Animal Specie & Protein Synthesis – Biology

Animal Specie & Protein Synthesis – Biology

In this Biology chapter we discuss animal specie and protein synthesis.


allopatric speciation

occurs when two populations are geographically isolated from each other. Ex. geographical separation by a catastrophic event.


sympatric speciation

when a population develops members with a genetic difference, which prevents successful reproduction with original species.


adaptive radiation

species will specially adapt to live more effectively in the new environment. Single species can develop into several diverse species over time.


punctuated equilibrium

model that proposes that adaptations of species arise suddenly and rapidly. states that species undergo a long period of equilibrium which at some point is upset by environmental forces causing a short period of quick mutation and change.


Oparin hypothesis

origin of life theory that proposed the earth was made 4.6 million years ago. The earth had a reducing atmosphere, lot of ammonia, hydrogen, methane, and steam. The earth was cooling down and there was a great deal of heat.


cambrian explosion

The sudden appearance of multitudes of differentiated animal forms.


homologous

structures that exist in two different species because they share a common ancestry


analogous

similar because of their common function, although they do not share a common ancestry


convergent evolution

covergence occurs when a particular characteristic evolves in two unrelated populations. ex. birds and mosquitoes.


life history strategies

organisms that are suited to develop in ecosystems; others thrive in an established system. oppportunistic and equilibreal


opportunistic

pioneer species in a new or recently devastated community


equilibreal

those organisms that overtake the opportunistic pioneer species


altruism

social behavior where organisms seem to place the needs of the community over their own need


kin selection

the tendency of an individual to be altruistic toward a close relative, resulting in the preservation of its genetic traits


taxonomy

seeks to organize living things into groups based on morphology or more recently, genetics


binomial nomenclature

two word naming of species using genus and species


seven levels of organisms

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.


phylogenetic tree

an evolutionary family tree of species. similar to Linnaues’s taxonomy after evolution.


archaea

a domain classification. archaea are prokatyotic, have unique RNA, and are able to live in the extreme ecosystems on earth. Methane producing organisms and can extreme temperatures


Eubacteria

prokaryotic organisms we call bacteria


eukaryota

the domain that includes all organisms that possess eukaryotic cells. includes four kingdoms; kingdom protista, kingdom fungi, kingdom animalia, and kingdom plantae


protista

photsynthesis, some ingestion and absorption, large eukaryotic cells: algae and protozoa


fungi

absorption, multicellular filaments: mold, mushrooms, yeast, smuts, mildew.


animalia

ingestion, multicellular, specialized eukaryotic motile cells; various worms, sponges, fish , insects, birds, and mammals


plantae

photosynthesis, multicellular, specializiled eukaryotic nonmotile cells; ferns, mosses, woody and non-woody flowering plants


kingdom animalia

there are nine major phyla within the kingdom animalia.


porifera

sponges


cnidaria

jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, etc.


platyhelminthes

flat worms


nematoda

round worms


mollusca

snails, clams, squid


annelida

segmented worms, earthworms, leeches


arthropoda

crabs, spiders, lobster, millipedes, insects


echinodermata

sea stars, sand dollars


chordata

fish, amphibians, reptiles, reptiles, birds, mammals, lampreys


aganatha

animals with no jaws


gnathostomata

animals with jaws. has six classes


chondrichthyes

fish with a cartilaginous endoskeleton, two chambered heart 5-7 gill pairs, no swim bladder, or lung, internal fertilization


osteichthyes

fish with a bony skeleton, numerous vertebrae, swim bladder, two chambered heart, gills with bony gill arches, and external fertilization. carp, tuna


amphibia

animals with a bony skeleton, usually with four limbs having webbed feet with four toes, cold blooded, large mouth with small teeth, three chambered heart, separate sexes, internal or external fertilization, amniotic egg. salamanders, frogs


reptilia

horny epidermal scales, usually have paired limbs with five toes, bony skeleton, lungs, no gills, most have three chambered heart. snakes lizards alligators


aves

spindle shaped body, long neck, paired limbs, most have wings for flying, four toes, foot. birds ducks, sparrow


mammalia

body covered with hair, glands, teeth, fleshy external ears, usually four limbs, four chambered heart. cows, humans platypus, apes.


