Animal Specie & Protein Synthesis – Biology
In this Biology chapter we discuss animal specie and protein synthesis.
occurs when two populations are geographically isolated from each other. Ex. geographical separation by a catastrophic event.
when a population develops members with a genetic difference, which prevents successful reproduction with original species.
species will specially adapt to live more effectively in the new environment. Single species can develop into several diverse species over time.
model that proposes that adaptations of species arise suddenly and rapidly. states that species undergo a long period of equilibrium which at some point is upset by environmental forces causing a short period of quick mutation and change.
origin of life theory that proposed the earth was made 4.6 million years ago. The earth had a reducing atmosphere, lot of ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and steam. The earth was cooling down and there was a great deal of heat.
The sudden appearance of multitudes of differentiated animal forms.
structures that exist in two different species because they share a common ancestry
similar because of their common function, although they do not share a common ancestry
covergence occurs when a particular characteristic evolves in two unrelated populations. ex. birds and mosquitoes.
life history strategies
organisms that are suited to develop in ecosystems; others thrive in an established system. oppportunistic and equilibreal
pioneer species in a new or recently devastated community
those organisms that overtake the opportunistic pioneer species
social behavior where organisms seem to place the needs of the community over their own need
the tendency of an individual to be altruistic toward a close relative, resulting in the preservation of its genetic traits
seeks to organize living things into groups based on morphology or more recently, genetics
two word naming of species using genus and species
seven levels of organisms
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
an evolutionary family tree of species. similar to Linnaues’s taxonomy after evolution.
a domain classification. archaea are prokatyotic, have unique RNA, and are able to live in the extreme ecosystems on earth. Methane producing organisms and can extreme temperatures
prokaryotic organisms we call bacteria
the domain that includes all organisms that possess eukaryotic cells. includes four kingdoms; kingdom protista, kingdom fungi, kingdom animalia, and kingdom plantae
photsynthesis, some ingestion and absorption, large eukaryotic cells: algae and protozoa
absorption, multicellular filaments: mold, mushrooms, yeast, smuts, mildew.
ingestion, multicellular, specialized eukaryotic motile cells; various worms, sponges, fish , insects, birds, and mammals
photosynthesis, multicellular, specializiled eukaryotic nonmotile cells; ferns, mosses, woody and non-woody flowering plants
there are nine major phyla within the kingdom animalia.
jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, etc.
snails, clams, squid
segmented worms, earthworms, leeches
crabs, spiders, lobster, millipedes, insects
sea stars, sand dollars
fish, amphibians, reptiles, reptiles, birds, mammals, lampreys
animals with no jaws
animals with jaws. has six classes
fish with a cartilaginous endoskeleton, two chambered heart 5-7 gill pairs, no swim bladder, or lung, internal fertilization
fish with a bony skeleton, numerous vertebrae, swim bladder, two chambered heart, gills with bony gill arches, and external fertilization. carp, tuna
animals with a bony skeleton, usually with four limbs having webbed feet with four toes, cold blooded, large mouth with small teeth, three chambered heart, separate sexes, internal or external fertilization, amniotic egg. salamanders, frogs
horny epidermal scales, usually have paired limbs with five toes, bony skeleton, lungs, no gills, most have three chambered heart. snakes lizards alligators
spindle shaped body, long neck, paired limbs, most have wings for flying, four toes, foot. birds ducks, sparrow
body covered with hair, glands, teeth, fleshy external ears, usually four limbs, four chambered heart. cows, humans platypus, apes.
the smallest most basic unit of most living things.s
type of cell that has no nucleus or any membrane bound organelles
cells that contain membrane bound intracellular organelles and a nucleus
smaller than cells. alive or not? can reproduce, consists of RNA and DNA. Live off of and invade living cells
magnified light microscope
cells are enclosed in this, or plasma membrane
the center of a cell which contains chromosomes
area between the nucleus and the cell membrane
organelles inside of the cytoplasm
provides structural support to a cell
site of protein synthesis within a cell.
folded membranes responsible for the delivery of lipids and proteins to certain areas within the cytoplasm
stores, packs, and ships proteins
material packaged by the golgi apparatues or the endoplasmic reticulum.
