Spongy bone
Diploe
Cortical bone – correct


What is the function of cartilage located in the epiphyseal plates?

site of bone elongation and growth – correct
Provides passageway for blood vessels
Forms articular surface
Supports soft tissues
Provides flexibility for bending


Which type of cartilage is found in the intervertebral discs?

Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage – correct
Reticular cartilage
Articular cartilage
Elastic cartilage