Cell

the smallest most basic unit of most living things.s


prokaryotes

type of cell that has no nucleus or any membrane bound organelles


eukaryotic

cells that contain membrane bound intracellular organelles and a nucleus


viruses

smaller than cells. alive or not? can reproduce, consists of RNA and DNA. Live off of and invade living cells


electron microscope

magnified light microscope


cell membrane

cells are enclosed in this, or plasma membrane


nucleus

the center of a cell which contains chromosomes


cytoplasm

area between the nucleus and the cell membrane


cytoplasm organelles

organelles inside of the cytoplasm


cytoskeleton

provides structural support to a cell


ribosomes

site of protein synthesis within a cell.


endoplasmic reticulum

folded membranes responsible for the delivery of lipids and proteins to certain areas within the cytoplasm


golgi apparatus

stores, packs, and ships proteins


secretory vesicles

material packaged by the golgi apparatues or the endoplasmic reticulum.


exocytosis

process where the vesicle membrane fuses with the cell membrane


mitochondria

centers of cellular respiration


cristae

folds of the internal membrane where cellular respiration reactions occur


endosymbiont hypothesis

explanation of how mitochondria, which may have components for life on their own, became integral part of eukaryotic cells


nucleus

organelle surrounded by two lipid bilayer membranes. contains chromosomes, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli


passive transport

substances freely pass across the membrane without the cell expanding energy


facilitated diffusion

does not require energy, but it cannot occur without the help of specialized proteins


active transport

transport requiring energy output from the cell


diffusion

the process whereby molecules and ions flow through the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration


osmosis

special diffusion only occurring in with water molecules


facilitated diffusion

another method of transport across the cell membrane. allows for transfer of substances across the cell membrane with the help of specialized proteins


active transport

uses energy to move molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient.


endocytosis

process whereby large molecules are taken up into a pocket of membrane. ex. white blood cells engulfing bacteria


exocytosis

the reverse of endocytosis-exporting substances from the cell


cellular metabolism

energy transformation process. includes photosynthesis, respiration, growth, movement


anabolism

process whereby cells build molecules and store energy (in the form of chemical bonds).


catabolism

the process of breaking down molecules and releasing stored energy


ATP

adenosine triphosphate- energy currency of cellular activity


photosynthesis

conversion of light energy of the sun into chemical energy usable by living things.


chlorophyll

green pigment. area where photosynthesis occures


photolysis

the light reaction of photosynthesis


CO2 fixation

the dark reaction of photosynthesis


aerobic

respiration that requires oxygen


anaerobic

respiration that does not require oxygen


glycolysis

the breaking down of the six carbon sugar into smaller carbon containing molecules


krebs cycle

citric acid cycle that occurs in the mitochondria and breaks down pyruvic acid molecules into CO2 molecules, H+ protons, and 2 ATP molecules. also liberates electrons.


electron transport

captures energy released by the Krebs cycle


cytochromes

pigment molecules


heme

iron containing group


fermentation

also called anaerobic respiration


genomes

sum total of genetic information


gene

a length of DNA that encodes a particular protein


mutation

a genetic mistake


transcription

the formation of an RNA molecule, which corresponds to a gene


mRNA

messenger RNA. a new strand of RNA created from the DNA


post-transcriptional processing

prepares the mRNA for protein synthesis by removing the non-coding sequences.


codon

encoding of a particular amino acid.


translation

2nd phase of protein synthesis where tRNA is introduced, which is the link between nucleotides and amino acids


structural genes

proteins that form organs and structural characteristics


regulatory genes

proteins that determine functional or physiological events such as growth


transduction

the transfer of genetic material (portions of a bacterial chromosome).


transformation

a process whereby bacteria may absorb and incorporate pieces of DNA from their environment


cell division

cell reproduction which centers on the replication and separation of strands of DNA


nucleosomes

chromosomes that are long chains of subunits


histones

a core of small proteins that are wrapped byDNA


chromatin

the combinatioin of histones and DNA


chromatid

two identical stands of chromatin


centromere

place where chromatins attach


homologs

pairs of chromosomes that pair together because of similar size and shape


alleles

different forms of corresponding genes


restriction enzymes

cut sections of DNA molecules by cleaving the sugar phosphate backbone at a particular nucleotide sequence.