process where the vesicle membrane fuses with the cell membrane
centers of cellular respiration
folds of the internal membrane where cellular respiration reactions occur
explanation of how mitochondria, which may have components for life on their own, became integral part of eukaryotic cells
organelle surrounded by two lipid bilayer membranes. contains chromosomes, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli
substances freely pass across the membrane without the cell expanding energy
does not require energy, but it cannot occur without the help of specialized proteins
transport requiring energy output from the cell
the process whereby molecules and ions flow through the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
special diffusion only occurring in with water molecules
another method of transport across the cell membrane. allows for transfer of substances across the cell membrane with the help of specialized proteins
uses energy to move molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient.
process whereby large molecules are taken up into a pocket of membrane. ex. white blood cells engulfing bacteria
the reverse of endocytosis-exporting substances from the cell
energy transformation process. includes photosynthesis, respiration, growth, movement
process whereby cells build molecules and store energy (in the form of chemical bonds).
the process of breaking down molecules and releasing stored energy
adenosine triphosphate- energy currency of cellular activity
conversion of light energy of the sun into chemical energy usable by living things.
green pigment. area where photosynthesis occures
the light reaction of photosynthesis
the dark reaction of photosynthesis
respiration that requires oxygen
respiration that does not require oxygen
the breaking down of the six carbon sugar into smaller carbon containing molecules
citric acid cycle that occurs in the mitochondria and breaks down pyruvic acid molecules into CO2 molecules, H+ protons, and 2 ATP molecules. also liberates electrons.
captures energy released by the Krebs cycle
iron containing group
also called anaerobic respiration
sum total of genetic information
a length of DNA that encodes a particular protein
a genetic mistake
the formation of an RNA molecule, which corresponds to a gene
messenger RNA. a new strand of RNA created from the DNA
prepares the mRNA for protein synthesis by removing the non-coding sequences.
encoding of a particular amino acid.
2nd phase of protein synthesis where tRNA is introduced, which is the link between nucleotides and amino acids
proteins that form organs and structural characteristics
proteins that determine functional or physiological events such as growth
the transfer of genetic material (portions of a bacterial chromosome).
a process whereby bacteria may absorb and incorporate pieces of DNA from their environment
cell reproduction which centers on the replication and separation of strands of DNA
chromosomes that are long chains of subunits
a core of small proteins that are wrapped byDNA
the combinatioin of histones and DNA
two identical stands of chromatin
place where chromatins attach
pairs of chromosomes that pair together because of similar size and shape
different forms of corresponding genes
cut sections of DNA molecules by cleaving the sugar phosphate backbone at a particular nucleotide sequence.
sequence of events ending in cell division.
the period when the cell is active in carrying on its function
phase where most of the growth of the cell occurs at this time
cell begins to prepare for cell division by replicating the DNA and proteins necessary to form a new set of chromosomes
the process by which a cell distributes its duplicated chromosomes so that each daughter cell has a full set of chromosomes
the first stage of mitosis. The chromatin condenses into chromosomes within the nucleus and becomes visible through a light microscope.
fibers where the things begin to extend from the centromere
junction formed when spindle fibers attach to the centromeres
the 2nd phase of of mitosis. when the spindle fibers pull the chromosomes into alignment.
3rd phase of mitosis. chromatids are separated, chromatids are now chromosomes
4th phase of mitosis. nuclear membranes form around the chromosomes. chromosomes are no longer available.
the final stage. produces two separate cells
the process of producing four daughter cells each with single unduplicated chromosomes
the parent cell of the daughters. and has a normal set of paired chromosomes.
egg and sperm. reproductive cells
happens only in meiosis. point where chromosomes pair up.
chromatid breaks off and reattaches to another chromatid.
process of producing chemical compounds by living things.
protein molecules that act as a catalyst for organic reactions.
area where enzyme is uniquely shaped
the thing that fits within the active site
when the substrate is seated in the active site
non protein substance that binds to the active site
also called coenzymes
facilitate the enzyme reaction. however are bound to the enzyme
a substance that competes to attach to an enzymes active site
hydrogen bonding between water molecules
cohesion tension process
tension that pulls water through the stem
water that has traveled up through the plant to the leaves that is evaporated
plates that join cells
the diploid generation of plant reproduction
reproductive organs of the sporophyte
process of sperm meeting the egg
the thing that is produced after an egg and sperm meet
what a zygote turns into inside a seed
identifiable life cycle of plants.