cell cycle

sequence of events ending in cell division.


interphase

the period when the cell is active in carrying on its function


gphase

phase where most of the growth of the cell occurs at this time


s phase

cell begins to prepare for cell division by replicating the DNA and proteins necessary to form a new set of chromosomes


mitosis

the process by which a cell distributes its duplicated chromosomes so that each daughter cell has a full set of chromosomes


prophase

the first stage of mitosis. The chromatin condenses into chromosomes within the nucleus and becomes visible through a light microscope.


spindle fibers

fibers where the things begin to extend from the centromere


kinetochore

junction formed when spindle fibers attach to the centromeres


metaphase

the 2nd phase of of mitosis. when the spindle fibers pull the chromosomes into alignment.


anaphase

3rd phase of mitosis. chromatids are separated, chromatids are now chromosomes


telophase

4th phase of mitosis. nuclear membranes form around the chromosomes. chromosomes are no longer available.


cytokinesis

the final stage. produces two separate cells


meiosis

the process of producing four daughter cells each with single unduplicated chromosomes


Haploid

unduplicated chromosomes


diploid

the parent cell of the daughters. and has a normal set of paired chromosomes.


gametes

egg and sperm. reproductive cells


synapse

happens only in meiosis. point where chromosomes pair up.


crossing over

chromatid breaks off and reattaches to another chromatid.


biosynthesis

process of producing chemical compounds by living things.


Enzymes

protein molecules that act as a catalyst for organic reactions.


active site

area where enzyme is uniquely shaped


substrate

the thing that fits within the active site


enzyme-substrate complex

when the substrate is seated in the active site


cofactor

non protein substance that binds to the active site


inorganic cofactor

metals


organic cofactors

also called coenzymes


prosthetic groups

facilitate the enzyme reaction. however are bound to the enzyme


inhibitor

a substance that competes to attach to an enzymes active site


regulation

enzyme control


cohesion

hydrogen bonding between water molecules


cohesion tension process

tension that pulls water through the stem


transpiraton

water that has traveled up through the plant to the leaves that is evaporated


sieve plates

plates that join cells


sporophyte

the diploid generation of plant reproduction


gametophytes

reproductive organs of the sporophyte


sperm

male gametophytes


egg cell

female gamete


fertilize

process of sperm meeting the egg


zygote

the thing that is produced after an egg and sperm meet


embryo

what a zygote turns into inside a seed


alternation generations

identifiable life cycle of plants.


vegatative propagation

asexual reproduction process that only occurs in mitosis. does not involve gametes


hormones

chemicals that regulate growth, development, and function of an organism


tropism

involuntary response of an organism to an external stimulus such as light water, or gravity


photrophic

growth towards light


geotrophic

growth towards the center of the earth


photoperiodicity

periods where plants respond to relative periods of light and darkness


invertebrates

species having no internal backbone


vertebrates

those that have backbones


epithelial tissue

thin layers of cells that line the intestine and covers the inside of the body


connective tissue

covers internal organs and composes ligaments and tendons


muscle tissue

smooth, skeletal, and cardiac. smooth-walls of internal organs and function involuntary. skeletal-attaches bones. cardiac-forms the walls of the heart.


bone tissue

provides support for internal organs, and the ability to move muscles


cartilage tissue

reduces friction between bones and supports and connects them


adipose tissue

found beneath skin and around organs providing cushioning, insulation, and fat storage


nerve tissue

found in the brain spinal cord, nerves, and ganglion. carries electrical impulses


blood tissue

flows through blood vessels and heart


villi

cells lining the small intestine that are protusions


ruminants

animals that consume large amounts of vegetation…cows and deer


cud

chewed vegetation that is regurgitated from the first two stomach chambers


crop

an organ that stores food until it is processed for absorption


respiratory system/gas exchange system

responsible for the intake of gases required by an organism


larynx

windpipe


glottis

opening that allows gases to pass into the two branches known as the bronchi


epiglottis

prevents food from entering the bronchial tubes


musculoskeletal system

provides the body with structure stability, and the ability to move


skeletal muscles

voluntary-they are activated by command from the nervous system


smooth muscle

lines internal organs, protects content and function, generally contracts without conscious intent


cardiac muscle

unique to the heart


nervous system

communication network that connects the entire body of an organism, and provides control over bodily functions and actions


neurons

carry impulses via electrochemical responses through cell bodies and axons


axon

long root-like appendage of the cell


synapses

small spaces where neurons interact


sensory organs

skin, eyes, nose, ears.