asexual reproduction process that only occurs in mitosis. does not involve gametes
chemicals that regulate growth, development, and function of an organism
involuntary response of an organism to an external stimulus such as light water, or gravity
growth towards light
growth towards the center of the earth
periods where plants respond to relative periods of light and darkness
species having no internal backbone
those that have backbones
thin layers of cells that line the intestine and covers the inside of the body
covers internal organs and composes ligaments and tendons
smooth, skeletal, and cardiac. smooth-walls of internal organs and function involuntary. skeletal-attaches bones. cardiac-forms the walls of the heart.
provides support for internal organs, and the ability to move muscles
reduces friction between bones and supports and connects them
found beneath skin and around organs providing cushioning, insulation, and fat storage
found in the brain spinal cord, nerves, and ganglion. carries electrical impulses
flows through blood vessels and heart
cells lining the small intestine that are protusions
animals that consume large amounts of vegetation…cows and deer
chewed vegetation that is regurgitated from the first two stomach chambers
an organ that stores food until it is processed for absorption
respiratory system/gas exchange system
responsible for the intake of gases required by an organism
opening that allows gases to pass into the two branches known as the bronchi
prevents food from entering the bronchial tubes
provides the body with structure stability, and the ability to move
voluntary-they are activated by command from the nervous system
lines internal organs, protects content and function, generally contracts without conscious intent
unique to the heart
communication network that connects the entire body of an organism, and provides control over bodily functions and actions
carry impulses via electrochemical responses through cell bodies and axons
long root-like appendage of the cell
small spaces where neurons interact
skin, eyes, nose, ears.
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
network of nerves through the body
made up of the visceral sensory nerves and somatic sensory nerves
visceral sensory nerves
carry impulses from body organs to CNS
somatic sensory nerves
carry impulses from body surface to the CNS
made up of the somatic motor nerves and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic).
somatic motor nerves
carries impulses to skeletal muscle from the CNS
made up of the sympatheic and parasympathetic nervous systems
carries impulses that stimulate organs
carries impulses back from organs
one of three major divisions in the brain that is most anterior (forward) and contains the olfactory lobes, cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland
sense of smell
controls sensory and motor responses, memory, speech, and most factors of intelligence
involved in hunger, thirst, blood pressure, body temperature, hostility, pain, pleasure, etc.
releases various hormones
between forebrain and hindbrain and contains the optic lobes
visual center connected to the eyes by the optic nerves
consists of the cerebellum and medulla oblongata
controls balance, equilibrium, and muscle coordination
controls involuntary response such as breathing and heartbeat
nerve tissue in the brain with a grayish color
insulation that speeds electrochemical conduction within the axon of the nerve cell
white tissue in the brain
the conduit for delivering nutrients and gases to all cells for removing waste products from them
open circulatory system
system where blood bathes the internal organs
closed circulatory system
where blood is confined to vessels
arteries veins and capillaries
tiny vessels that exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen
thing that carries oxygen containing iron
larger vessels that carry blood away from the heart
small arteries that lead to capillaries
vessels that carry blood toward the heart
responsible for collecting waste materials and transporting them to organs that expel them from the body
filter metabolic wastes from the blood
excretion from the kidneys
organ that produces bile from broken down pigments and chemicals
functions to defend the body from infection by bacteria and viruses.
the principal infection fighting component of the immune system
a collection of excess fluid that is absorbed from between cells ito a special system of vessels
small masses of lymph tissue whose function is to filter lympn and produce lymphocytes
cells involved in the immune system
lymphocytes that are produced from the bone marrow
things which fight antigens/toxins
toxins, bacteria, foreign cells
filters larger volumes of lymph than nodes can handle
group of lymph cells connected together and located in the throat
active only through the teen years fighting infection and producing t cells
patrol the blood for antigens, but also destroy antigens
when conditions are in acceptable stages
process that achieved by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
production of some counterforce that levels the response
chemicals produced in the endocrine glands of an organism which travel through th circulatory system
mobile receptor mechanism
where hormone control occurs
what a hormone responds to
a type of hormone
hormone receptor complex
a type of protein hormone combines with
a step of reproduction in multicellular animals
second step of reproduction
the combination of sperm and an egg cell
the formation of egg cells in the female reproductive organs
read page 74
a series of cell division
the first few clusters of cells after division
cell division continues and rearrange themselves to form this
sup shape form that turns into a double layer tube
outer layer formed by the gastrula
the inner layer of the tube which develops into the skin