central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord


peripheral nervous system

network of nerves through the body


sensory division

made up of the visceral sensory nerves and somatic sensory nerves


visceral sensory nerves

carry impulses from body organs to CNS


somatic sensory nerves

carry impulses from body surface to the CNS


motor division

made up of the somatic motor nerves and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic).


somatic motor nerves

carries impulses to skeletal muscle from the CNS


autonomic

made up of the sympatheic and parasympathetic nervous systems


sympathetic NS

carries impulses that stimulate organs


parasympathetic NS

carries impulses back from organs


forebrain

one of three major divisions in the brain that is most anterior (forward) and contains the olfactory lobes, cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland


olfactory lobes

sense of smell


cerebrum

controls sensory and motor responses, memory, speech, and most factors of intelligence


thalamus

integrates senses


hypothalamus

involved in hunger, thirst, blood pressure, body temperature, hostility, pain, pleasure, etc.


pituitary gland

releases various hormones


midbrain

between forebrain and hindbrain and contains the optic lobes


optic lobes

visual center connected to the eyes by the optic nerves


hindbrain

consists of the cerebellum and medulla oblongata


cerebellum

controls balance, equilibrium, and muscle coordination


medulla oblongata

controls involuntary response such as breathing and heartbeat


gray matter

nerve tissue in the brain with a grayish color


myelin sheath

insulation that speeds electrochemical conduction within the axon of the nerve cell


white matter

white tissue in the brain


circulatory system

the conduit for delivering nutrients and gases to all cells for removing waste products from them


open circulatory system

system where blood bathes the internal organs


closed circulatory system

where blood is confined to vessels


vessels include

arteries veins and capillaries


capillaries

tiny vessels that exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen


hemoglobin

thing that carries oxygen containing iron


arteries

larger vessels that carry blood away from the heart


arteriols

small arteries that lead to capillaries


venules

small veins


veins

vessels that carry blood toward the heart


excretory system

responsible for collecting waste materials and transporting them to organs that expel them from the body


kidneys

filter metabolic wastes from the blood


urine

excretion from the kidneys


liver

organ that produces bile from broken down pigments and chemicals


immune system

functions to defend the body from infection by bacteria and viruses.


lymphatic system

the principal infection fighting component of the immune system


lymph

a collection of excess fluid that is absorbed from between cells ito a special system of vessels


lymph nodes

small masses of lymph tissue whose function is to filter lympn and produce lymphocytes


lymphocytes

cells involved in the immune system


b cells

lymphocytes that are produced from the bone marrow


antibodies

things which fight antigens/toxins


antigens

toxins, bacteria, foreign cells


spleen

filters larger volumes of lymph than nodes can handle


tonsils

group of lymph cells connected together and located in the throat


thymus

active only through the teen years fighting infection and producing t cells


t cells

patrol the blood for antigens, but also destroy antigens


homeostasis

when conditions are in acceptable stages


feedback control

process that achieved by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system


feedback response

production of some counterforce that levels the response


hormones

chemicals produced in the endocrine glands of an organism which travel through th circulatory system


mobile receptor mechanism

where hormone control occurs


stimulus

what a hormone responds to


steroid

a type of hormone


hormone receptor complex

a type of protein hormone combines with


a step of reproduction in multicellular animals

gametogenesis


fertilization

second step of reproduction


zygote

the combination of sperm and an egg cell


spermatogenesis

sperm formation


oogenesis

the formation of egg cells in the female reproductive organs


primary oocytes

read page 74


cleavage

a series of cell division


morula

the first few clusters of cells after division


blastula

cell division continues and rearrange themselves to form this


gastrula

sup shape form that turns into a double layer tube


octoderm

outer layer formed by the gastrula


endoderm

the inner layer of the tube which develops into the skin


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